Institution Program Publications (2010 and earlier)
Greenberg, Edward S., Leon Grunberg, Sarah Moore, and Pat Sikora. Turbulence: Boeing and the State of American Workers and Managers. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 2010.
Abstract: This timely book investigates the experiences of employees at all levels of Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA) during a ten-year period of dramatic organizational change. As Boeing transformed itself, workers and managers contended with repeated downsizing, shifting corporate culture, new roles for women, outsourcing, mergers, lean production, and rampant technological change. Drawing on a unique blend of quantitative and qualitative research, the authors consider how management strategies affected the well-being of Boeing employees, as well as their attitudes toward their jobs and their company. Boeing employees' experience holds vital lessons for other employees, the leaders of other firms determined to thrive in today's era of inescapable and growing global competition, as well as public officials concerned about the well-being of American workers and companies.
Baker, Andy. The Market and the Masses in Latin America: Policy Reform and Consumption in Liberalizing Economies. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics Series. Robert H. Bates, Stephen Hanson, Torben Iversen, Stathis Kalyvas, Peter Lange, Margaret Levi, Helen Milner, Frances Rosenbluth, Susan Stokes, Sidney Tarrow, Eds. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Abstract: What do ordinary citizens in developing countries think about free markets? Conventional wisdom views globalization as an imposition on unwilling workers in developing nations, concluding that the recent rise of the Latin American left constitutes a popular backlash against the market. Andy Baker marshals public opinion data from eighteen Latin American countries to show that most of the region's citizens are enthusiastic about globalization because it has lowered the prices of many consumer goods and services while improving their variety and quality. Among recent free-market reforms, only privatization has caused pervasive discontent because it has raised prices for services like electricity and telecommunications. Citizens' sharp awareness of these consumer consequences informs Baker's argument that a new political economy of consumption has replaced a previously dominant politics of labour and class in Latin America. Baker's research clarifies the sources of voters' connection to new left-wing parties and helps account for their leaders' moderation and nuanced approach to economic policy, embracing globalization while stalling or reversing privatization.
* Analyses new and rarely used survey data from eighteen Latin American countries over a two-decade span * Addresses topics including economics and impact of globalization, the rise of left-of-centre presidents in Latin America, the degree to which politicians can shape public opinion, and the relevance of social class to political cleavages in Latin America * Develops a new political economy theory of the role of consumer interests in shaping economic policy preferences and political cleavages.
Bair, Jennifer, ed. Frontiers of Commodity Chain Research. Stanford University Press, 2009. 296 pp.
Abstract: Extending the frontiers of commodity chain research, this distinctive volume includes original work from major figures in sociology, history, geography, and labor studies. It underscores the wide and interdisciplinary appeal of chain approaches for analyzing the economic, social, and political dimensions of international trade and production networks. Commodity chain analysis sheds light on the political and ecological implications of economic globalization and on how activists in pursuit of social justice, workers' rights, and environmental protection can use it. Following a substantive review of literature in the field, the collection goes on to examine theoretical and methodological debates over how to conduct research on global commodity and value chains, how power is exercised through these chains, and how global economic activities are coordinated across space. The result is a rich and unusually coherent volume that demonstrates how commodity and value chain analysis is informing contemporary research in a variety of fields.
Kim, Moonhawk. "Costly Procedures: Divergent Effects of Legalization in the GATT/ WTO Dispute Settlement Procedures". International Studies Quarterly. 52, no 3 (2008): 657-686.
Abstract: Increasing legalization of international institutions has divergent effects on member countries. Whereas legalization decreases uncertainty and increases convergence of countries' expectations on international outcomes, it imposes costs on countries by increasing the complexity and difficulty of procedures for them to utilize. Countries with the administrative capacity to follow elaborate procedures reap the benefits of increased legalization. For countries without such capacity-primarily developing countries-the potential benefits are offset by their difficulty in following the procedures. I examine this argument against the institutional changes in dispute settlement procedures that occurred in the transition from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Compared to the GATT era, developed countries-ones with greater capacity-are much more likely to utilize dispute settlement in the WTO than developing countries. Gains from the institutional changes in dispute settlement procedures have accrued to benefit mostly developed member countries in the WTO.
Kim, Moonhawk. "Spillovers and Contestations in International Governance: Addressing the Problems of Democracy, Accountability and Legitimacy in International Organizations". SAIS Review, 28, no. 2 (2008): 141-153.
Abstract: Actors ranging from activists and scholars to policy-makers and politicians claim that many international organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), suffer from a democratic deficit, lack of accountability, and illegitimacy. This article argues that these contestations have increased because of rising interdependence and the constrained structure of international governance. High interdependence generates policy spillover effects, but international organizations-arranged in discrete policy domains-lack the ability to make tradeoffs necessary to contain the spillovers. Popular mobilization against these organizations results when actors adversely affected by the spillovers are left out of the policymaking process. Based on this explanation of the phenomena, the article generates several policy options that the United States can pursue to restore stability and effectiveness to the international governance system.
Gibbon, Peter, Jennifer Bair, and Stefano Ponte. "Governing global value chains: an introduction." Economy and Society 37, no 3 (2008):315-338.
Abstract: This introductory paper to the special issue on governing global value chains (GVCs) focuses on the concept of governance as the dimension of GVCs that has received the most theoretical and empirical attention to date. After a brief introduction of the GVC concept in relation to the literature on economic globalization, we review the three main interpretations of GVC governance that have been advanced: governance as driving, governance as coordination and governance as normalization. After summaries of the four subsequent papers (by Bair, Gibbon and Ponte, Milberg, and Palpacuer), the authors offer reflections on the current state of development of GVC analysis. The unevenness and theoretical eclecticism of the GVC literature to date, particularly but not only with regard to the understanding of governance, poses the question of whether it is possible to reconcile the different approaches within a unified paradigm. If not, then GVC analysis is better understood as a methodological approach that can be mobilized within various theoretical perspectives.
Bair, Jennifer. "Analyzing economic organization: Embedded networks and global chains compared." Economy and Society 37, no 3 (2008):339-364.
Abstract: This article analyses the network epistemologies that underlie several frameworks for studying global economic organization. Specifically, the embedded network of the new economic sociology is compared with various global chain constructs that seek to emphasize the connectedness of actors and activities across space. I argue that the micro-sociological foundations of the new economic sociology make embeddedness a problematic concept for analysing economic organization at a global level. I then contrast the embedded network as a trust-based governance structure with the construct of the global commodity chain, which understands network governance in terms of power relations or 'drivenness'. Finally, I explain how the recent theory of global value chain governance by Gereffi, Humphrey and Sturgeon (2005) departs from the macro-sociological tradition that oriented earlier chain frameworks: this theory, which focuses on the coordination of inter-firm dyads in a global value chain, returns to a micro-oriented understanding of governance, but one that draws more from transaction cost theory than from the new economic sociology.
Galina An, Keith E. Maskus, and Thitima Puttitanun. "Duration of Rent Extraction and the Entry Mode Decision by Multinational Enterprises". Review of Development Economics 12, no. 4 (2008): 861-876.
Abstract: The prior literature is ambiguous about the effects of stronger intellectual property rights (IPR) on the choice of a multinational firm's mode of entry into foreign markets. However, available indexes of IPR protection exist only at the country level and do not identify interindustry variation in the ability to extract rents through exclusive rights and other factors. The authors introduce this dimension and compute a parameter that reflects the relative length of time that positive profits may be earned in various industries. Estimation results find that strengthening IPR would reduce exporting in all industries in the sample. However, it would raise (reduce) foreign direct investment, relative to licensing, in industries with shorter (longer) rent-extraction times.
