IBS Publications ~ 2011

Publications are listed alphabetically by first IBS author


Alston, Lee J. "Comments On Libecap, Chapter 13, "Water Rights and Markets In U.S. Semiarid West: Efficiency and Equity Issues" in Daniel Cole and Elinor Ostrom, ed., Property in Land and Other Resources (Lincoln Institute of Land Policy: Cambridge MA, 2011).


Alston, Lee J., Edwyna Harris, and Bernardo Mueller. "Property Rights, Land Settlement and Land Conflict on Frontiers: Evidence from Australia, Brazil and the U.S." in Handbook of Property edited by Henry E. Smith and Ken Ayotte (2011)


Alston, Lee J. and Krister Andersson. 2011. "Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by forest protection: The transaction costs of implementing REDD". Climate Law Vol. 2, No. 2: 281-289.

Online Information

Abstract: Understanding and minimizing the transaction costs of policy implementation are critical for reducing tropical forest losses. As the international community launches REDD, a global initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from tropical deforestation, policymakers need to pay attention to the transactions costs associated with negotiating, monitoring and enforcing contracts between forest users, governments, and donors. The existing institutional design for REDD relies heavily on central government interventions in program countries. Analysing new data on forest conservation outcomes, we identify several problems with this centralized approach to forest protection. We describe options for a more diversified policy approach that could reduce the full set of transaction costs and thereby improve the efficiency of the market-based approach to conservation.


Andersson, K. 2011. "Responding to A New Look at Comparative Public Administration: Trends in Research and an Agenda for the Future". Public Administration Review 71 (6):839-840.


Andersson, K. and Agrawal, A. 2011. "Inequalities, Institutions, and Forest Commons". Global Environmental Change 21(3): 866-875.


Leon, R. Uberhuaga, P., Benavides, and Andersson, K. 2011. "Public Policy Reforms and Indigenous Forest Governance: The Case of the Yuracare in Bolivia". Conservation and Society 4 (6).


Antman, Francisca M. "The Intergenerational Effects of Paternal Migration on Schooling and Work: What Can We Learn from Children's Time Allocations?" Journal of Development Economics, 96(2): 200-208, November 2011.


2011 Bair, Jennifer. "Constructing Scarcity, Creating Value: Marketing the Mundo Maya." Pp. 177-196 in The Cultural Wealth of Nations, Nina Bandelj and Fred Wherry, eds. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.


Bair, Jennifer and Marion Werner. 2011. "The place of disarticulations: global commodity production in La Laguna, Mexico". Environment and Planning A 43(5) 998 - 1015.

Online Article

Abstract: Studies of the shifting social organization and geography of global garment production have been critical to the development of the commodity chains framework as an important field of study for scholars of political economy in various disciplines. Our paper intervenes in this literature by proposing what we call a 'disarticulations' perspective, an approach attentive to historical and spatial processes of accumulation, disinvestment and dispossession that produce the uneven geographies generative of transnational production networks. We make the case for disarticulations as an approach to commodity chains via a case study of a region in north-central Mexico called La Laguna-a celebrated center of export dynamism in the 1990s, following the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and of rapid decline in the 2000s. Rather than offer a conventional commodity chain analysis of the boom to bust cycle in La Laguna, which would look to the dynamics of the contemporary apparel chain to explain the causes and consequences of La Laguna's NAFTA-era trajectory, we instead follow La Laguna's 'travels' through the cotton, textile, and garment industries over 150 years. We show how the recent NAFTA-era boom was premised on this layered history of engagements with the cotton - textile - apparel commodity chain. The disarticulations approach to commodity chains that we develop here foregrounds the processes of dispossession, accumulation and disinvestment through which not only commodity chains, but the uneven geographies that are their conditions of possibility, are reproduced.


Andy Baker and Kenneth Greene (2011). "The Latin American Left's Mandate: Free-Market Policies and Issue Voting in New Democracies." World Politics 63(1): 43-77.


Barham, Tania. 2011 "Providing a Healthier Start to Life: The Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs on Infant Mortality," " Journal of Development Economics, 94(1), 74-85.


Belknap, Joanne. 2011. Review of Katherine van Wormer 2010. Working with Female Offenders: A Gender-Sensitive Approach. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(2), 339-340.


