IBS Publications ~ 2012
Publications are listed alphabetically by first IBS author
Bair, Jennifer and Matthew Mahutga. 2012. "Varieties of Offshoring? Spatial Fragmentation and the Organization of Production in 21st Century Capitalism." Pp. 270-297 in Capitalism and Capitalisms in the 21st Century, Richard Whitley and Glenn Morgan, eds. New York: Oxford University Press.
Abstract: This chapter provides a new perspective on a longstanding debate concerning the development of contemporary capitalism: does globalization erode the influence of territorial institutions on economic organization? While the theory of institutional comparative advantage and the varieties of capitalism (VoC) approach more generally maintains that globalization is compatible with persistent institutional diversity, the global commodity/value chain (GCC/GVC) approach holds that the organization of production increasingly reflects governance logics that are industry specific and global in scope. In order to empirically evaluate these contending claims, we first derive two sets of divergent hypotheses regarding the degree to which a particular dimension of economic organization-spatial fragmentation-varies by either institutional or industry type, and then conduct a longitudinal statistical analysis in which we compare rates of spatial fragmentation (measured as the ratio of imports to domestic value-added) across industries and varieties of capitalism. Our results provide strong (but imperfect) evidence in support of the GCC/GVC approach insofar as relative rates of spatial fragmentation vary across industries in a manner consistent with industry-specific global governance models, while the observed variation between institutional types is not significantly larger than that within them. We interpret these findings as evidence for the claim that, across different institutional contexts, firms in the manufacturing sector are participating in coordinated trade networks of the sort described in the global commodity/value chains literature. Our conclusion charts a parallel path forward in calling for future research that draws on both the VoC and GCC/GVC approaches to understand how spatial fragmentation is occurring, especially at the level of inter-firm relations in particular institutional contexts.
Bair, Jennifer and Florence Palpacuer. 2012. "From Varieties of Capitalism to Varieties of Activism: The Anti-sweatshop Movement in Comparative Perspective." Social Problems 59(4):522-543.
Abstract: Recent decades have witnessed an upsurge in activism around labor issues in globalizing industries. A particularly prominent example is the anti-sweatshop movement, a diverse collection of efforts to promote labor rights and improve working conditions in international supply chains for apparel and footwear products. Much of the literature addressing the social problem of sweatshops emphasizes the global nature of this movement and the reliance of activists on transnational advocacy networks involving coalitions of Northern (usually U.S.-based) consumers and Southern workers. Drawing theoretical inspiration from the varieties of capitalism literature, we examine instead the emergence and institutionalization of anti-sweatshop activism within the global North. Based on interviews with groups in eight countries, we analyze the trajectories of anti-sweatshop activism in Western Europe, the United States, and Canada. Among our main findings is that only in the United States, where trade union leaders and their allies were active in framing the sweatshop issue as a domestic as well as a global social problem, did organized labor play a critical role. In Europe, and to a lesser extent Canada, sweatshop activism was the domain of civil society groups dedicated to promoting economic and social development. Overall our analysis highlights a dimension that is ignored by most research on labor rights activism in global industries, which is the way in which national institutions and political cultures differentially shape actors' assessments both of the problem and the possibilities available to effect meaningful change.
Hough, Philip A. and Jennifer Bair. 2012. "Dispossession, Class Formation and the Political Imaginary of Colombia's Coffee Producers over the Longue Duree: Beyond the Polanyian Analytic." Journal of World Systems Research 18(1): 30-49.
Abstract: For more than a decade, social scientists have been analyzing the implications of the neoliberal turn in development policy and the implications of market-led agrarian reform for agricultural producers in the global South. Among this work is a spate of recent scholarship celebrating a number of flagship movements, such as the Zapatistas in Mexico or the landless movement in Brazil, which are interpreted as efforts by rural communities to resist the threat posed by the commodification of livelihoods and the privatization of natural resources. In this article, we aim to problematize what we diagnose as the "Polanyian analytic" underlying accounts of the current conjuncture which emphasize the imminent potential of neoliberalism to spawn protective counter-movements of the sort described in The Great Transformation. We do so through an analysis of the Unidad Cafetero Nacional (UCN) movement, an organization of Colombian coffee farmers that effectively mobilized large numbers of cafeteros in the 1990s to protest the liberalization of the global coffee market and the decline of state support for the domestic coffee sector. While the UCN may be read as a struggle to resist the dispossession of Colombian coffee farmers, we argue that it represented a particular segment of rural producers who wanted, first and foremost, a restoration of their relatively privileged status within the political economy of Colombian agriculture. Our interpretation of the UCN suggests that whether movements emerge in response to neoliberalism depends on the political imaginaries of the social actors who would create them, and further, that these imaginaries are produced through processes of class formation over the longue duree that shape the meaning of dispossession in particular contexts.