Gnanaraj Chellaraj, Keith E. Maskus, and Aaditya Mattoo. "The Contribution of International Graduate Students to US Innovation". Review of International Economics 16, no. 3 (2008): 444-462.
Abstract: The impact of international students in the United States on innovative activity is estimated using a model of idea generation. Results indicate that the presence of foreign graduate students has a significant and positive impact on both future patent applications and future patents awarded to university and non-university institutions. Our central estimates suggest that a 10% increase in the number of foreign graduate students would raise patent applications by 4.5%, university patent grants by 6.8% and non-university patent grants by 5.0%. Thus, reductions in foreign graduate students from visa restrictions could significantly reduce US innovative activity. Increases in skilled immigration also have a positive, but smaller, impact on patenting.
Grunberg, L., Moore, S., Sikora, P., & Greenberg, E. "The changing workplace and its effects: Employee attitudinal and behavioral responses over time at a large American company." Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 44, no. 2 (2008): 215-236.
Abstract: The present study explores the multiple ways employees are affected by pervasive and complex organizational change. Across a 10-year period, the authors surveyed 525 white- and blue-collar workers on four separate occasions during which time the company experienced, for example, a difficult financial period, several large downsizing events, the implementation of new technologies, and a move toward a "flatter" managerial structure. At Time 4, shortly after the organization experienced a substantial economic turnaround, the authors found that most but not all of the job and organizational attitudes returned to Time 1 levels. Many of the measures of health and various indices of the work-family relationship however showed both positive and negative lasting effects. These findings are discussed in light of current thinking regarding worker engagement and the psychological contract between workers and organizations.
Sikora, Patricia, Sarah Moore, Edward Greenberg, and Leon Grunberg. "Downsizing and alcohol use: A cross-lagged longitudinal examination of the spillover hypothesis". Work & Stress 22, no. 1 (2008): 51-68.
Abstract: An area of concern for investigators and practitioners is the possible linkage between stressful workplace events and alcohol use and abuse; however, work in this area, specifically testing a "spillover hypothesis," offers inconclusive evidence of a relationship between many work-based stressors and alcohol use. Using a three-wave panel sample (N=455) from a large US industrial firm that has undergone numerous downsizing events in the last decade, four alternative causal hypotheses using fully cross-lagged three-wave mediational latent factor models were compared via structural equation modelling. Separate models were analysed for layoff experience and job security perceptions; a motivational factor, escape reasons for drinking, was included in each model. We found large autoregressive effects for problem alcohol use in the stability models. One reason for weak support for spillover models may be that problem alcohol use is more stable over time than previously theorized. All alternative causal models fit the data well; however, the only model comparisons showing significant improvement over the stability models were those including reverse paths. Reverse causal models should be explicitly considered when examining the link between alcohol problems and the workplace. We suggest that, for some workers, problematic alcohol use may be antecedent to, rather than a consequence of, stressful workplace experiences.
Greenberg, Edward S. "Spillovers From Cooperative and Democratic Workplaces: Have the Benefits Been Oversold?" In Cooperation: The Political Psychology of Effective Human Interaction. Edited by Brandon A. Sullivan, Mark Snyder, and John L. Sullivan, 219-239. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2008.
Mayer, Tom. "The Transformation of American Political Space 1982-2002." The Journal of Mathematical Sociology 32, no. 1 (2008): 1-56.
Abstract: The range of acceptable positions about important political issues defines the political space of society. This article presents a model of how political space is transformed over time based upon linear differential equations. Constructable transformations of political space are ones that can be modeled by such equations and thus can result from gradual evolutionary change. A constructable transformation also preserves the distinctness of political positions, which means that distinct political positions remain different throughout the process of change. Non-constructable transformations, on the other hand, cannot be represented in this way because they embody political discontinuities of some kind. A simple typology of constructable transformations is discussed and illustrated. Methods of estimating the political space transformation model are outlined and applied to General Social Survey data for 1982, 1993, and 2002. This leads to an analysis of how American political space transformed from 1982 to 1993 and then from 1993 to 2002. The former transformation proves to be constructable while the latter is not, probably due to the effects of 9/11. The 1982-1993 period witnessed a tentative simplification of American political space featuring some left-right polarization. The 1993-2002 period is characterized by a conservatizing transformation of American political space which, the analysis suggests, could result from the attacks of 9/11.
Moore, S., Sikora, P. Grunberg, L., & Greenberg, E. "Managerial Women and the Work-Home Interface: Does Age of Child Matter?" Women in Management Review 22 no. 7 (2007): 568-587.
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether empirical support exists for two commonly held beliefs about the work-home interface: women, and particularly managerial women, are prone to "super-mother" or "super-manage" in an effort to balance both career and child-rearing, and these demands diminish markedly when children reach school age. Design/methodology/approach: Via a survey mailed to their home, 1,103 managerial and non-managerial men and women completed measures of work-home and home-work conflict, work-related stress and strain, and reported their number of work, domestic, and leisure hours per week. Findings: Somewhat consistent with the popular beliefs, the authors found that managerial women reported working significantly more in the home; measures of conflict and strain, however, while showing some effect were not impacted to the degree that managerial women's combined number of work and home hours per week might suggest. The authors also found that measures of hours, conflict, and strain did not diminish abruptly when children entered school, due perhaps in part to manager's increased work hours and managerial women's renewed work emphasis when children entered school. Measures of hours, conflict, and strain did show some reduction for parents of teenaged children, although they were still significantly higher than those of nonparents. Originality/value: Aside from being one of the few empirical papers to examine the impact of child rearing on managerial women, our data show how these demands are not confined to working parents of preschoolers.
Moore, S., Grunberg, L., Greenberg, E., & Sikora, P. "Type of Job Loss and its Impact on Decision Control, Mastery, and Depression: Comparison of Employee and Company-Stated Reasons." Current Psychology 26, no. 2 (2007): 71-85.
Abstract: In the present study, we explore agreement between company versus self-reported reasons for job loss and the degree of perceived control employees report over the job loss, looking to see if either job loss type or perceived control is related to subsequent levels of mastery and depression. Two thousand two hundred seventy-nine of 3,700 (61%) employees responded to a survey at Time One; of these participants, 310 later lost their jobs and were mailed a Time Two survey. Comparison of self- versus company-reported reasons for the job loss from the 171 usable surveys (55% response rate) revealed relatively good agreement. Roughly one third of the former employees, however, categorized the job loss in more than one way. There was also a very strong tendency for employees to report that they had very high control over the decision to leave the company, and nearly all employees reported improvements to their levels of mastery and depression; exceptions to this pattern were observed for those losing their jobs due to "rule violation" or "involuntary layoff." Control over the job loss was related to Time Two levels of mastery and depression, but only weakly related to changes in these outcomes moving from Time One to Time Two.
Moore, Sarah, Patricia Sikora, Leon Grunberg, and Edward S. Greenberg. "Work Stress and Alcohol Use: Examining the Tension-Reduction Model as a Function of Worker's Parent's Alcohol Use." Addictive Behaviors 32, no. 12 (2007): 3114-3121.
