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Graduate Student Survey, Fall 2005
(Except where noted, the following links lead to sections within the report below.)
Background on Presentation of Results (separate page)
Characteristics of Responding Graduate Students
Comparing 2003 and 2005 Results
Comparing New and Continuing Students (separate page)
Comparing Schools/Colleges and Divisions (separate page)
2005 Results for the Entire Campus, by Student Level
Graduate Student Survey, Fall 2005
In November 2005, the second all-campus Graduate Student Survey was
delivered, via the Web, to 3,829 students currently enrolled in the Graduate
School. Fifty percent of surveyed graduate students responded. This project was
a collaborative effort of the Graduate School and the Office of Planning,
Budget, and Analysis.
The 2005 Graduate Student Survey collects extensive information on graduate
student satisfaction with program and coursework quality; program support;
teaching, research, and publications; financial support; satisfaction with
university resources; the campus climate, including social interaction and
encounters with different types of prejudice; and the overall CU-Boulder
The Graduate Student Survey was last administered in fall 2003. The 2003 and 2005 surveys
differ in several ways. The 2003 survey was designed by
the Higher Education Data Sharing Consortium (HEDS) and was selected by this campus, in
part, because peer data from other AAU public institutions were intended to be available for
comparison purposes. These data ultimately were not available, however, due to internal
changes at HEDS. Moreover, the 2003 survey was modified in a collaborative effort
involving several AAU institutions, including MIT. MIT took over administration of the
survey from HEDS but provided, as did HEDS, an option for colleges to copy the
questionnaire for the survey from MIT's web site and administer it themselves. CU-Boulder
elected to self-administer the survey.
In consultation with staff members from the Graduate School, some modifications were
made to the questionnaire used in the survey, both in order to maintain consistency with
questions asked in the 2003 administration and to ensure that all questions were
applicable to the Boulder campus. The final version of the
2005 questionnaire was longer
than the 2003 questionnaire, and it had considerable overlap in questions, which is useful
for comparisons of student responses over time. Return to Top
As in 2003, not all graduate students were surveyed. Law, MBA, and non-degree seeking
students, and those who requested a privacy flag on their records were not included in the
survey. Unlike the population surveyed in 2003, however, all other current graduate
students were surveyed, even recent graduate students who had just begun their graduate
study in fall of 2005.
Students were sent an e-mail from the dean of the Graduate School explaining
the purpose of the survey and inviting them to participate by clicking on an
enclosed link. As an incentive to respond, the invitation also explained that
four of the respondents would be randomly chosen and each would receive a $250 Graduate Student
During the three-week period of the survey, two e-mail reminders
were sent to graduate students who had not yet responded. The first of these was sent one week
after the survey announcement, and the second was sent the following week. Of the 3,829
students surveyed, 10 of them were unreachable and did not have current or working e-
mails. The overall response rate after the first reminder was approximately 29%. After the
second reminder, the overall response rate increased to about 44%. The final
response rate for all master's and doctoral students combined was 50%. Data
collection ended on November 23, 2005.
The response rate is somewhat lower than that of the 2003 survey (55%) and could be
associated with such factors as questionnaire length (there were noticeably more questions
in 2005 than in 2003) and the re-surveying of graduate students in 2005 (many graduate
students who took the 2003 survey were still enrolled in 2005 and might not have wanted to
respond again within a two-year interval). Doctoral students responded to the survey at a
higher rate than did master's students (52 % vs. 47%, respectively). Across schools,
colleges, and divisions, response rates ranged from 34% (Education) to 64% (Business).
Response rates by major program also varied considerably.
Characteristics of Responding Graduate Students
Most graduate students (and most respondents) are enrolled in the colleges of
Arts and Sciences and Engineering and Applied Science. In fact, two thirds of
responding doctoral students are in these two colleges. A graph of the numbers of respondents, by college
and student level (i.e., master's, doctoral) illustrates this situation.
Over one-half (57%) of all graduate students reported their current year of study as
their first or second year in their program: 78% of master's students and 42% of doctoral
students indicated this. An additional 12% of master's students are in their third year of
study, with only 9% taking longer than that. An additional 28% of doctoral students are in
their third or fourth year of study, with only about 16% being in their fifth or later
year. Half as many doctoral students (20%) as master's students (40%) reported being in
the final year of their graduate program.