Belknap, Joanne, Ann T. Chu, & Anne P. DePrince. 2012 "The Roles of Phones and Computers in Threatening and Abusing Women Victims of Male Intimate Partner Abuse." Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 19:373-406.
Abstract: Telephones are intimate partner abuse (IPA) victims' easiest and quickest access to help (i.e., 911 calls), support, and court case information. A considerable amount of anecdotal research points to cases where victims' telephones have been damaged or broken, stolen, and even used as weapons by their abusers. To a far lesser extent, research has indicated that some IPA offenders break, take, or otherwise limit their victims' access to computers. A larger body of research, however, documents phone harassment as the most frequent, or one of the most frequent, forms of stalking. With the massive advances in technology communications, cyberstalking—using emails, text-messaging, and social network internet sites to harass and stalk—is a relatively recent form of abuse and, unsurprisingly, has significantly broadened how current and former intimate partners can monitor, stalk, harass, and threaten their victims. This Article reviews the extant research on IPA in terms of phones and computers, the multifaceted roles they entail for IPA victims, and how loss of access can affect the victims' (and their children's) safety (e.g., from the police, prosecutors, and victim advocates), and social support (e.g., from friends, family, and co-workers). In addition, we provide new descriptive data on victims' experiences with phones and computers following IPA cases where males were charged with "domestic violence" against their current or former female partners in two urban areas: Cincinnati, Ohio, and Denver, Colorado.
Belknap, Joanne and Kristi Holsinger. 2012. "The Gendered Nature of Risk Factors for Delinquency," in Women and Crime, Stacy L. Mallicoat, Ed., Los Angeles: Sage, pp. 30-48.
Belknap, Joanne, Kristi Holsinger, and Jani Little. 2012. "Sexual Minority Status, Abuse, and Self-Harming Behaviors among Incarcerated Girls." Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 5(2):173-185.
Abstract: This self-report study of 404 incarcerated youth found extraordinarily high rates of sexual minority status (SMS; i.e., lesbian/gay or bisexual) among the girls, particularly girls of color. Further analyses of the 107 girls 16 and older found that SMS girls reported being the victims of abuse and engaging in self-harming behaviors more than non-SMS (straight) girls. Structural equation models indicated that regardless of sexual identity, abuse was a risk factor for self-harming. This relationship held for physical or sexual abuse and for abuse by family members or people outside the family. Relative to non-SMS girls, SMS girls demonstrated higher rates of sexual abuse, primarily family sexual abuse, which mediated the relationship between SMS and self-harming.
Belknap, Joanne, Dora-Lee Larson, Margaret L. Abrams, Christine Garcia, & Kelly Anderson-Block. 2012. "Types of Intimate Partner Homicides Committed by Women: Self-Defense, Proxy/Retaliation, and Sexual Proprietariness." Homicide Studies, 16(4):359-379.
Abstract: Margo Wilson and Martin Daly began scientific work to explain intimate partner homicides (IPHs). Key to their work was women's increased risk of IPH victimization relative to men. In the 1990s, many U.S. jurisdictions implemented Domestic Violence Fatality Review Committees (DVFRCs) to improve responses to potentially lethal abuse. We report findings from 117 closed heterosexual IPH cases collected by the Denver Metro DVFRC 1991-2009. As expected, IPHs perpetrated by women against men are frequently motivated by self-defense. Although Wilson and Daly's "sexual proprietariness" is primarily characteristic of men killing women, we find it applicable to some women killing male mates.