Abstract: In an effort to identify groups who may be more vulnerable to tension-reduction drinking [Frone, M. (2003). Predictors of overall and on-the-job substance use among young workers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8, 39-54.], we examine whether drinking alcohol in response to work stress varies as a function of whether workers were raised in homes where (a) both parents abstained from alcohol, (b) at least one parent drank nonproblematically, (c) at least one parent drank problematically, or (d) both parents drank problematically. Employees participating in a large, longitudinal study who reported using alcohol in the previous year (N=895) completed various measures of work stressors, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. We found few mean group differences for either the work stressor or alcohol measures, but we did find a greater number of significant and moderate correlations between work stressors and alcohol for those reporting that both parents drank alcohol problematically. Interestingly, a number of significant correlations were found for those reporting that both parents abstained from alcohol; few were found for the two groups reporting that at least one parent drank with or without alcohol problems. Results are interpreted in light of where and how alcohol expectancies and other coping methods are learned.
O'Loughlin, John, Frank Witmer, Thomas Dickinson, Nancy Thorwardson, and Edward Holland. "Preface to the Special Issue and Map Supplement." Eurasian Geography and Economics 48, no. 2 (March-April 2007): 127-134.
O'Loughlin, John, Vladimir Kolossov, and Jean Radvanyi. "The Caucasus in a Time of Conflict, Demographic Transition, and Economic Change. Eurasian Geography and Economics 48, no. 2 (March-April 2007): 135-156.
Abstract: The authors examine contemporary economic, social, demographic, and political developments in the Caucasus in light of their historical contexts. They emphasize the need to look beyond simple ethnic categories to understand the nature of local tensions and also propose that the profound nature of the post-Soviet upheavals has uprooted long-standing practices. The paper covers physical diversity, historical and administrative geopolitics, Stalinist deportations in the 1940s, and post-Soviet demographic and economic developments. An introduction to each of the five papers comprising the special issue follows the regional overview.
Vendina, Olga, Vitaliy Belozerov, and Andrew Gustafson. "The Wars in Chechnya and Their Effects on Neighboring Regions." Eurasian Geography and Economics 48, no. 2 (March-April 2007): 178-201.
Abstract: A team of Russia- and U.S.-based geographers presents and discusses the economic and demographic consequences of the conflicts in Chechnya on that republic, on the neighboring ethnic republics of the North Caucasus, as well as on the adjoining region of Stavropol' with a majority of Russian inhabitants. Formal economic indicators, which generally exhibit negative trends since 1991, are contrasted with the large, diverse shadow economy that tends to absorb federal development funding diverted from the formal sector to the benefit for local elites. The authors explore the extent to which economic activity once based in Chechnya is dispersed to contiguous regions, discuss changes in the ethnic composition of the republics ("de-Russification"), and consider whether Chechnya and the adjoining republics will ever regain the close economic, political, and social ties with Russia that prevailed during the Soviet period.
Eldarov, Eldar, Edward C. Holland, Sharafudin M. Aliyev, Zaid M. Abdulagatov, and Zagir V. Atayev. "Resettlement and Migration in Post-Soviet Dagestan." Eurasian Geography and Economics 48, no. 2 (March-April 2007): 226-248.
Abstract: The authors investigate migratory patterns in the North Caucasian republic of Dagestan. It relies on prior literature, both in Russian and English, to establish the basic form of migration in the republic and recent census data to describe these patterns. The authors then analyze responses from a December 2005 survey of Dagestani residents about their migration intentions to investigate the motivations underlying these patterns. The authors investigate the extent to which economic incentives vis-a-vis other traditional assumptions associated with migration theory maintain in the case of Dagestan, and explores the impact of migration on interethnic relations in the republic.
O'Loughlin, John, Alexander Panin, and Frank Witmer. "Population Change and Migration in Stravropol' Kray: The Effects of Regional Conflicts and Economic Restructuring." Eurasian Geography and Economics 48, no. 2 (March-April 2007): 249-267.
Abstract: The paper, by a team headed by a noted American political geographer, examines major changes in population composition and migration structure in Stavropol' Kray since the collapse of the Soviet Union. In addition to documenting increased rural- to urban-migration, the authors explore impacts on the kray of nearby conflicts in ethnic republics of the North Caucasus and in Transcaucasia, particularly the shift in ethnic composition of rural rayons in eastern Stavropol' (from Russian to non-Russian populations) and migration of Armenians and Russians to cities in western Stavropol'. Responses to a December 2005 survey (conducted by the authors) on past and possible future moves are presented together with an assessment of factors underlying the decision to move (mostly economic), as mediated by age, economic status, and gender. Also included is a detailed account of shifts in a typical rayon (Krasnogvardeyskiy-the birthplace of Mikhail Gorbachev) revealing trends that bode ill for service provision and a turnaround in negative population trends.
Moore, Sarah, Patricia Sikora, Leon Grunberg, and Edward S. Greenberg. "Expanding the Tension-Reduction Model of Work Stress and Alcohol Use: Comparison of Managerial and Nonmanagerial Men and Women." Journal of Management Studies 44, no. 2 (2007): 261 - 283.
Abstract: The tension-reduction model that links workplace stress to alcohol use and problems has received mixed support in previous investigations. Following recommendations that this model include moderated mediated relationships (Frone, 1999) using more specific forms of workplace stress, we examine the impact of gender ratio, generalized workplace abuse, and stereotype threat in an effort to predict alcohol use and problems particularly for managerial women. A total of 1410 (57 per cent response rate) employees completed a survey containing items on job stress, escapist reasons for drinking, and alcohol consumption and problems, and SEM analyses were conducted separately for managerial and non-managerial men and women. Results revealed that: (a) these three workplace stressors were differentially related to general workplace stress for the four groups; and (b) the contributions of the three stressors and of general work stress to the alcohol-related variables varied by group.
Leblang, David and William Bernhard. Democratic Processes and Financial Markets: Pricing Politics. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Mukherjee, Bumba and Leblang, David. "Minority Governments and Exchange Rate Regimes: Examining Evidence from 21 OECD Countries, 1975-1999." European Union Politics 7, no. 4 (2006):450-476.
Abstract: We examine the impact of minority governments on the choice of exchange rate regime in advanced OECD democracies after the collapse of the Bretton Woods system. We demonstrate that leaders of minority governments had a lower political discount factor in office than majority governments across advanced OECD democracies and use that finding to motivate a model. The model predicts that leaders of minority governments had strong incentives to switch from a fixed to a floating exchange rate because of a lower discount factor in office. Results from Markov transition models estimated on de facto exchange rates adopted by OECD and West European OECD countries between 1975 and 1999 provide robust statistical support for the model's prediction. We also briefly discuss how the findings presented in this paper have important implications for understanding the likelihood of expansion of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) to new democracies in Central and Eastern Europe in the near future.
Leblang, David and William Bernhard. "Parliamentary Politics and Foreign Exchange Markets: The World According to GARCH." International Studies Quarterly 50, no. 1 (2006):69-92.
Abstract: We investigate the impact of parliamentary political processes on exchange rate volatility. During periods of potential political change, currency traders have less certainty about the future of government policy. Consequently, these periods will be associated with higher volatility-a measure of the predictability of exchange rate movements. We estimate a series of fractionally integrated exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity models on four currencies using daily data: the British pound, the French franc, the Belgian franc, and the Swedish krona. The results indicate that, while political events often increased exchange rate volatility, participation in the European Monetary System helped stabilize the level of the exchange rate and reduce volatility.