Belknap, Joanne, Emily Gaarder, Kristi Holsinger, Cathy McDaniels Wilson, and Bonnie Cady. 2011. "Using Girls' Voices and Words to Study Their Problems," in Margaret Kerr, Hakan Stattin, Anna-Karin Andershed, & Geertjan Overbeek (Eds.) Understanding Girls' Problem Behavior: How Girls' Delinquency Develops in the Context of Maturity and Health, Co-Occurring Problems, and Relationships. West Sussex, England: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 97-116.

Online Information


Boardman, Jason D. 2011. "Is gene-environment interplay relevant to the study of political behaviors and attitudes?" Pp. 185-206 in McDermott, Rose and Pete Hatemi, eds. Man is by Nature a Political Animal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Boardman, Jason D. and Kari B. Alexander. 2011. Stress trajectories, unhealthy behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults. Social Science & Medicine, 72:1659-1666.


Boardman, Jason D., Casey L. Blalock, Fred C. Pampel, Peter K. Hatemi, Andrew C. Heath, and Lindon J. Eaves. 2011. "Population composition, public policy, and the genetics of smoking." Demography 48(4):1517-1533.


Boardman, J.D., M.C. Stallings, and K.B. Alexander. 2011. "Stressful Life Events and Depression among Adolescent Twin Pairs." Biodemography & Social Biology 57:53-66.

Online Article

Abstract: Using the twin pairs sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate bivariate Cholesky models for the influence of stressful life events (SLEs) on depressive symptoms. We show that depressive symptoms and dependent SLEs (events influenced by an individual's behavior) are both moderately heritable . We find no evidence for the heritability of independent SLEs. Results from the bivariate Cholesky model suggest that roughly one-half of the correlation between depression and dependent SLEs is due to common genetic factors. Our findings suggest that attempts to characterize the causal effect of SLEs on mental health should limit their list of SLEs to those that are outside of the control of the individual.


Bookman, E.B., K Wanke, D Balshaw, K McAllister, J Rutter, J Reedy, D Shaughnessy, T Agurs-Collins, D Paltoo, A Atienza, L Bierut, P Kraft, M.D. Fallin, F Perera, E Turkheimer, J Boardman, M.L. Marazita, S.M. Rappaport, E Boerwinkle, S.J. Suomi, N.E. Caporaso, I Hertz-Picciotto, N.J. Cox, K.C. Jacobson, W.L. Lowe, L.R. Goldman, P Duggal, M.R. Gunnar, T.A. Manolio, E.D. Green, D Olster, and L.S. Birnbaum. 2011. "Gene-Environment Interplay in Common Complex Diseases: Forging an Integrative Model -- Recommendations from an NIH Workshop." Genetic Epidemiology, 35(4):217-225.


David S. Brown, Michael Touchton, and Andrew Whitford (2011). "Political Polarization as a Constraint on Corruption: a cross-national comparison. World Development 39 (9) pp. 1516-1529.


Downey, Liam and Kyle Crowder. 2011. "Using Distance Decay Techniques and Household-Level Data to Explore Regional Variation in Environmental Inequality." In Julia Maantay and Sara McLafferty, eds. Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health: 373-395. New York: Springer.


Everett, Bethany G., Richard G. Rogers, Patrick M. Krueger, and Robert A. Hummer. 2011. "Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005." Ethnic and Racial Studies 34(9):1543-66.


Greenberg, Edward S., and Benjamin I. Page (2011), America's Democratic Republic, 4th edition (New York: Penguin Academics).


Greenberg, Edward S., and Benjamin I. Page (2011) The Struggle for Democracy, 10th edition (New York: Pearson Longman Publishers).


Hunter, Lori M., Wayne Twine, and Aaron Johnson. "Adult Mortality and Natural Resource Use in Rural South Africa: Evidence from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site." Society & Natural Resources, 24: 3, 256-275.

Online Article

Abstract: There is little empirical evidence on the association between household experience with HIV/AIDS and shifts in the use of natural resources in developing countries, where residents of rural regions remain highly dependent on often-declining local supplies of natural resources. This study examines household strategies with regard to fuelwood and water among impoverished rural South African households having experienced a recent adult mortality and those without such mortality experience. Quantitative survey data reveal higher levels of natural resource dependence among mortality-affected households, as well as differences in collection strategies. Qualitative interview data provide insight into subtle and complex adjustments at the household level, revealing that impacts vary by the role of the deceased within the household economy. Resource management and public health implications are explored.