Black, Tyra, Joanne Belknap, and Jennifer Ginsburg. 2012. "Racism, Sexism And Aggression: A Study of Black And White Fraternities," in African American Fraternities and Sororities: The Legacy and the Vision 2nd Ed., Tamara L. Brown, Gregory S. Parks, and Clarenda M. Phillips, Eds. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, pp. 395-423. (The original was published in the first edition of this book in 2005.)
DePrince, Anne, Jennifer Labus, Joanne Belknap, Susan Buckingham, and Angela Gover. 2012. "The impact of community-based outreach on psychological distress and victim safety in women exposed to intimate partner abuse." Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 80(2):211-221.
Abstract: Objective: Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Method: Women (N 236 women) with police-reported IPA were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interdisciplinary community-coordinated response program conditions: Outreach (community-based victim advocate outreach) or Referral (criminal justice system-based victim advocate referrals to community-based agencies). Participants were interviewed 3 times over a 1-year period: within 26 (median) days of police-reported IPA, 6 months later, and 12 months later. Primary outcome measures included posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptom severity (Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale; Beck Depression Inventory-II), fear appraisals (Trauma Appraisal Questionnaire), IPA revictimization (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale), and readiness to leave the relationship with the abuser. Results: One year after the initial interview, women in the Outreach condition reported decreased PTSD and depression symptom severity and fear compared with women in the Referral condition. Although both conditions were unrelated to revictimization in the follow-up year, women in the Outreach condition reported greater readiness to leave the abuser and rated services as more helpful than women in the Referral condition. Conclusions: This is one of the first studies to examine community-based outreach in the context of an interdisciplinary community coordinated response to police-reported IPA. The findings suggest that community-based outreach by victim advocates results in decreased distress levels, greater readiness to leave abusive relationships, and greater perceived helpfulness of services relative to system-based referrals.
DePrince, Anne P., Joanne Belknap, Jennifer S. Labus, Susan E. Buckingham, & Angela R. Gover. 2012. "The Impact of Victim-Focused Outreach on Criminal Legal System Outcomes following Police-Reported Intimate Partner Abuse." Violence Against Women, 18(8):861-881.
Abstract: Randomized control designs have been used in the public health and psychological literatures to examine the relationship between victim outreach following intimate partner abuse (IPA) and various outcomes. These studies have largely relied on samples drawn from health providers and shelters to examine outcomes outside the criminal legal system. Based on the positive findings from this body of research, we expected that a victim-focused, community- coordinated outreach intervention would improve criminal legal system outcomes. The current study used a randomized, longitudinal design to recruit 236 ethnically diverse women with police-reported IPA to compare treatment- as-usual with an innovative community-coordinated, victim-focused outreach program. Findings indicated that the outreach program was effective in increasing women's engagement with prosecution tasks as well as likelihood of taking part in prosecution of their abusers. Results were particularly robust among women marginalized by ethnicity and class, and those still living with their abusers after the target incident.
DePrince, Anne P. and Joanne Belknap. 2012. "The Impact of Victim-Focused Outreach on Criminal Legal System Outcomes following Police-Reported Intimate Partner Abuse: Reply to the Commentaries." Violence Against Women 18(8):906-912.
McDaniels-Wilson, Cathy and Joanne Belknap. 2012. "The Extensive Sexual Violation and Sexual Abuse Histories of Incarcerated Women." The Companion Reader on Violence Against Women. Claire M. Renzetti, Jeffrey L. Edleson, and Raquel K. Bergen , Eds., Los Angeles: Sage, pp. 77-111.
Boardman, Jason D., Benjamin W. Domingue, and Jason M. Fletcher. 2012. "How social and genetic factors predict friendship networks." PNAS Early Edition. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1208975109
Abstract: Recent research suggests that the genotype of one individual in a friendship pair is predictive of the genotype of his/her friend. These results provide tentative support for the genetic homophily perspective, which has important implications for social and genetic epidemiology because it substantiates a particular form of gene-environment correlation. This process may also have important implications for social scientists who study the social factors related to health and health-related behaviors. We extend this work by considering the ways in which school context shapes genetically similar friendships. Using the network, school, and genetic information from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we show that genetic homophily for the TaqI A polymorphism within the DRD2 gene is stronger in schools with greater levels of inequality. Our results suggest that individuals with similar genotypes may not actively select into friendships; rather, they may be placed into these contexts by institutional mechanisms outside of their control. Our work highlights the fundamental role played by broad social structures in the extent to which genetic factors explain complex behaviors, such as friendships.