Bernhard, William and David Leblang. "Polls and Pounds: Public Opinion and Exchange Rate Behavior in Britain." Quarterly Journal of Political Science 1, no. 1 (2006): 25-47.
Abstract: This article examines the relationship between government popularity and exchange rate movements in Britain since 1987. It argues that: (1) unexpected drops in the government's public support lead to currency depreciations and increased exchange rate volatility, and (2) unanticipated depreciations hurt the government's public support. It estimates separate models of the exchange rate and government voting intention iteratively and recursively. At each iteration, measures of exchange rate and public opinion shocks are generated. These generated variables are employed in the next iteration of estimates, including measures of political shocks in the model of exchange rate behavior and measures of exchange rate movements in the model of voting intention. This enables, therefore, the measurement of both the political costs of currency depreciation and the exchange rate consequences of political competition.
Leblang, David and Shanker Satyanath. "Institutions, Expectations and Currency Crises." International Organization 60, no. 1 (2006):254-262.
Abstract: Currency crises are costly phenomena that have been exceptionally difficult to explain and predict. We comprehensively examine the relationship between political institutions and currency crises and emphasize the causal linkage between institutions, expectations, and crises. Specifically, we argue that institutional variables-particularly divided government and government turnover-increase the variance of expectations held by speculators thereby increasing the likelihood of currency crises. We test these hypotheses using three existing economic models of currency crises and find that institutional variables are not only statistically significant, but also substantially improve the ability of these models to forecast crises.
Leblang, David and E. Scott Adler. "Legislative Bargaining and the Macro-Economy." In The Macropolitics of Congress, edited by E. Scott Adler & John S. Lipinski. Princeton University Press, 2006.
Mayer, Thomas.. Review of "Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution" by Gerard Dumenil and Dominique Levy. Critical Sociology, 32, no. 4, (2006): 723-726.
Mayer, Thomas.. Review of "Naming the System: Inequality and Work in the Global Economy" by Michael D Yates. Cultural Logic, 2006.
Scarritt, James R.. "The Strategic Choice of Multiethnic Parties in Zambia's Dominant and Personalist Party System." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 44, no. 2 (2006):234-256.
Abstract: In Zambia, ethnopolitical mobilization is ubiquitous in competitive electoral politics. Mobilisation history, focused on national leadership and guided by the nationalist and power and status-seeking values of political leaders, has interacted with ethnopolitical group morphology and presidential and plurality institutions to structure political actors' strategic choices to favour broad multiethnic parties. This militates against the emergence and undermines the sustainability of ethnic parties that rely overwhelmingly on one group for support. The political downfall of the one leader who assembled an initially successful minimum winning coalition reinforced these factors in encouraging parties to seek more inclusive multiethnic support.
Moore, S., Grunberg, L., & Greenberg, E. "Surviving repeated waves of organizational downsizing: The recency, duration, and order effects associated with different forms of layoff contact." Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 19, no. 3 (2006): 309-329.
Abstract: In this paper we examine: (1) recency and duration effects of layoff contact; and (2) the order effects associated with different types of layoff contact experiences. Workers employed by a large company engaged in repeated waves of downsizing completed questionnaires in 1997, 1999, and 2003. Using data only from workers who experienced indirect or direct layoff contact at each time period ( N =460), we found some evidence that recent direct experiences were associated with significant group differences for intent to quit and depression. There was also some evidence to suggest that a single direct layoff experience still affected workers' levels of job security, even when this experience occurred some 6 years prior to the Time 3 measurement. The largest within-group changes in scores over time were typically found among workers experiencing an indirect experience followed by a direct experience, suggesting that the order of events impacted worker job security, intent to quit, and depression. For workers experiencing back-to-back direct downsizing, the rate of decline slowed for depression. These findings are examined in light of the stress vulnerability and resiliency hypotheses.
Grunberg, Leon, Sarah Moore, and Edward S. Greenberg. "Managers' reactions to implementing layoffs: Relationship to health problems and withdrawal behaviors." Human Resource Management, 45, no. 2 (2006):159-178.
Abstract: In the present study, we investigate several outcome differences among 410 managers who either had or had not implemented layoffs (i.e., handing out warn notices) during one or more years between 2000 and 2003. Using survey data, our findings show that issuing warn notices significantly predicts increased self-reported health problems, seeking treatment for those health problems, sleep problems, feelings of depersonalization, and intent to quit. Emotional exhaustion fully mediates the relationship between issuing warn notices and health problems, depersonalization, and intent to quit, whereas it partially mediates the relationship to seeking treatment and sleep problems. A similar pattern was found for the mediating variable of job security.
O'Loughlin, John, Gearoid O Tuathail, and Vladimir Kolossov. "The Geopolitical Orientations of Ordinary Russians: A Public Opinion Analysis." Eurasian Geography and Economics 47, no. 2 (2006): 129-152.
Abstract: The authors examine some of the classic ideas of geopolitical analysis using a recent survey of Russian public opinion. Problematizing prevailing assumptions and binaries in geopolitical discourse, they pose a series of questions that provide measures of Russia's geopolitical orientations. Do more Russians think of their country as European or Eurasianist? If the United States is judged the most important state for Russian foreign policy, what country do most respondents view as the most appropriate model for Russia? Logit modeling of the ranking of state importance and preferences of countries as models for Russia show consistent and clear relationships with cleavages in Russian society along socio-demographic and ideological lines.
Toal, G. (G. O Tuathail), John O'Loughlin and D. Djipa. "Bosnia-Herzegovina Ten Years after Dayton: Constitutional Change and Public Opinion". Eurasian Geography and Economics 47, no. 1 (2006): 61-75.
Abstract: Two American-based political geographers and the head of a Bosnian public opinion research organization present and discuss the results of public opinion polls related to the tenth anniversary of the Dayton Peace Accords. The paper reviews talks between Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH) and the European Union (EU) aimed at signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement that should pave the way for eventual membership of BiH in the EU, a process that would stimulate reform of BiH's notoriously complex governance structure. The most recent constitutional change proposals are reviewed, and results of public opinion surveys (N = 614-2000 in late 2005) on constitutional change, reform of the governance structure of BiH state, and the Dayton Peace Accords after ten years are presented and discussed.
O'Loughlin, John and C. Raleigh. "The Spatial Analysis of Civil War Violence" in A Handbook of Political Geography, edited by K. Cox, M. Low and J. Robinson. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.
Konan, Denise Eby and Keith E. Maskus. "Quantifying the Impact of Services Liberalization in a Developing Country." Journal of Development Economics 81, no. 1 (October 2006): 142-162.
Abstract: We compare goods versus services liberalization in terms of welfare, outputs, and factor prices in Tunisia using a CGE model with multiple products, services and trading partners. Restraints on services trade involve both cross-border supply (tariff-equivalent price wedges) and on foreign ownership (monopoly-rent distortions and inefficiency costs). Goods-trade liberalization yields a modest gain in aggregate welfare. Reducing service barriers generate relatively large welfare gains and low adjustment costs. Services liberalization increases economic activity in all sectors and raise the real returns to both capital and labor. The results point to the potential importance of deregulating services provision for economic development.
Maskus, Keith E. "Assessing coherence of the intellectual property rights regime in China." Indian Journal of Economics and Business, Special Issue: China and India (2006): 175-187.
