Move your mouse over the above set of traditional images to view the focus-invariant images
* nearly five wavelengths of misfocus error measured at the aperture edge.
* an aberration coefficient W20 equal to 5 lambda.
* nearly 30 times the Hopkins criteria for misfocus.
A square rather than circular aperture is used in this simulation. The center region of the in-focus image is blurred due to display-related aliasing.
By moving your mouse over the above set of images, you can view the simulated focus-invariant images of the spoke target at various values of misfocus, which shows vary little change in image quality with misfocus. In fact each image, even that at an extreme value of misfocus, is comparable to the in-focus image of the traditional imaging system.
These simulation results first appeared in Applied Optics, April 95, Vol. 34, No. 11, pg 1859-1866, "Extended Depth of Field Through Wave-Front Coding".