Hunter, Lori M. and Emmanuel David. 2011. "Climate Change and Migration: Considering the Gender Dimensions." In Migration and Climate Change, Etienne Piguet, Antoine Pecoud, and Paul de Guchteneire, eds. UNESCO Publishing and Cambridge University Press.

Online Information

Pdf of chapter is available from lead author at lori.hunter@colorado.edu.


Lori M. Hunter, John Reid-Hresko, and Thomas Dickinson. 2011. "Environmental Change, Risky Sexual Behavior, and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Exploring Linkages Through Livelihoods." Population Research and Policy Review. 30(5):729-750.


Wayne Twine and Lori M. Hunter. "Adult mortality and household food security in rural South Africa: Does AIDS represent a unique mortality shock?" Development Southern Africa, 28(11):431-444.

Online Article

Abstract: HIV/AIDS has been described as a household shock distinct from others faced by rural households. This study examines this characterisation by analysing the impact of an adult HIV/AIDS-related death on household food security, compared with households experiencing either no mortality or a sudden non-HIV/AIDS adult death. The research is based in the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in rural South Africa, and focuses on a sample of 290 households stratified by experience of a recent prime-age adult death. HIV/AIDS-related mortality was associated with reduced household food security. However, much of this negative association also characterized households experiencing a non-HIV/AIDS mortality. In addition, other household characteristics, especially socioeconomic status, were strong determinants of food security regardless of mortality experience. We therefore recommend that development policy and interventions aimed at enhancing food security target vulnerable households broadly, rather than solely targeting those directly affected by HIV/AIDS mortality.


Murat Iyigun (with Maggie Chen), "Patent Protection and Strategic Delays in Patent Protection," Southern Economic Journal 78(1), July 2011, pp. 211-232.


Keith E. Maskus and Yin He, "Transatlantic Regulatory Competition and Cooperation in Pharmaceuticals," in Simon J. Evenett and Robert M. Stern, editors, Systemic Implications of Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation and Competition (Singapore: World Scientific Publishing), 2011, 313-338.


Dayna Bowen Matthew. "The Social Psychology of Limiting Healthcare Benefits for Undocumented Immigrants - Moving Beyond Race, Class, and Nativism" 10 Houston J. of Health Law & Policy 201 (Spring 2010).


Dayna Bowen Matthew. "Implementing American Health Reform: The Fiduciary Imperative," 59 Buffalo Law Review 715 (May 2011)


Terra McKinnish. "Who Moves to Mixed-Income Neighborhoods" Regional Science and Urban Economics, May 2011 (with Kirk White).


Robert F McNown. "Periods and structural breaks in US economic history 1959-2007," Journal of Policy Modeling 33 (2011) 169-182 (with Knut Lehre Seip).


M. Omar Rahman and Jane Menken. Reproductive health. In Michael H. Merson, Robert E. Black and Anne J. Mills (eds.), International Public Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies, 3rd ed.


Mojola, Sanyu A. 2011. "Fishing in dangerous waters: Ecology, gender and economy in HIV risk." Social Science & Medicine, 72: 149-156.

Online Article

Abstract: This paper focuses on a neglected factor in literature on the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa: the role of the eco-social environment in shaping HIV risk. I argue that the changing ecological environment of Lake Victoria, Africa's largest freshwater lake, mapping onto a gendered economy, shaped fisherfolk's sexual relationships and sexual mixing patterns in ways that were consequential for their HIV risk. Specifically, I show how disrupted lake and fish ecology had an impact on fishermen's sexual, domestic and economic partnerships, as well as how it contributed to the "sex for fish" economy in Nyanza Province, Kenya. I also show the consequences of fishermen's relative wealth on transactional relationships with school girls and women in lakeside communities. The paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork over a seven month period among the Luo ethnic group, which has the highest HIV rates in Kenya. The study included 74 individual and focus group interviews in communities around Lake Victoria, as well as 20 key informant interviews. Additionally, literature reviews on fishing and sexual economies as well as on ecological research in Lake Victoria are employed. Exploring linkages between these literatures and fieldwork findings forms the basis of this paper. I argue that solely focusing on individual level HIV prevention strategies is limited without taking into account the eco-social context of individual sexual decision making.