Abstract: In this article I discuss China's recent and ongoing legislative reforms in intellectual property rights (IPRs). These reforms combine to achieve a legal framework for protecting intellectual property that is comparable to that in most developed nations. However, there are structural impediments to the effective use of IPRs arising from weaknesses in China's administration and enforcement policies. At present these difficulties raise significant costs for both foreign and domestic enterprises, largely offsetting any stimulus from legal reforms. I also consider the coherence of China's emerging IPRs regime, in conjunction with other development policies, for promoting both innovation and key social objectives.
Maskus, Keith E. "Intellectual Property Rights in Agriculture and Interests of Asian-Pacific Economies." The World Economy 29, no. 6 (June 2006): 715-742.
Abstract: This paper describes recent and ongoing processes of technological change in agriculture, which has become a highly R&D-intensive sector in many countries of the Asia-Pacific region. It also considers the role of various forms of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in promoting such technological changes and in affecting their diffusion through the region. A central part of the discussion is a review of how these various IPRs operate and are protected in major economies of the region. There is an assessment of the economic interests of key countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, China, Japan and the Republic of Korea, in global and regional policy evolution in agricultural IPRs. These interests are a mix of comparative advantage in farming, which is quite distinctive among these countries, and the technological basis of production, which is more convergent. A review of available measures of innovation in the region suggests that all of these economies are active in developing new agricultural technologies, although there is considerable specialisation in the types of processes developed. Given this mix of divergence in comparative costs and convergence in technology interests, it is difficult to describe sharply the preferences these economies may have in continued globalisation of agricultural IPRs. However, the analysis points to some areas in which countries may continue to specialise - thereby retaining the ability to remain in specific areas of farming - and other fields in which international collaboration may be sensible.
Li, Changying and Keith E. Maskus. "The Impact of Parallel Imports on Cost-Reducing Research and Development." Journal of International Economics 68, no. 2 (March 2006): 443-455.
Abstract: We develop a two-country model of endogenous investment in process innovation by a manufacturer facing competition from parallel imports (PI). We find that the distortions associated with PI inhibit innovation. However, the difference between the manufacturer's expected profits under successful and failed innovation is U-shaped in the cost of engaging in PI. Thus, the reduction in R&D investment depends on both legality of PI and transport costs. The reduction in innovation could harm global welfare, depending on whether the manufacturer was deterring PI with a high wholesale price. If so, banning such trade would raise expected welfare.
Barton, John H. and Keith E. Maskus. "Economic Perspectives on a Multilateral Agreement on Open Access to Basic Science and Technology." In Economic Development and Multilateral Trade Cooperation, edited by Simon J. Evenett and Bernard M. Hoekman, 349-368. Palgrave/MacMillan and World Bank, 2006.
Maskus, Keith E. "Intellectual Property Rights in the U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement." In The Free Trade Agreement between Colombia and the United States, edited by Jeffrey J. Schott, 145-165. Institute for International Economics: Washington, DC, 2006.
Maskus, Keith E. "Canadian Patent Policy in the North American Context." In Intellectual Property and Innovation in the Knowledge-Based Economy, edited by Jonathan Putnam, 11(1)-11(38). Industry Canada: Ottawa, 2006.
Chellaraj, Gnanaraj, Keith E. Maskus, and Aaditya Mattoo. "Skilled Immigrants, Higher Education, and U.S. Innovation." In International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain, edited by Caglar Ozden and Maurice Schiff, 245-260. The World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan: Washington DC, 2006.
Fink, Carsten and Keith E. Maskus. "The Debate on Geographical Indications at the WTO." In Trade, Doha, and Development: A Window into the Issues, edited by R. Newfarmer, Chapter 16, 197-207. The World Bank: Washington DC, 2006.
Bento, Antonio M., Maureen L. Cropper, Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak, and Katja Vinha. "The Effects of Urban Spatial Structure on Travel Demand in the United States." The Review of Economics and Statistics 87, no. 3 (2005):466-478.
Abstract: We examine the effects of urban form and public transit supply on the commute mode choices and annual vehicle miles traveled (VMTs) of households living in 114 urban areas in 1990. The probability of driving to work is lower the higher are population centrality and rail miles supplied and the lower is road density. Population centrality, jobs-housing balance, city shape, and road density have a significant effect on annual household VMTs. Although individual elasticities are small absolute values (?0.10), moving sample households from a city with the characteristics of Atlanta to a city with the characteristics of Boston reduces annual VMTs by 25%.
Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq. "Democracy, Volatility, and Economic Development." The Review of Economics and Statistics 87, no. 2 (2005):348-361.
Abstract: Growth stability is an important objective-because development requires sustained increases in income, because volatility is costly for the poor, and because volatility deters growth. We study the determinants of average growth and its volatility as a two-equation system, and find that higher levels of democracy and diversification lower volatility, whereas volatility itself reduces growth. Muslim countries instrument for democracy, and measures of diversification identify volatility. In contrast to the lack of consensus on the democracy-growth relationship, the democracy-stability link is robust. Rather than focus on growth, this paper forges an alternative link between democracy and development through the volatility channel.
O'Loughlin, John, Gearoid O Tuathail and Vladimir Kolossov. "Russian geopolitical culture and public opinion: the masks of Proteus revisited." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 30, no. 3 (September 2005):322-335.
Abstract: In this paper, we build on the work of Graham Smith, who was developing a critical geopolitics of Russia in his posthumous paper of 1999, published in this journal. Like Smith, we link the evolving geopolitical orientations of Russia to the search for a post-Soviet identity amongst its citizens and its political leadership. While Smith saw a core concept in Russian geopolitics having Protean masks, it is the leadership of the Russian state, specifically President Putin, who has successfully adopted a Protean strategy to appeal to the disparate elements of the Russian geopolitical spectrum. Based on a nationwide survey in spring 2002, we identify six clusters in Russian public opinion by socio-demographic characteristics and we connect each cluster to the main geopolitical orientations competing in contemporary Russia, including democratic statism and the increasingly marginalized Eurasianism that formed the core subject of Smith's paper.
Secor, Anna and John O'Loughlin. "Social and political trust in Istanbul and Moscow: a comparative analysis of individual and neighbourhood effects." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 30, no. 1 (March 2005):50-66.
Abstract: Aiming to bring local context into studies of social capital, our study uses samples of 4006 individuals in Istanbul and 3476 in Moscow using a comparable questionnaire. The stratification of each city's neighbourhoods on the basis of socio-economic characteristics provided the basis for the sampling. Using a multilevel modelling procedure, we show both that locality matters (neighbourhood effect proved significant) and that social capital may indeed be constituted in very particular ways in illiberal democracies such as Russia and Turkey. Social and political trust are frequently thought to contribute to social capital - that is, to provide social resources upon which individuals or groups may draw for their political efficacy. Trust in fellow citizens in Istanbul exhibits a positive relationship to associational activities (joining clubs etc.), while in Moscow social trust can be explained predominantly in terms of (lower) socio-economic status. At the same time, important similarities emerged between the two cases. For social trust, in both cities the 'cosmopolitanization thesis', which holds that those who associate more widely are also more trusting of fellow citizens, generally applied. Further, in both cities, residents with lower socio-economic status (though in Moscow this is complicated by education) and lower likelihoods of engagement in direct political action were more trustful of parliament. While this is the opposite of what we have been led to expect based on Western democratic polities, it is a reasonable outcome of illiberal democratic governance operating in these two cities.