Not surprisingly, almost all master's students (93%) indicated that their current
program status was that of still taking courses. Very few (8%) have completed coursework,
passed qualifying exams (5%) or are doing thesis work (5%). As would be expected, the
picture for doctoral students is much different. Slightly over two-thirds (69%) are still
taking courses, one-fifth (19%) have completed coursework, almost one-fourth (23%) have
passed qualifying exams, and 15% are starting or completing their dissertation work. Only
1% each of master's and doctoral students indicated they had defended their thesis or
dissertation at the time of the survey.
Prior research conducted by the Office of Planning, Budget, and Analysis indicates that
the average time to degree
is 2 1/2 years for a master's student and 6 years for a
doctoral student. Graduate students' responses to the survey suggest that
their expectations are consistent with these averages: eighty-nine percent of master's students
reported that their best estimate of how long it would take them to earn a degree, from
the time they started their program to completion, was three years or less. Ninety-five
percent of doctoral students reported that degree completion would likely occur within six
Slightly more females (51%) than males responded to the survey; in fact,
female doctoral students (56%) were even more likely to respond than were male doctoral students (49%). About 28% of graduate
students indicated that they are married, and another 6% reported that they are with a
domestic partner. According to the reported zipcode of their current residence, over half
of graduate students live in Boulder (56%), with the majority (81%) living in the
Boulder/Denver area or within a close commute, in places such as Golden or Nederland. Only
about 1% live in more distant cities (e.g., Greeley and Colorado Springs). Sixteen percent
did not give a current zipcode and another 1% listed an out-of-state zipcode for their
Overall, racial/ethnic minority graduate students (43%) were less likely to respond to the
survey than were white students (51%). However, Asian-American students (47%)
were more likely than other racial/ethnic minority students (41%) to respond. Surprisingly, Asian-American
master's students (53%) were much more likely to respond o the survey than were other
minority master's students (33%), whereas Asian- American doctoral students (41%)
were less likely than other minority doctoral students (48%) to respond. Foreign students (47%) were slightly less likely than white
students (51%) to respond, and doctoral foreign students (47%) were even less likely
respond than were white doctoral students (53%).
The majority of responding graduate students (72%) said that they are U.S. citizens.
Student records show that 70% of them report their race/ethnicity as white, 4% each of the
respondents are either Asian American or Hispanic/Latino, 14% have foreign status, another 1% are
Black/African-American (.75%) or Native American (.37%); for the remaining respondents,
race/ethnicity is unknown.
Thirty-one percent of responding graduate students reported that they were
undergraduates immediately before starting graduate school. An additional 16% reported
that they had been in another graduate program before beginning their current one. Almost
half (46%) of the respondents had been working before starting their graduate program: 29%
indicated they were employed in a field related to their current field of study; 17% were
also employed, but in an unrelated field. Two percent of respondents said that they had
been traveling immediately before starting their graduate program.
Comparing 2003 and 2005
In 2003, the graduate student population was defined so as to exclude
beginning graduate students from the survey. When comparing 2003 and 2005
results, therefore, data for students who were beginning graduate students in
the fall of 2005 were excluded, in order to make the 2005 data comparable with
that of 2003.
Approximately 45 questions on the 2003 and 2005 surveys were either identical in
wording and scale, or at least similar enough in these characteristics as to be judged
directly comparable. For most of these questions, the difference between graduate
students' mean responses in 2003 and 2005 was negligible. For the remainder, the
differences were generally small.
A graph of differences, in which only those questions having a
standardized difference1 between mean responses of .20 or greater are illustrated, shows
that the largest difference occurred for a question pertaining to housing. The mean for
master's students in 2005 to the question "how satisfied are you with the cost of housing"
was somewhat higher than in 2003 (2.2 versus 1.8, respectively; scale: 4 = very satisfied,
... , 1 = very dissatisfied). Similarly, master's students' reported levels of
satisfaction with housing availability were slightly higher in 2005. The same was true of
Both master's and doctoral students' reported perceptions of program academic standards declined
slightly, on average, in 2005. In addition, program structure and requirements were
slightly more likely to be considered obstacles to academic progress in 2005 by both
master's and doctoral students. Master's students also considered the thesis topic
and research to be more of an obstacle in 2005, compared with their perceptions of them in
To determine whether it made any difference, in terms of the results, to
include beginning graduate students in the survey, the 2003 and 2005 data were
compared again. This time, data for students who were beginning graduate
students in the fall of 2005 were included. The means and effect sizes
that resulted from the inclusion of beginning graduate students differed very
little from those described above. For example, the effect size for master's
students' reported satisfaction with the cost of housing (with beginning 2005
graduates students included in the analysis) was .44, rather than .43. This
suggests that in future graduate surveys, beginning graduate students may be
included without having any significant overall effect on the survey results or
Results for the Entire Campus, by Master's
- Quality of CU-
Boulder, Programs, and Faculty: The overall quality of the CU-Boulder academic experience is highly rated,
with about three-fourths of both master's and doctoral students reporting that
this experience has been good, very good, or excellent. In addition, students gave high ratings to overall program quality.