Hunter, Lori M. and Robert Kemp. 2012. "Population and Environment." Invited Chapter for Demography (in Chinese), Part V. Emerging Areas of Demographic Research, Series on Western Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Zai Liang (Ed). People's University Press: Beijing.
Abstract: This 600-page compendium was designed to serve as the authoritative overview of demography for Chinese audiences. Hunter and Kemp's chapter is based on an update of Hunter's 2000 report for the RAND Corporation entitled "The Environmental Implications of Population Dynamics."
Leyk, Stefan, Galen J. Maclaurin, Lori M. Hunter, Raphael Nawrotzki, Wayne Twine, Mark Collinson and Barend Erasmus. 2012. "Spatially and temporally varying associations between temporary outmigration and natural resource availability in resource-dependent rural communities in South Africa: A modeling framework." Applied Geography 34(May): 559-568.
Abstract: Migration-environment models tend to be aspatial within chosen study regions, although associations between temporary outmigration and environmental explanatory variables likely vary across the study space. This research extends current approaches by developing migration models considering spatial non-stationarity and temporal variation - through examination of the migration-environment association at nested geographic scales (i.e. whole-population, village, and subvillage) within a specific study site. Demographic survey data from rural South Africa, combined with indicators of natural resource availability from satellite imagery, are employed in a nested modeling approach that brings out distinct patterns of spatial variation in model associations derived at finer geographic scales. Given recent heightened public and policy concern with the human migratory implications of climate change, we argue that consideration of spatial variability adds important nuance to scientific understanding of the migration-environment association.
Kuhn, Randall. 2012. "On the Role of Human Development in the Arab Spring." Population and Development Review 38(4): 649-683. DOI:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00531.x
Abstract: This essay traces the effects of human development on political change, focusing on the events of the Arab Spring. Over the past generation, the Arab world experienced rapid progress in human development outcomes, including declining child mortality, extended schooling, and increasing status of women. These development gains penetrated most Arab states and subpopulations. The pathway from human development to political mobilization rests on three interlinked propositions. First, basic human development led to a significant increase in population needs and expectations, creating new policy challenges and reducing public dependency on regimes. Second, human development and new information technologies created new opportunities for political protest. Finally, the collective realization of human development gains resulted in new values conducive to regime change. Each proposition builds on theories of human capital accumulation over the life course that isolate the human dimension of national development. I provide provisional support for these pathways through cross-regional comparison and evidence from specific populations and sub-populations. I highlight the need for new study designs and datasets that further test this model.
Mollborn, Stefanie and Jeff A. Dennis. 2012. "Ready or Not: Predicting High and Low Levels of School Readiness Among Teenage Parents' Children." Child Indicators Research 5(2):253-279. DOI: 10.1007/s12187-011-9126-2
Abstract: Past research has documented compromised development for teenage mothers' children compared to others, but less is known about predictors of school readiness among these children or among teenage fathers' children. Our multidimensional measures of high and low school readiness incorporated math, reading, and behavior scores and parent-reported health. Using parent interviews and direct assessments from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we predicted high and low school readiness shortly before kindergarten among children born to a teenage mother and/or father (N ? 800). Factors from five structural and interpersonal domains based on the School Transition Model were measured at two time points, including change between those time points, to capture the dynamic nature of early childhood. Four domains (socioeconomic resources, maternal characteristics, parenting, and exposure to adults) predicted high or low school readiness, but often not both. Promising factors associated with both high and low readiness among teen parents' children came from four domains: maternal education and gains in education (socioeconomic), maternal age of at least 18 and fewer depressive symptoms (maternal characteristics), socioemotional parenting quality and home environment improvements (parenting), and living with fewer children and receiving nonparental child care in infancy (exposure to adults). The findings preliminarily suggest policies that might improve school readiness: encouraging maternal education while supplying child care, focusing teen pregnancy prevention efforts on school-age girls, basic socioeconomic supports, and investments in mental health and high-quality home environments and parenting.