O'Loughlin, John and Paul Talbot. "Where in the world is Russia? Geopolitical perceptions and preferences of ordinary Russians." Eurasian Geography and Economics 46, no. 1 (2005):23-50.
Abstract: Two political geographers present the results of an extensive survey and examine the effects of post-Soviet territorial reconfiguration of the Russian state on ordinary Russians' sense of national identity, and opinion on a range of political, economic, and social issues. The survey, comprising 1,200 face-to-face interviews, probed Russian attitudes to determine which states of the former USSR they view as culturally closest to Russia and which they wish to reunify with Russia. Differences in responses show a clear split between Slavic, Eurasianist, and Baltic geopolitical visions. The findings shed light on the willingness of ordinary Russians to support reunification with other parts of the former USSR. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F02, F22, Z13. 6 figures, 3 tables, 68 references.
O'Loughlin, John. "The War on Terrorism, Academic Publication Norms, and Replication." Professional Geographer 57, no. 4 (November 2005):588-591.
Staeheli, Lynn A. "Machines without operators and genealogies without people: comments on Engin Isin's Being Political." Political Geography 24, no. 3 (2005): 349-353.
Staeheli, Lynn A.. "Can American Cities Be Sites of Citizenship? What Can We Do About It?" Urban Geography 26, no.3 (2005): 197-199.
Mitchell, Don and Lynn A. Staeheli. "Clean and Safe: Property Redevelopment, Public Space, and Homelessness in Downtown San Diego". In The Politics of Public Space, edited by S. Low and N. Smith, 143-177. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Staeheli, Lynn A. "Relevant--Esoteric." In Introducing Human Geographies, edited by P. Cloke, P. Crang, and M. Goodwin, 130-141. London: Hodder Arnold, 2005, 2nd ed.
Staeheli, Lynn A. "Reconfiguring Citizenship in Transnational Perspective." In The Other Cities, edited by E. Kremer, 140-147. Dessau, Germany: Bauhaus Institute, 2005.
Mitchell, Don and Lynn A. Staeheli. "Turning Social Relations into Space: Property, Law and the Plaza of Santa Fe, New Mexico." Landscape Research 30, no.3 (2005): 361-378.
Abstract: In this article, a series of controversies in and over the central Plaza of Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA is examined. The complex and contradictory dynamics of law and property as they intersect to shape and define a critical public space that is the symbolic heart of Santa Fe's landscape are explored. It is argued that laws and regulations that determine the activities that may occur in the Plaza, that restrict some actions, or that adjudicate ownership disputes literally shape the lands to which they pertain. It is shown that one purpose of law is to negotiate just how the social relations that are property get transformed into the regulated space that is property.
Biglaiser, Glen and David S. Brown. "The Determinants of Economic Liberalization in Latin America." Political Research Quarterly 58, no. 4 (2005): 671-680.
Abstract: Previous work on political institutions and economic reform provides a number of testable hypotheses that are rarely examined in a multivariate framework. Divided government, political polarization, fragmented legislatures, ideology, external factors, the strength of the presidency, and democracy itself have all been forwarded as possible constraints that influence the depth and speed of economic reform. Using time-series cross-sectional data, this research note provides a multivariate test of the impact these institutions have on different components of structural reform. Our findings suggest that specific institutional arrangements are important for achieving some specific kinds of economic reform. However, our main finding implies the kind of institutional and ideological constraints prominent in the literature do not constrain politicians from enacting reform.
Avelino, George, David S. Brown, and Wendy Hunter. "The Effects of Capital Mobility, Trade Openness, and Democracy on Social Spending in Latin America, 1980-1999." American Journal of Political Science 49, no. 3 (2005): 625-641.
Abstract: Empirical studies measuring the impact of globalization on social spending have appeared recently in leading journals. This study seeks to improve upon previous work by (1) employing a more sophisticated and comprehensive measure of financial openness; (2) using a more accurate measure of trade openness based on purchasing power parities; and (3) relying on social spending data that are more complete than those used by previous studies on Latin America. Our estimates suggest that several empirical patterns reported in previous work deserve a second look. We find that trade openness has a positive association with education and social security expenditures, that financial openness does not constrain government outlays for social programs, and that democracy has a strong positive association with social spending, particularly on items that bolster human capital formation.
Brown, J. Christopher, Scott W. Desposato, and David S. Brown. "Paving the way to political change: decentralization of development in the Brazilian Amazon." Political Geography 24, no. 1 (2005): 39-52.
Abstract: Previous research by the authors examined the political consequences of internationally funded, decentralized development programs that target local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The Planafloro Community Initiative Projects, sponsored by the World Bank from 1995-1998, had powerful effects on politics, increasing electoral support for the Left in the 1998 presidential race. In this paper, we test whether those effects diffuse across space. Using Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA), we find that the diffusion of political change is constrained by infrastructure: political change diffuses from one municipality to the next only when connected by a major highway-an important distinguishing feature in landscapes with difficult terrain. From a methodological standpoint, the study demonstrates the importance of contextual knowledge when performing ESDA. From a practical standpoint, our results imply that programs designed to diffuse information or program benefits in developing areas operate under important physical geographic and infrastructural constraints.
Nagel, Caroline R. and Lynn A. Staeheli. "'We're Just Like the Irish': Narratives of Assimilation, Belonging and Citizenship Amongst Arab-American Activists." Citizenship Studies 9, no.5 (2005): 485-498.
Abstract: In this paper the authors examine narratives of assimilation and belonging as activists attempt to position Arab-Americans as citizens and full members of the American polity. In interviews with activists, the experience of the Irish as immigrants and citizens was often invoked as the paradigmatic example of how immigrants are incorporated as citizens-an example that activists promoted as one that Arabs would follow. By invoking the Irish experience, activists hope to remind Americans that immigration history is not one of effortless assimilation, but is rather characterized by systematic exclusion and marginalization. In so doing, they articulate narratives of assimilation and belonging that draw attention to (1) a shared history of immigration, marginalization, and acceptance, (2) the importance of civil rights movements that may seem to distinguish immigrants from a mythic mainstream whose race and ethnicity go unmarked, and (3) the ways in which the American experience is based on the acceptance of cultural differences predicated on shared political values of community. The authors argue that these strands of the narrative draw on themes in the national myth of immigration, belonging and citizenship, but that they are braided in ways that challenge many Americans' views of their history.
Mitchell, Don and Lynn A. Staeheli. "Permitting Protest: Parsing the Fine Geography of Dissent in America." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29, no.4 (2005): 796-813.
Abstract: The District of Columbia is unique in that demonstrations are governed by a variety of rules depending on whether the location is under the control of the D.C. Government, the National Park Service, the Capitol Police, or some other federal agency. The location will also control who issues the permit, if one is necessary, who will provide police protection, whose set of rules controls, and where you are taken if arrested (ACLU, 1982: 4). Additionally, there is a difference between what you are legally entitled to do in a theoretical sense, and what the police on a particular occasion are going to let you do (National Lawyer's Guild, n.d.: 2).
Moore, Sarah, Leon Grunberg, and Edward Greenberg. "Are Female Supervisors Good for Employee Job Experiences, Health, and Wellbeing?" Women in Management Review 20, no. 2 (2005): 86-95.