percentages of master's and doctoral students (86 % and 88%, respectively) rated the overall quality in their
respective programs as good, very good, or excellent. Students gave even higher ratings to the intellectual quality of faculty,
with 94% of master's students and 96% of doctoral students indicating that intellectual quality is
good, or excellent. When asked about the overall experience at CU-Boulder (not just the academic experience),
of both master's and doctoral students gave ratings of good, very good, or
- Likelihood of Staying in Program, Selecting Same Field of
Study, and Selecting CU- Boulder Again: Large percentages of master's and doctoral
students (80% and 79%, respectively) reported that it is somewhat or very likely that they
will stay in their program until
completing their degree. Similarly, large percentages reported that they would
probably or definitely select the
same field of study (81% master's, 82% doctoral). About two-thirds of responding
graduate students (67% of master's, 64% of doctoral) indicated that they would probably or
definitely select CU-Boulder
- Likelihood of Recommending CU-Boulder: Two-thirds or more of both
master's (66%) and doctoral (68%) students reported that they would either definitely or probably
recommend CU-Boulder to someone considering their program. Over half of the respondents
(58% master's 54% doctoral) said that they would definitely or probably recommend CU-
Boulder to someone in another field.
- Research: Most master's and
doctoral students reported being generally or very satisfied with training in research methods (62% and 77%,
respectively). At least half of responding doctoral students reported that they had
participated in the following research
activities: conducted independent research since starting their programs, received
adequate research training before beginning their own research, received adequate faculty
guidance in formulating a research topic, and conducted research in collaboration with
faculty. As might be expected, the reported rates of participation in these activities
were higher for doctoral students than for master's students (50%-67% for doctoral, 22%-
38% for master's). Smaller percentages of both master's and doctoral students reported
assisting faculty in writing a grant proposal (4% and 19%, respectively). Satisfaction with these research
activities was high for both master's and doctoral students, with reported satisfaction
for each activity at 89% or greater.
Two-thirds or more of doctoral
students reported that they had opportunities to present research at seminars or colloquia, to attend
national or regional meetings, to attend professional conferences, or to present papers or
posters at such conferences. About half of doctoral students said that they had an
opportunity to co-author in refereed journals with faculty or to publish as sole/first
author in a refereed journal.
Doctoral students' frequency of presentations and
publications is high, relative to that of master's students. Doctoral students
reported two to three times more often than did master's students that they had presented papers or posters
at professional conferences, co-authored in refereed journals with faculty, or published
as sole/first author in a refereed journal. About one-half of doctoral students reported
that they had presented papers or posters at professional conferences between one and
three times. About one-third of them reported that they had not made any paper or poster
presentations, and the remainder reported making such presentations four or more times.
Forty-five percent of doctoral students said that they had co-authored in refereed
journals with faculty between one and three times. Only 5% reported engaging in this
activity four or more times. Nearly one-third of doctoral students (29%) said that they
had published once as sole or first author in a refereed journal. Smaller percentages
reported publishing in this manner either two, three, or four or more times (8%, 3%, and
3%, respectively). From these percentages, we can conclude that 43% of doctoral
students published at least once.
- Teaching: About one-third of master's students and two-thirds of
doctoral students said that they entered their program intending to pursue a career in
academia. Slightly more than one-half of these students reported that their
graduate school experience had increased their interest in teaching (56% of
master's students, 54% of doctoral). However, some indicated that their interest had, in
fact, decreased (14% of master's students, 15% of doctoral).
Two-thirds of doctoral students and nearly one-third of master's students said that they
had held a teaching appointment while in graduate school.