Mojola, Sanyu A. 2011. "Multiple Transitions and HIV Risk among Orphaned Kenyan Schoolgirls." Studies in Family Planning, 42(1):29-40.

Online Article

Abstract: Why are orphaned girls at particular risk of acquiring HIV infection? Using a transition-to-adulthood framework, this study employs qualitative data from Nyanza Province, Kenya, to explore pathways to HIV risk among orphaned and nonorphaned high-school girls. It shows how simultaneous processes such as leaving their parental home, negotiating financial access, and relationship transitions interact to produce disproportionate risk for orphaned girls. The role of financial provision and parental love in modifying girls' trajectories to risk are also explored. A testable theoretical model is proposed based on the qualitative findings, and policy implications are suggested.


Mollborn, Stefanie. 2011. "'Children' Having Children." Contexts 10(1):32-37.

Online Article

Abstract: Putting a face on teenage pregnancy helps us to look past stereotypes to understand the challenges of teen parenthood.


Mollborn, Stefanie and Peter Lovegrove. 2011. "How Teenage Fathers Matter for Children: Evidence from the ECLS-B." Journal of Family Issues 32(1):3-30.

Online Article

Abstract: Much is known about how having a teenage mother influences children's outcomes, but the relationship between teenage fatherhood and children's health and development is less well documented. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, the authors investigated how teenage fathers matter for children. They expected teenage fathers' influence on children to differ from adult fathers' in three domains: the household context, the father- mother relationship, and the father-child relationship. Teenage fathers were less often married and more often cohabiting or nonresident, and their children experienced a variety of social disadvantages in their household contexts. The quality of the father-child relationship did not often differ between adolescent and adult fathers. Fathers' marital status and children's household contexts each fully explained the negative relationship between having a teen father and children's cognitive and behavior scores at age 2. These findings suggest that policy interventions could possibly reduce these children's developmental gaps in the critical preschool years.


Hoekstra, Angel and Stefanie Mollborn. Available online through journal in 2011, print forthcoming. "How Clicker Use Facilitates Existing Pedagogical Practices in Higher Education: Data from Interdisciplinary Research on Student Response Systems." Learning, Media, and Technology.

Online Information


Mollborn, Stefanie and Janet Jacobs. Available online through journal in 2011, in print 2012. "'We'll Figure a Way': Teenage Mothers' Experiences in Shifting Social and Economic Contexts." Qualitative Sociology.

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Mollborn, Stefanie, Paula Fomby, and Jeff A. Dennis. 2011. "Who Matters for Children's Early Development? Race/Ethnicity and Extended Household Structures in the United States." Child Indicators Research 4:389-411.


J. O'Loughlin, E.C. Holland, and F.D. Witmer. "The Changing Geography of Violence in the North Caucasus of Russia, 1999-2011: Regional Trends and Local Dynamics in Dagestan, Ingushetia and Kabardino-Balkaria", Eurasian Geography and Economics 52, 5 (2011), 596-630.


J. O'Loughlin and F. Witmer. "The Localized Geographies of Violence in the North Caucasus of Russia, 1999-2007." Annals. Association of American Geographers. 101,1 (2011), 178-201.


J. O'Loughlin, G. Toal (G. O' Tuathail) and V. Kolossov "Inside Abkhazia: A survey of attitudes in a de facto state" Post-Soviet Affairs 27 , 1 (2011), 1-23.


J. O'Loughlin and E. Holland (eds) GEOGRAPHIES OF GLOBAL CHANGE. Revised edition. San Diego, CA: Cognella Publishers, 2010.


J. O'Loughlin and G. O'Tuathail (G. Toal). Republication of "Accounting for separatist sentiment in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the North Caucasus of Russia: A comparative analysis of survey responses." Ethnic and Racial Studies 32 (2009), 591-615 as a chapter in M. Bulmer and J. Solomos eds NATIONS AND NATIONAL IDENTITIES London: Routledge, 2011, Chapter 2.


J. O'Loughlin, P. Raento , J.D. Sidaway and P. Steinberg "Editorial: Academic re-territorializations: Gate- keeping, power, and responsibility". Political Geography 30 (2011), 1-3.