Abstract: Purpose - Aims to investigate managers' reports of their job experiences, wellbeing, and health outcomes as a function of whether they had either a male or a female supervisor. Design/methodology/approach - Self-report survey data were collected from male (n =328) and female (n =222) managers; these managers, in turn, had either a male or a female supervisor. Findings - Consistent with the hypothesis, two (gender of participant) by two (gender of supervisor) analyses of covariance revealed that all managers with female supervisors reported significantly higher levels of mastery and social support at work, and lower levels of work to family conflict and depression. Women with female supervisors also reported significantly higher levels of job autonomy and work absences than did women with male supervisors or men with either male or female supervisors. In an effort to explain these outcomes, the mediational role of work-based social support was explored as well as the gender ratio of the subordinate's work environment. Findings suggest that, for both men and women, there are some modest benefits associated with having a female supervisor and with working in a more female-dominated environment. Originality/value - The study is one of the few to focus on possible work-related outcomes associated with the gender of the supervisor and the first to examine if there are any associated health and well-being effects for their subordinates.
Antonsich, Marco. "Cardinal Markers of Finland's Identity Politics and National Identity." Eurasian Geography and Economics 46, no. 4 (2005): 290-305.
Abstract: This article analyzes geopolitical themes prevailing in dominant sectors of the Finnish government and society that have shaped Finland's national identity from the early 19th century to the present. The focus is on the ways cardinal markers (compass directions) have become geopolitical and identity markers. Notions of "West," "Between East and West," "Neither West nor East," and "North" have been used both to position Finland on the world political map and to forge a Finnish national identity. The influence of Russia and Karelians are examined at some length as part of the eastern dimension of Finnish identity.
Staeheli, Lynn A., and Don Mitchell. "The Complex Politics of Relevance in Geography." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95, no. 2 (2005): 357-72.
Abstract: As a discipline, geographers have debated what it means to make research relevant. In this article, we argue that the issue of what makes research relevant cannot be separated from the questions of why research should be relevant, how research becomes relevant, the goals of research, and for whom it is intended to be relevant. In this sense, the determination of relevance is a social and political process. We make this point through an evaluation of various writings on relevance, editorials that have appeared in the Newsletter of the Association of American Geographers, and through interviews with researchers. We argue that relevance can be intended, but that commitment to relevant research requires a long-term view and an appreciation for the indirect pathways of relevance.
Mozaffar, Shaheen, and James R. Scarritt. "The Puzzle of African Party Systems." Party Politics 11, no. 4 (2005): 399-421.
Abstract: Two puzzling features characterize African party systems: low fragmentation and high volatility. We present systematic data describing these features and provide a theoretically grounded explanation of them. The explanation emphasizes the role of strategic choice structured by the institutional legacies of authoritarian regimes in the formation and development of political parties. Political restrictions under authoritarian regimes produced severe information deficit concerning electoral mobilization, strategic coordination and the collective action problems that typically attend party formation and coalition-building. Under these constraints, political actors in Africa's emerging democracies established political parties to preserve their fragmented power bases and relied on presidential elections and ethno-political cleavages as alternative sources of strategic coordination over votes and seats and electoral coalition-building. The result is the entry of large numbers of short-lived political parties, producing high volatility, and the electoral and legislative dominance of a small number of large parties producing low party system fragmentation.
O'Loughlin, John V., and Paul F. Talbot. "Where in the World Is Russia? Geopolitical Perceptions and Preferences of Ordinary Russians." Eurasian Geography and Economics 46, no. 2 (2005): 117-44.
Abstract: Two political geographers present the results of an extensive survey and examine the effects of post-Soviet territorial reconfiguration of the Russian state on ordinary Russians' sense of national identity, and opinion on a range of political, economic, and social issues. The survey, comprising 1,200 face-to-face interviews, probed Russian attitudes to determine which states of the former USSR they view as culturally closest to Russia and which they wish to reunify with Russia. Differences in responses show a clear split between Slavic, Eurasianist, and Baltic geopolitical visions. The findings shed light on the willingness of ordinary Russians to support reunification with other parts of the former USSR.
Maki, Nancy, Sarah Moore, Leon Grunberg, and Edward Greenberg. "The Responses of Male and Female Managers to Workplace Stress and Downsizing." North American Journal of Psychology 7, no. 2 (2005): 295-312.
Abstract: As part of a longitudinal study examining the impact of downsizing on worker health, we interviewed managers and employees to identify possible questions for a data collection survey. This paper presents observation summaries of qualitative interviews with 19 managers from a large manufacturing organization. Participants were asked semi-structured questions on health behaviors, stress coping strategies, alcohol and substance use, job stress, and work overload with latitude to digress as different issues emerged. Responses from female managers and male managers revealed differences in judgments about work motivators, stressors, and coping strategies. For example, female managers displayed a greater tendency to use alcohol as a coping mechanism in response to stressful conditions. Gender differences also emerged regarding impressions of the treatment of women in the workplace. Men viewed relationships between genders as significantly improved from ten to twenty years ago. Women noted improvements over the same time frame, but gave numerous examples where men continue to dismiss the contributions of female workers. Insight into motivations underlying commonly identified stressors and coping methods for both women and men offers direction for future data collection.
Moore, S., Grunberg, L., & Greenberg, E. "Development and validation of a scale to measure beliefs about women managers." Current Psychology 23, no. 3 (2004): 245-256.
Abstract: This paper presents preliminary evidence on the internal consistency and validity of a scale designed to measure the degree to which one believes women managers experience a greater number of obstacles and more critical judgments about their work performance as compared to managerial men (the Stereotype Beliefs about Women Managers scale; SBWMS). Survey data from 1,337 managerial and nonmanagerial men and women employed by a large manufacturing organization revealed that the 6-item scale possessed a single factor. Significant mean group differences and correlations between the SBWMS and a number of organizationally relevant measures provide good preliminary support for the scale's validity.
Moore, Sarah, Leon Grunberg, and Edward Greenberg. "Repeated Downsizing Contact: The Effects of Similar and Dissimilar Layoff Experiences on Work and Well-Being Outcomes." Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 9, no. 3 (2004): 247-57.
Abstract: In this longitudinal study, the authors compared 1,244 white- and blue-collar workers who reported 0, 1, or 2 contacts with layoffs; all were employees of a large manufacturing company that had engaged in several mass waves of downsizing. Consistent with a stress-vulnerability model, workers with a greater number of exposures to both direct and indirect downsizing reported significantly lower levels of job security and higher levels of role ambiguity, intent to quit, depression, and health problems. Findings did not support the idea that workers became more resilient as they encountered more layoff events. The authors found only partial evidence that the similarity or dissimilarity of the type of repeated downsizing exposure played a role in how workers reported changes in these outcome variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)
Brown, David S. "Democracy and Gender Inequality in Education: A Cross-National Examination." British Journal of Political Science 34, no. 1 (2004): 137-52.
Abstract: This Research Note examines the role democracy plays in explaining the disparity in educational attainment between men and women in a cross-national context. Policies designed to improve education figure prominently in recent attempts by governments, international institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to stimulate economic development. The recent emphasis on education is grounded in a well-established literature in economics on the rate of return on investment in education and in a fairly new stream of research in economics - endogenous growth theory - that suggests knowledge is the generative force of economic growth. Although a majority of the work in both literatures focuses on aggregate levels of educational attainment (usually enrolment ratios or literacy rates), a growing body of evidence identifies women's educational attainment relative to men's as a crucial variable in explaining the wide variation in economic development throughout the world. In addition to its direct impact on economic growth, women's education may indirectly affect economic performance in a number of important ways: through its impact on health, fertility and infant mortality. Previous empirical work shows that women's education has a strong negative effect on fertility and infant mortality. Moreover, family health practices improve in direct proportion to female education. According to the World Bank, countries that achieved universal primary education for boys in 1965 but lagged far behind in educating girls had about twice the infant mortality and fertility rates in 1985 of countries with smaller gender gaps.
