Table of the Laws of Physics and their Sources


Law of PhysicsSource
Conservation of momentumSpace translation symmetry
Conservation of angular momentumSpace rotation symmetry
Conservation of energy (First law of thermodynamics)Time translation symmetry
Newton's 1st Law of MotionConservation of momentum (space translation symmetry)
Newton's 2nd Law of MotionDefinition of force
Newton's 3rd Law of MotionConservation of momentum (space translation symmetry)
Second law of thermodynamicsStatistical definition of the arrow of time
Special relativitySpace-time rotation symmetry
General relativityGeneral covariance, Leibniz-Mach principle, principle of equivalence
Quantum time evolution equation (time-dependent Schrödinger equation)Global gauge invariance
Quantum operator differential formsGlobal gauge invariance
Quantum operator commutation rulesGlobal gauge invariance
Quantization of actionGlobal gauge invariance
Quantization rules for angular momentaGlobal gauge invariance
Maxwell's equations of electromagnetismLocal gauge invariance under U(1)
Quantum Lagrangians for particles in presence of electromagnetic fieldLocal gauge invariance under U(1)
Conservation of electric chargeGlobal gauge invariance under U(1)
Masslessness of photonLocal gauge invariance under U(1)
Conservation of weak isospinGlobal gauge invariance under SU(2)
Electroweak LagrangianMixing of U(1) and S(2) local gauge symmetries (spontaneous symmetry breaking)
Conservation of color chargeGlobal gauge invariance under SU(3)
Strong interaction LagrangianLocal gauge invariance under SU(3)
Masslessness of gluonLocal gauge invariance under SU(3)
Structure of the vacuum (Higgs particles)Spontaneous symmetry breaking
Doublet structure of quarks and leptonsConservation of weak isospin (global gauge invariance under SU(2)
Masses of particlesHiggs mechanism (spontaneous symmetry breaking)