Mollborn, Stefanie and Jeff A. Dennis. 2012. "Investigating the Life Situations and Development of Teenage Mothers' Children: Evidence from the ECLS-B." Population Research and Policy Review 31(1):31-66. DOI: 10.1007/s11113-011-9218-1
Abstract: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort of 2001 represents a unique opportunity to examine the life situations of teenage mothers and their young children in a nationally representative sample. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses compare teenage mothers and their children to older mothers and their children, examine variation among teenage mothers and their children, and estimate associations between household structures and mothers' work and school involvement at age 2 and children's health and development at age 4½. Results show that compared to children of mothers who never gave birth as teens, teenage mothers' children experience strong socioeconomic disadvantages, and their home environments have some greater risks. Their mothers' parenting behaviors are not rated as favorably, and many measures of their health and development at age 2 are compromised. However, many of these parenting and developmental disparities are explained by teenage mothers' low levels of current socioeconomic status. At least in some domains, teenage mothers' involvement in school and paid work is associated with more favorable child outcomes at age 4½, and living with a single mother and other adults predicts more negative outcomes. Many everyday experiences that are associated with disadvantaged outcomes are quite prevalent among teenage mothers' children, identifying useful targets for policy interventions. These findings suggest that effective social programs implemented in early life may have an opportunity to reduce the early developmental disadvantages of many children of teenage mothers.
Mollborn, Stefanie, Paula Fomby, and Jeff A. Dennis. 2012. "Racial/Ethnic Differences in Extended Household Transitions in Early Childhood." Social Science Research.
Abstract: Beyond mothers' union status transitions, other adults' transitions into and out of the household contribute to family instability, particularly in early childhood. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N ? 8550), this study examines associations between extended household transitions and age 2 cognitive development. A substantial minority of toddlers experiences these transitions, and their consequences vary by household member type, entry versus exit, and race/ethnicity. Extended household transitions predict lower cognitive scores for white children, but the selection of low-socioeconomic status families into extended households explains these disparities. Grandparent transitions predict significantly higher cognitive scores for African American and Latino children than whites, and some "other adult" transitions predict higher scores for Latinos than African Americans and whites. Extended household transitions' consequences are independent of co-occurring residential moves and partner transitions. Findings suggest that studying extended household transitions is useful for understanding children's early development, and their consequences vary by race/ethnicity.
Mollborn, Stefanie and Janet Jacobs. 2012. "'We'll Figure a Way': Teenage Mothers' Experiences in Shifting Social and Economic Contexts." Qualitative Sociology 35(1):23-46. DOI: 10.1007/s11133-011-9213-1
Abstract: The current economic and social context calls for a renewed assessment of the consequences of an early transition to parenthood. In interviews with 55 teenage mothers in Colorado, we find that they are experiencing severe economic and social strains. Financially, although most are receiving substantial help from family members and sometimes their children's fathers, basic needs often remain unmet. Macroeconomic and family structure trends have resulted in deprived material circumstances, while welfare reform and other changes have reduced the availability of aid. Socially, families' and communities' disapproval of early childbearing negatively influences the support young mothers receive, their social interactions, and their experiences with social institutions.
Mollborn, Stefanie and Janet Jacobs. 2012. "Early Motherhood and the Disruption in Significant Attachments: Autonomy and Reconnection as a Response to Separation and Loss among African American and Latina Teen Mothers." Gender & Society 26:922-944.
Abstract: Based on a qualitative study of 48 teenage mothers living in the Denver metropolitan area, this research examines the loss of multiple attachments, including mothers, siblings, and other extended family members and friends, among African American and Latina girls who become young mothers. Through life history narratives, this article explores the isolating effects of teen motherhood on the relational world of young mothers and the transition to "forced autonomy" that emerges out of the relationship strains in the teen mothers' lives. Faced with ruptures in significant childhood attachments and strains in the mother-daughter bond, young mothers develop strategies of accommodation to cope with the disruptions to connectivity and the demands of forced autonomy that are the result of early motherhood. These findings are interpreted through the frame of self-in-relation theory as this theoretical perspective has been informed by the scholarship on race and ethnicity. In reengaging the discourse on race, class, and gender, our findings contribute to the field in a number of significant and related ways: first, through an investigation into relationship loss and repair among teen mothers; second, by addressing the conditions under which teen mothers gain acceptance in their families; and third, in applying self-in-relation theory to the experience of adolescent girls of color whose relational lives are disrupted by the stigma and adversity of teen motherhood.