Of those master's and
doctoral students who taught, most (88% and 75%, respectively) indicated that they had assisted in a
faculty member's course between one and three semesters. Twenty-five percent
of doctoral students and 12% of master's students reported assisting in a faculty member's
course for 4 or more semesters. Similarly, of those students who taught, most (85% master's and 70% doctoral)
reported that they had been primary course instructors themselves between one and three
semesters. The remainder reported engaging in this activity for four or more semesters.
Doctoral students viewed both departmental training in teaching skills
and Graduate Teacher Program (GTP) training as useful (57% reported departmental
training to be generally or very useful versus 52% for GTP training). The same was true of
master's students (63% versus 58%, respectively).
- Program Support -- Participation and Satisfaction: Roughly one-third of master's and doctoral students
reported that they had received advice on how to avoid plagiarism, and the majority of
these students were either generally or very satisfied with that advice. Similar
proportions of students reported receiving assistance in developing professional contacts
outside of their respective programs, and most were either generally or very satisfied
with that assistance. About one-quarter of students indicated that they had received
advice on how to search for a job or on how to prepare a résumé or vita. Student's
satisfaction with the advice they received on these topics was generally high. Somewhat
smaller percentages of students (17% master's, 16% doctoral) reported that they had
received advice on how to prepare for an interview. Most of those receiving advice
indicated that they were generally or very satisfied with it.
About three-quarters of master's and doctoral students said they had received advice on
degree requirements and most of them were satisfied with that advice. About two-thirds of
doctoral students and one-third of master's students reported receiving feedback on their
research. Most of these students said that they were generally or very satisfied with the
Graduate students were asked several other questions related to program support and
satisfaction. The percentage of doctoral students who reported receiving advice on
preparing for candidacy, the process to select a thesis advisor, standards for academic
writing in their respective fields, writing grant proposals, publishing their work, career
options in academia, career options outside academia, and research positions ranged from
23% (advice on career options outside academia) to 45% (advice on publishing work).
Doctoral students reported the least satisfaction with advice on career options outside
academia (19% reported being either generally or very dissatisfied).
For master's students, the percentages who reported receiving advice in these
areas ranged from 15% (advice on research positions; advice on writing grant proposals) to
34% (advice on standards for academic writing in their respective fields). Master's
students' highest reported level of dissatisfaction in these areas pertains to receiving
advice on the process required to select a thesis advisor (18% reported being either very
or generally dissatisfied).
- Thesis/Dissertation, Advising About one-fourth of master's students indicated
that a thesis or dissertation was required for their respective degrees.
As expected, the percentage was considerably higher for doctoral students (87%). When
asked whether the university or their program provided coaching or workshops for writing
doctoral dissertations, about one-third of doctoral students said "yes."
However, only 3% reported attending such workshops.
The percentage of doctoral students who agreed with the statement that coursework,
seminars, labs, reading courses, etc. had adequately prepared them for thesis/candidacy
examinations was somewhat larger than that of master's students (62% versus
55%, respectively). Similar percentages of master's and doctoral students agreed that the
process of selecting the thesis/dissertation committee was satisfactory (58% and 59%,
Eighty-seven percent of both master's and doctoral students
reported being either generally or very satisfied with their relationship with their
thesis/dissertation supervisor/advisor. Note that these percentages exclude
those students who either did not respond to this question or reported that it
was not applicable to them. The percentages of master's and
doctoral students who reported that their advisors were either somewhat or very helpful in
such areas as preparing for oral examinations, finding a thesis topic, writing a
prospectus, doing research for the thesis, and writing the thesis were large, ranging from
71% (master's; help preparing for written qualifying exams or comprehensive exams) to 90%
(doctoral; help finding a thesis topic). Students reported meeting fairly
often with their thesis advisors. Most doctoral students reported meeting with their
advisors at least weekly (27%) or monthly (46%) concerning the writing of the prospectus.
Weekly or monthly meetings with advisors to discuss research and results were
reported by 77% of master's students and 89% of doctoral students. Somewhat smaller
percentages reported meeting weekly or monthly concerning the writing of the thesis draft
(67% master's, 72% doctoral).