V. Kolossov and J. O'Loughlin "After the wars in the South Caucasus state of Georgia: Economic insecurities and migration in the 'de facto' states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia", Eurasian Geography and Economics 52, 5 (2011), 631-654.


Fred C. Pampel. 2011. "Cohort Change, Diffusion, and Support for Gender Egalitarianism in Cross-National Perspective" Demographic Research 25(21):667-694. doi:10.4054/DemRes.2011.25.21.


Fred C. Pampel. 2011. "Cohort Changes in the Sociodemographic Determinants of Gender Egalitarianism." Social Forces 89:961-982.


Fred C. Pampel. 2011. "Support for Nuclear Energy in the Context of Climate Change: Evidence from the European Union." Organization and Environment 24(3):249-268. doi:10.1177/1086026611422261


Fred C. Pampel and Justin T. Denney. 2011. "Cross-National Patterns of Health Inequality: Education and Tobacco Use in the World Health Survey." Demography 48:653-674.


Richard Miech, Fred Pampel, Jinyoung Kim, and Richard G. Rogers. "The Enduring Association between Education and Mortality: The Role of Widening and Narrowing Disparities." 2011. American Sociological Review 76 913-934.

Online Article

Abstract: This article examines how educational disparities in mortality emerge, grow, decline, and disappear across causes of death in the United States, and how these changes contribute to the enduring association between education and mortality over time. Focusing on adults age 40 to 64 years, we first examine the extent to which educational disparities in mortality persisted from 1989 to 2007. We then test the fundamental cause prediction that educational disparities in mortality persist, in part, by shifting to new health outcomes over time. We focus on the period from 1999 to 2007, when all causes of death were coded to the same classification system. Results indicate (1) substantial widening and narrowing of educational disparities in mortality across causes of death, (2) almost all causes of death with increasing mortality rates also had widening educational disparities, and (3) the total educational disparity in mortality would be about 25 percent smaller today if not for newly emergent and growing educational disparities since 1999. These results point to the theoretical and policy importance of identifying social forces that cause health disparities to widen over time.


Michael Zinser, Fred C. Pampel, and Estevan Flores. 2011. "Distinct Beliefs, Attitudes and Experiences of Latino Smokers: Relevance for Cessation Interventions." American Journal of Health Promotion 25:eS1.

Online Information


Michael L Radelet. "Death Sentencing in East Baton Rouge Parish, 1990-2008," LOUISIANA LAW REVIEW 71:647-73 (Glenn L. Pierce & MLR).


Michael L Radelet. "Race and Death Sentencing in North Carolina: 1980-2007," NORTH CAROLINA LAW REVIEW 89:2119-60 (2011) (MLR & Glenn L. Pierce).


Radelet, Michael L.. 2011. Review of David Garland, Peculiar Institution: America's Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY 116: 2031-33.


Radelet, Michael L.. 2011. Review of David T. Johnson and Franklin E. Zimring, The Next Frontier: National Development, Political Change, and the Death Penalty in Asia. ASIAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY 6:119-120.


Cunningham, S.A., Fernando Riosmena, J. Wang, J.P. Boyle, D.B. Rolka, and L.S. Geiss. 2011. "Decreases in diabetes-free life expectancy in the U.S. and the role of obesity". Diabetes Care, October 2011, 34:2225-2230.


Ritchie, L., K. Tierney, and B. Gilbert. (2011; in print in 2010). "Disaster Preparedness Among Community-Based Organizations in the City and County of San Francisco: Serving the Most Vulnerable." Pp. 3-39 in D. Miller and D. J. Rivera (eds.) Community Disaster Recovery and Resiliency: Exploring Global Opportunities and Challenges. Boca Raton: Aurbach/CRC/Taylor and Francis.


Ritchie, L. and K. Tierney. 2011. "Temporary Housing Planning and Early Implementation in The 12 January 2010 Haiti Earthquake." Earthquake Spectra 27, S1:S487-S507.


Rogers, Richard G., and Eileen M. Crimmins (editors). 2011. International Handbook of Adult Mortality. Pgs. 1-625. NY: Springer Publishers.