Hoekstra, Angel and Stefanie Mollborn. "How Clicker Use Facilitates Existing Pedagogical Practices in Higher Education: Data from Interdisciplinary Research on Student Response Systems." Learning, Media, and Technology.
Abstract: This article identifies how clicker use can support or augment existing principles of good teaching across different disciplines in higher education. While many of these principles will be familiar to instructors, the link between student response system (SRS) use and existing pedagogical methods is still often unclear, even for scholars who are well read in the literature. Functioning as a resource for both novices and instructors who have already incorporated clickers into their courses, this article synthesizes existing literature and offers empirical data from five courses in three disciplines to show how SRSs can be used to support contemporary pedagogical goals. The authors discuss five exemplary practices, providing sample clicker questions along the way, to show how clickers can be used to facilitate active learning in large courses.
Nawrotzki, R. J. 2012. "The politics of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis." Organization and Environment 25(3):257-278.
Abstract: Prior research in the United States has found that liberals are generally more environmentally concerned than conservatives. The present study explores whether conservatives' opposition to environmental protection is solely a U.S. or a universal phenomenon and whether this association is contingent on country-level characteristics, such as development, environmental conditions, and communist history. Employing data for 19 countries from the International Social Survey Program module "Environment II," this article explores inter-country variations in the relationship between individual conservatism and environmental concern using multilevel modeling with cross-level interactions. The models reveal a number of intriguing associations. Most important, conservatives' support for environmental protection varies by country. This variation is a function of country-level characteristics. The strongest opposition of conservatives' toward environmental protection was observed in developed, capitalist nations, with superior environmental conditions. On the other hand, in less developed countries, and countries characterized by poor environmental quality, conservatives are more environmentally concerned than liberals.
Nawrotzki, R. J. and Pampel, F. C.. 2012. "Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis." Population and Environment.
Abstract: This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and af?uence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups ?rst adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project. Cross-classi?ed multilevel modeling allows us to identify a nonlinear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We ?nd support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern ?rst increases among older cohorts and then starts to level off until a bend point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts.
Nawrotzki, R. J., Fernando Riosmena and Lori M. Hunter.. 2012. "Do Rainfall Deficits Predict U.S.-Bound Migration from Rural Mexico? Evidence from the Mexican Census." Population Research and Policy Review Online First, August 2012. DOI 10.1007/s11113-012-9251-8
Abstract: Environmental and climatic changes have shaped human mobility for thousands of years and research on the migration-environment connection has proliferated in the past several years. Even so, little work has focused on Latin America or on international movement. Given rural Mexico's dependency on primary sector activities involving various natural resources, and the existence of well established transnational migrant networks, we investigate the association between rainfall patterns and U.S.-bound migration from rural locales, a topic of increasing policy relevance. The new economics of labor migration theoryprovides background, positing that migration represents a household-level risk management strategy. We use data from the year 2000 Mexican census for rural localities and socioeconomic and state-level precipitation data provided by the Mexican National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Multilevel models assess the impact of rainfall change on household-level international out-migration while controlling for relevant sociodemographic and economic factors. A decrease in precipitation is significantly associated with U.S.-bound migration, but only for dry Mexican states. This finding suggests that programs and policies aimed at reducing Mexico-U.S. migration should seek to diminish the climate/weather vulnerability of rural Mexican households, for example by supporting sustainable irrigation systems and subsidizing drought-resistant crops.
Cepeda, Alice, Nalini Negi, Kathryn Nowotny, James Arango, Charles Kaplan, and Avelardo Valdez. 2012. "Social Stressors, Special Vulnerabilities, and Violent Victimization among Latino Immigrant Day Laboers in Post-Katrina New Orleans" in Punishing Immigrants: Policy, Politics, and Injustice, Charles E. Kubrin, Majorie S. Zatz, and Ramiro Martinez Jr., eds. NYU Press.