Thesis advisors were considered knowledgeable about formal degree requirements by three
quarters of both master's and doctoral students. A majority of students
reported that their advisors served as advocates when necessary, helped secure financial
support for graduate work, gave constructive feedback, returned work promptly, and
promoted professional development. Smaller percentages of students reported that their
advisors provided information about multiple career paths (37% master's, 39% doctoral) and
the search for employment (25% master's, 41% doctoral). About one-quarter of master's
students and one-third of doctoral students agreed or strongly agreed with the statement
that their advisors considered them a source of labor for the advisor's research. Seventy
percent or more of both master's and doctoral students reported that they would probably
or definitely select the same thesis supervisor again.
- Social Activities: Doctoral students said that they attended social activities
either within their department or with their advisor or research group more
often than did master's students (73% and 55%, respectively, for departmental activities;
51% and 30% for advisor/research group activities).
- Satisfaction with Housing: Three-quarters of master's and doctoral students indicated
that they lived in off-campus housing that was not owned by CU-Boulder. On a scale ranging
from 1 = very dissatisfied to 4 = very satisfied, both master's and doctoral students
indicated general satisfaction with the availability of housing (means = 2.8), but some
general dissatisfaction with its cost (means = 2.2).
- Obstacles to Academic Progress: For both master's and doctoral students,
work/financial commitments were considered, on average, to be relatively large obstacles
to academic success (master's mean = 2.3, doctoral mean = 2.0; scale consists of 1 = not
an obstacle, 2 = a minor obstacle, and 3 = a major obstacle). Other, minor obstacles for
doctoral students included family obligations, program structure or requirements, dissertation topic/research (mean = 1.7 for each),
and course scheduling (mean = 1.6). For master's students, course scheduling was a larger obstacle to academic progress than it was for doctoral students (mean
=1.8). In fact, 54% of master's students reported
this as an obstacle, whereas only 38% of doctoral students did. Other minor obstacles reported by master's students
included program structure or requirements,
the availability of faculty, and family obligations (means=1.7, 1.6, and 1.6 respectively).
- Witnessing and Experiencing Prejudice: For doctoral students, gender prejudice was
witnessed somewhat more often than were other forms of prejudice (mean =
1.4; scale consists of 1 = never, 2 = occasionally, 3 = frequently). Twenty-five percent
of doctoral students reported witnessing gender prejudice occasionally, and 4% of them
reported witnessing it frequently. For master's students, in comparison, gender, race or
ethnicity, and religion prejudice (mean = 1.2 for each) were witnessed only somewhat more often than were
country of origin, sexual orientation, and disability prejudice (mean = 1.1 for
each). Sixteen percent of master's students reported witnessing gender
prejudice occasionally, and 2% of them reported witnessing it frequently.
Gender prejudice was experienced somewhat more often by both master's and
doctoral students than were other forms of prejudice (means = 1.2 and 1.3, respectively;
same scale as that of the "witnessed" items). Fourteen percent of doctoral students
reported that they had been the target of gender prejudice occasionally; only 1% reported
having this experience frequently. For master's students, these percentages were 10% and
As might be expected, female graduate students were more
likely to report that they experienced gender prejudice. This was true for both female
master's students and female doctoral students (means = 1.3 and 1.5,
respectively, versus 1.0 and 1.1 for males).
African-American, Hispanic, and Native American graduate students reported
witnessing race or ethnicity prejudice somewhat more often (mean = 1.5) than
did Asian-American (1.4), foreign (1.3), or white (1.2) graduate students.
Similarly, African-American, Hispanic, and Native American graduate students
reported experiencing race or ethnicity prejudice about as often (mean =
1.4) as did Asian-American (1.4) graduate students and somewhat more often than
did foreign (1.3) or white (1.0) graduate students.
Of those graduate students who answered "frequently" or "occasionally" to any of the
questions concerning prejudice, the most often reported action taken in response to an
incident was to discuss it with friends (52% master's, 61% doctoral). Other reported
actions included speaking with victims (21% of responding graduate students) or
perpetrators (20%) of prejudice, or speaking with faculty or staff (20%). Only 1% of
graduate students reported that they contacted the affirmative action office or
ombudsperson in response to either witnessing or being the target of prejudice.
- University Resources -- Frequency of Use and Quality: Graduate students were
asked to rate the frequency with which they used 22 different university
resources. Some of the more commonly used resources included library
facilities/buildings/space, Web-based campus computer services, and on-campus computer
facilities. Means for these items ranged from 2.1 (on-campus computer facilities; doctoral
students) to 2.5 (Web-based campus computer services; master's students). The scale for
these items consisted of 1 = never, 2 = occasionally, and 3 = frequently.