Rogers, Richard G., and Eileen M. Crimmins. 2011. "Conclusion." Pp. 609-12 in International Handbook of Adult Mortality, edited by Richard G. Rogers and Eileen M. Crimmins. NY: Springer Publishers.


Rogers, Richard G., and Eileen M. Crimmins. 2011. "Introduction." Pp. 1-6 in International Handbook of Adult Mortality, edited by Richard G. Rogers and Eileen M. Crimmins. NY: Springer Publishers.


Montez, Jennifer Karas, Robert A. Hummer, Mark D. Hayward, Hyeyoung Woo, and Richard G. Rogers. 2011. "Trends in the Educational Gradient of U.S. Adult Mortality from 1986 through 2006 by Race, Gender, and Age Group." Research on Aging 33(2):145-71.


Root, E.D. 2011. A Review of "A Companion to Health and Medical Geography". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101(2): 456-458.


Root, E.D. and M. Emch. 2011. "Regional Environmental Patterns of Diarrheal Disease in Bangladesh: A Spatial Analytical and Multilevel Approach" in Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health. S. McLafferty and J. Maantay (eds). New York: Springer-Verlag.


Root, E.D., S. Giebultowicz, M. Ali, M. Yunus and M. Emch. 2011. "The role of vaccine coverage among social networks in cholera vaccine efficacy". PLoS ONE 6(7): e22971.


Root, E.D., R. Meyer and M. Emch. 2011. "Socioeconomic Context and Gastroschisis: Exploring Associations at Various Geographic Scales". Social Science and Medicine 72(4): 625-633.


Schatz, Enid, Sangeetha Madhavan, and Jill Williams. 2011. "Female-headed households contending with HIV/AIDS-related hardship in rural South Africa." Health & Place, 17: 598-605. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.12.017.

Online Article

Abstract: Mainstream research and the popular media often equate female-headship with household vulnerability, crisis, and disorganization. Epidemic levels of HIV/AIDS in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa compound this portrait of hopelessness. In South Africa, the impact of HIV/AIDS on households depends on race, class, and place. As female-headed households increase in number, we need to better understand how female-heads in poor rural areas contend with AIDS related challenges. We analyze qualitative interviews with 16 female heads and the members of their households in a rural community to examine the response to AIDS-related illness, death, or caring for orphaned children. Our analysis examines female-heads' financial and social resources and how these resources buffer against hardship in households affected by AIDS. We find considerable heterogeneity among rural female-headed households and their access to resources to combat AIDS-related hardship. Our findings have important policy implications both in terms of identifying individual and household vulnerabilities as well as leveraging the potential for resilience for female-heads in rural South African communities.


Schatz, Enid and Sangeetha Madhavan. 2011. "Headship of older persons in the context of HIV/AIDS in rural South Africa." Journal of African Population Studies, 25(2): 440-456.


Sennott, Christie and Stefanie Mollborn. 2011. "College-Bound Teens' Decisions About the Transition to Sex: Negotiating Competing Norms." Advances in Life Course Research 16:83-97.


Logan, J., Spielman, S.E., Klein, P. Identifying Ethnic Neighborhoods. Urban Geography, 32(3).


Tir, Jaroslav and Douglas M. Stinnett. 2011. "The Institutional Design Of Riparian Treaties: The Role Of River Issues." Journal of Conflict Resolution 55(4): 606-631.

Online Article

Abstract: International agreements governing rivers vary considerably in whether they contain institutional provisions for joint monitoring, conflict resolution, enforcement, and/or the delegation of authority to intergovernmental organizations. This article develops an explanation for why some river management treaties include more institutional provisions while others contain fewer, if any. The authors argue that certain types of issues related to river use—water quantity, water quality, and navigation—tend to be difficult to manage and prone to noncompliance. When forming treaties to address these specific issues, states will be more likely to include institutional provisions. The authors test the link between these river use issues and institutional design using a data set of 315 river treaties signed since 1950. The results show that highly contentious issues—and in particular water quantity and navigation—have a greater effect on the institutional design of river treaties than contextual and power politics factors.


Witmer, F.D. and J. O'Loughlin. "Detecting the effects of wars in the Caucasus regions of Russia and Georgia using radiometrically normalized DMSP-OLS nighttime lights imagery." GIScience and Remote Sensing 48 (4), 2011, 478-500.