Pampel, Fred and Lori M. Hunter. 2012. "Cohort Change, Diffusion, and Support for Environmental Spending in the United States." American Journal of Sociology 118(2):420-448.
Abstract: Long-standing debates over the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on environmental concern contrast postmaterialist and affluence arguments, suggesting a positive relationship in high-income nations, with counterarguments for a negative or near zero relationship. A diffusion-of- innovations approach adapts parts of both arguments and predicts initial adoption of proenvironmental views by high-SES groups; however, environmentalism diffuses over time to other SES groups, weakening the association. This argument is testedwith General Social Survey data (1973-2008) across 83 cohorts, whose attitudes before, during, and after the emergence of environmentalism identify long-term changes in environmental concern. Multilevel age, period, and cohort models support diffusion arguments by demonstrating that the effects across cohorts of education, income, and occupational prestige first strengthen, then weaken. This finding suggests that diffusion of environmental concern first produces positive relationships consistent with postmaterialism arguments and later produces null or negative relationships consistent with global environmentalism arguments.
Schatz, E. 2012. Rationale and procedures for nesting semi-structured interviews in surveys or censuses. Population Studies, 66(2): 183-195. DOI: 10.1080/00324728.2012.658851.
Abstract: Demographers who use survey data and census data from health and demographic surveillance areas can gain substantially from expanding their repertoire of methods to make use of qualitative methods. Similarly, those who conduct and analyse data primarily from semi-structured interviews or focus groups can benefit from information provided by survey research. This paper presents a systematic mixed-methods model—data-linked nested studies—for sampling respondents for semi-structured interviews from survey or census lists. The paper outlines how to conduct these types of study, and their technical and analytical advantages. It highlights the benefits of building on a strong foundation, the ability to compare samples, and the expansion of the range of evidence for, or against, the validity of the substantive findings. Case studies from two data-linked nested projects—in Malawi and South Africa—are used to describe in detail the nested-study approach.
Schatz, E and Williams, J. 2012. Measuring Gender and Reproductive Health in Africa Using Demographic and Health Surveys: The need for mixed-methods research. Culture, Health & Sexuality. DOI: 10.1080/13691058.2012.698309.
Abstract: Understanding gender in Africa is essential to creating policy and designing interventions to address key reproductive-health issues such as HIV/AIDS and maternal mortality that are particularly pressing for the continent and are strongly related to gender inequality. The addition of questions to capture women's empowerment and autonomy on the MEASURE/Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in the late-1990s expanded opportunities to examine the relationship between gender and reproductive health. These questions provide valuable information on trends and individual-level associations between gender inequality and health. Given that women's empowerment, status and autonomy are largely dependent on contextually-specific gender systems, however, supplementary qualitative studies to validate and contextualise these data would strengthen analyses significantly. This paper provides examples of how such mixed-methods work would improve understandings of gender and reproductive health in Africa by validating survey questions, providing insights into how to analyse and interpret DHS data and illuminating the processes and mechanisms behind gendered experiences. Additionally, this work could help improve future survey research on gender and reproductive health.
Schatz, Enid, Xavier Gomez-Olive, Margaret Ralston, Jane Menken and Stephen Tollman. 2012. "Gender, pensions and social wellbeing in rural South Africa." Social Science & Medicine, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.07.004.
Abstract: Unique to Africa, a means-tested non-contributory pension is available to South Africans. In 2006, women over 60 and men over 65 were pension-eligible. To explore the effect of the pension for health and wellbeing indicators of rural South African men and women, we analyze data from the WHO-INDEPTH Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health Survey, carried out in the Agincourt sub-district by the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) in 2006. Because pension receipt was not measured directly, our findings represent intent-to-treat (ITT) rather than treatment-on-the-treated (TOT) effects using age as an indicator for intent-to-treat. Overall, women report poorer wellbeing compared to men. However, women have a "honeymoon" period at ages 60-64, the first years of pension-eligibility, in which they report lower levels of worry and sadness, and higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, and quality of life as compared to younger and older women. For men, in contrast, reports of wellbeing worsen in the pre-pension years, followed by a similar but not as prominent pattern of favorable reports in the five years following pension-eligibility, and a decline in the next five-year period. Thus, while pensions continue to enhance financial wellbeing, our results suggest that their effect on social wellbeing may be gendered and transitory. Further research is needed to improve understanding of these dynamics.