Students were also asked to rate the quality of university
resources (scale: 1 = poor, 2 = fair, 3 = good, 4 = very good, 5 = excellent). The more
highly rated resources include other library services (interlibrary loan, databases, etc.;
mean for all responding students = 3.9), Web-based campus computer services (3.8), access
to on- and off-campus Web-based computing facilities (3.9 and 3.8, respectively), and the
Office of International Education (4.0). Services
receiving somewhat lower ratings included health-care services (3.2) and health insurance
- Perceived Safety: On
average, graduate students reported feeling at least reasonably safe under several
circumstances, including when walking alone on or off campus, by day or at night; being
alone in their current homes or residences; parking their cars on or near campus; and
using public transportation to and from campus. The scale for these items was: 1 =
unsafe, 2 = somewhat unsafe, 3 = reasonably safe, 4 = very safe. Means for responding
graduate students ranged from 2.9 (walking alone at night off campus; master's) to 3.9
(walking alone by day on campus; both master's and doctoral). Five percent of graduate
students reported feeling unsafe when walking alone at night off campus.
- Importance of Skills and Degree to Which They Were Enhanced: Graduate students were
asked to rate the importance of skills in research, writing, critical
thinking, ethical issues, leadership, teamwork, communication, and time management
(scale: 1 = not important, 2 = somewhat important, 3 = very important). In addition, they
were asked to rate the degree to which their abilities in each of these skill areas were
enhanced (scale: 1 = not at all, 2 = very little, 3 = somewhat, 4 = greatly). Critical
thinking, writing, and communication skills were rated as important by both master's and
doctoral students, on average (means range from 2.7 to 2.9). Doctoral students gave a
high importance rating to research skills (2.9). Students' abilities in each of these
skill areas were reported as being enhanced at least somewhat, with means
ranging from 3.0 (writing, communication) to 3.4 (critical thinking).
- Financial Support: A little more than two-thirds of both master's and doctoral students
reported that the criteria for eligibility for financial support
within their respective programs were
either sometimes or usually available. Among the more popular types of financial support,
with relatively large percentages of students reporting receiving such
support for at least one or two semesters, were university-funded non-service
fellowships (23%); research assistantships (32%); teaching assistantships (53%); need-
based financial aid (34%); and loans, savings, or family assistance (39%). Forty-seven
percent of graduate students estimated that they will have no undergraduate educational
debt to repay when they have completed their CU-Boulder graduate degree.
Thirty-seven percent estimated that they will have no graduate educational debt to repay.
Total educational debt (undergraduate plus graduate) was reported to be
somewhere in the neighborhood of $10,000, on average.
- Employment Expectations: Noticeable percentages of doctoral students reported their
expectation for professional employment immediately after graduating to be
either a tenure-track faculty member (28%), a postdoctoral researcher (30%), or a
researcher in a non-academic setting (19%). A large percentage of master's students said
that their employment expectation is a "professional position for which their respective
programs had prepared them" (40%). Another 15% of master's students reported that they
expect to be employed in some type of teaching position (other than tenure-track or non-
tenure track positions). Eighty-five percent of graduate students indicated that the
expected position they had selected on the questionnaire was directly related
to their respective graduate degrees.
Among the types of expected employers, colleges or universities were popular
with doctoral students, with 56% indicating this choice. Smaller percentages of doctoral
students indicated their expected employer as either industry or business (16%), or the
U.S. federal government (13%). Most master's students, in comparison, expected to go into
industry or business (35%); elementary, secondary, or special focus schools (15%); or
colleges or universities (14%). Eighty-three percent of all graduate students indicated that
their expected employer is in the U.S.
A smaller percentage of foreign graduate students (69%) indicated this. Twenty
percent of foreign students reported that their expected employer is located
Nearly half of doctoral students and slightly more than half of master's students reported
that they are satisfied or very satisfied with current employment opportunities.
Of those students who had already been hired, 59% reported that their
starting salaries would be between $30,000 and $54,999 per year. Nineteen
percent reported starting salaries between $55,000 and $79,999 per year. Only 10% reported
starting salaries of $80,000 or more per year.