Sartorius, K, Sartorius, B, Tollman, S, Schatz, E, Kirsten, J & Collinson, M. 2012. Rural Poverty Dynamics and Refugee Communities in South Africa: A Spatial–Temporal Model. Population, Space & Place. DOI: 10.1002/psp.697.
Abstract: The assimilation of refugees into their host community economic structures is often problematic. The paper investigates the ability of refugees in rural South Africa to accumulate assets over time relative to their host community. Bayesian spatial–temporal modelling was employed to analyse a longitudinal database that indicated that the asset accumulation rate of former Mozambican refugee households was similar to their host community; however, they were unable to close the wealth gap. A series of geo-statistical wealth maps illustrate that there is a spatial element to the higher levels of absolute poverty in the former refugee villages. The primary reason for this is their physical location in drier conditions that are established further away from facilities and infrastructure. Neighbouring South African villages in close proximity, however, display lower levels of absolute poverty, suggesting that the spatial location of the refugees only partially explains their disadvantaged situation. In this regard, the results indicate that the wealth of former refugee households continues to be more compromised by higher mortality levels, poorer education, and less access to high-return employment opportunities. The long-term impact of low initial asset status appears to be perpetuated in this instance by difficulties in obtaining legal status in order to access state pensions, facilities, and opportunities. The usefulness of the results is that they can be used to sharpen the targeting of differentiated policy in a given geographical area for refugee communities in rural Africa. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sennott, Christie and Sara Yeatman. 2012. "Stability and Change in Fertility Preferences Among Young Women in Malawi." International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 38(1): 34-42.
Abstract: CONTEXT: Although studies have demonstrated change in fertility preferences over time, there is a lack of definitive knowledge about the level and direction of change among individuals, especially young and unmarried women. Furthermore, little is known about the factors associated with changes in fertility preferences over time. METHOD: The analysis uses the first five waves of data from a longitudinal study of a random sample of women aged 15-25 in southern Malawi. The data were collected four months apart over an 18-month period, between June 2009 and December 2010. Multinomial logit regression models were used to calculate relative risk ratios and identify associations between four categories of life events-reproductive, relationship, health and economic-and shifts in fertility timing preferences. RESULTS: In each four-month period, more than half of the women reported changes in the desired timing of their next birth, and delays and accelerations in timing desires were common. Several life events, including having a child, entering a serious relationship and changes in household finances were associated with changes in the level and direction of fertility preference. CONCLUSION: Shifts in fertility timing preferences often occur in response to changes in life circumstances. Understanding the reasons for these shifts may aid family planning providers in meeting women's contraceptive needs.
Tir, Jaroslav and Douglas M. Stinnett. 2012. "Weathering Climate Change: Can Institutions Mitigate International Water Conflict?" Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 211-225.
Abstract: Although the subject remains contested, some have speculated that climate change could jeopardize international security. Climate change is likely to alter the runoff of many rivers due to changes in precipitation patterns. At the same time, climate change will likely increase the demand for river water, due to more frequent droughts and greater stress being placed on other sources of water. The resulting strain on transboundary rivers could contribute to international tensions and increase the risk of military conflict. This study nevertheless notes that the propensity for conflicts over water to escalate depends on whether the river in question is governed by a formal agreement. More specifically, the article argues that the ability of river treaties to adapt to the increase in water stress resulting from climate change will depend on their institutional design. It focuses on four specific institutional features: provisions for joint monitoring, conflict resolution, treaty enforcement, and the delegation of authority to intergovernmental organizations. Treaties that contain more of these features are expected to better manage conflicts caused by water stress. This expectation is tested by analyzing historical data on water availability and the occurrence of militarized conflict between signatories of river treaties, 1950-2000. The empirical results reveal that water scarcity does increase the risk of military conflict, but that this risk is offset by institutionalized agreements. These results provide evidence, albeit indirect, that the presence of international institutions can be an important means of adapting to the security consequences of climate change by playing an intervening role between climate change and international conflict.