Brown, David S., and Wendy A. Hunter. "Democracy and Human Capital Formation: Education Spending in Latin America, 1980 to 1997." Comparative Political Studies 37, no. 7 (2004): 842-64.
Abstract: This article examines the relationship between democratic representation and spending on education in Latin America. The authors assess the impact that democracy has on the distribution of resources between different levels of schooling and on total spending on education. Specifically, they test whether democratic governments allocate a greater share of resources to primary education, the level that benefits the largest segment of the electorate and that is most critical for human capital formation in developing countries. Using time-series cross-sectional analysis, the authors find that democracies devote a higher percentage of their educational resources to primary education and that they maintain higher absolute spending levels on education in the aggregate, thereby enhancing the prospects of human capital formation.
Scarritt, James R. "Ethnopolitics and Nationalism." In Politics in the Developing World, edited by Peter Burnell and Vicky Randall, 74-89: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Abstract: This chapter stresses the significance of both: 1) differences among ethnic, ethnopolitical, and national identities; and 2) different types of relations among groups having these identities in countries of the developing world. Ethnic identities are constructed and reconstructed over time, and some but not all are politicized. Specific processes for construction and politicization and their variations across countries are discussed. National identities in the developing world, which are inherently political, vary in strength as well as the degree to which they are civic, multiethnic or ethnic, and the chapter explains these variations. Both types of identities have been strongly influenced by European colonialism. Based on the interaction of both types of identities with group morphology, group advantages and disadvantages, organizations, institutions, mobilization and state response histories, and international influences, ethnopolitical groups engage in conflict, competition, and cooperation with one another and the state in different countries and at different points in time. Different interaction patterns are explored. Since national identities are relatively weak in many developing countries while sub-national ethnopolitical identities and groups are often stronger, developing states more or less successfully engage in a variety of nation-building activities; the chapter describes these activities and explains their degree of success in the current era of electoral democracy and globalization.
O'Loughlin, John V. "Global Democratization: Measuring and Explaining the Diffusion of Democracy." In Spaces of Democracy, edited by C. Barnett and M. Low, 22-44. London: Sage Publications, 2004.
Abstract: This chapter is a stock-taking of the democratization trends since the mid 1990s. While it appeared for about half a decade after the collapse of the Communist regimes that the world was firmly ensconced in the 'Third Wave' of democratization, recent evidence is more contradictory. The beginning of the twenty-first century marks a period of stability (or stagnation) in the democratic trend. What was especially noticeable about the trend in the 1990s was the strong macro-regional character of the democratic transitions. What is undeniable is that regional location matters. The specific purpose of this chapter is to probe the causes of the turn to 'democratization' (without prejudging whether the wave is real or imaginary). This chapter has attempted to point out the differences between the various forms of democracy, their distributions, and some of the key reasons why the world political map is changing. Five possible explanations of recent trends (new international norms, foreign aid inducements, contagious diffusion, the "Zeitgeist" of democratization, and cosmopolitan political culture) are examined.
Staeheli, Lynn A., and Don Mitchell. "Spaces of Public and Private: Locating Politics." In Spaces of Democracy, edited by C. Barnett and M. Low. London: Sage Publications, 2004.
Kolossov, Vladimir, and John V. O'Loughlin. "How Moscow Is Becoming a Capitalist Mega-City." International Social Science Journal 56, no. 181 (2004): 413-27.
Abstract: The article focuses on the trends that are transforming Moscow into a new world city, manifested in its new role in global communication networks, economic restructuring, and in particular the rapid development of service economy and especially of banking and other business services. Like other world cities, the transformation of Moscow from a Soviet to a world city accelerates social polarization and increases contrasts between the historical centre and most other parts of the urban space. The authors consider the contemporary strategies of urban management and the relationship between the interests of the state, municipal authorities, private capital, and the majority of Moscovites. Special attention is paid to an analysis of the location of new activities and to the patterns of their spatial combinations. They are explained by historical factors and the heritage of socialist urban planning in the capital.
O'Loughlin, John V., Gearoid O Tuathail, and V. Kolossov. "Russian Geopolitical Storylines and Public Opinion in the Wake of 9-11: A Critical Geopolitical Analysis and National Survey." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 37, no. 3 (2004): 281-318.
Abstract: Examination of the speeches, writings and editorials by the Putin Administration in the aftermath of the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks on American cities showed a consistent storyline that equated Russia's war against Chechen terrorists with the subsequent US attack on the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. The storyline made a strong case for a Russian alliance with the US and the West against those who were "attacking civilized societies." Further examination of the statements from the liberal opposition as well as from the far-right and leftist camps showed two alternative storylines to that of the Russian government. The centrist-liberal storyline was skeptical of the benefits accruing to Russia from its support of the Bush Administration's policy while the 'national patriotic-Communist' storyline concentrated on the 'imperialist' drive of the United States to control the resources of Eurasia and thus was suspicious of the reasons for the war on terrorism. The resonance of the dominant Putin storyline and its skeptical and suspicious alternatives among the Russian public is tested by analysis of the responses to a representative national survey of 1800 adults conducted in April 2002. Significant socio-demographic differences appear in responses to eight questions. The Putin storyline is accepted by the rich, supporters of the Edinstvo party, males, "Westernizers', residents of Siberia, singles and young adults, while the oppositional storylines are supported by Communist party supporters, the elderly, Muslims, women, the poor, and residents of Moscow and St. Petersburg. Geopolitical analysis has focused on texts and their discourses. This study is the first to examine in a systematic manner the relationship between elite discourses and the attitudes of ordinary citizens.
O'Loughlin, J. "Democratic Values in a Globalizing World: A Multilevel Analysis of Geographic Contexts." GeoJournal 60, no. 1 (2004): 3-17.
Abstract: Recent developments in multilevel statistical modeling offer a more precise and suitable methodology for examination of contextual factors in political behavior if the data have been collected in a hierarchical manner with respondents grouped into lower-level and higher-level districts. The World Values Survey data (collected in three waves from 1980 to 1997) for 65 countries are ideally suited to examination of the hypothesis that democratic beliefs and practices are globalizing. Using three key predictors (trust in fellow citizens, political interest, and volunteerism) for the sample of 91,160 respondents, it is evident that regional (for the 550 regions) and country settings (between 55 and 65 countries) are important predictors of political behavior, on the order of about 10% and 20%, respectively. Respondent characteristics account for about 70% of the variance explained. Dramatic differences between established and new democracies clarify the political globalization process and global regions (Latin America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, etc) also emerge as significant factors.
Carr, David L., James R. Markusen, and Keith E. Maskus. "Competition for Multinational Investment in Developing Countries: Human Capital, Infrastructure, and Market Size." In Challenges to Globalization, edited by Robert E. Baldwin and L. Alan Winters, 383-409. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Ganslandt, Mattias, and Keith E. Maskus. "Parallel Imports and the Pricing of Pharmaceutical Products: Evidence from the European Union." Journal of Health Economics 23, no. 5 (2004): 1035-57.
Abstract: We consider policy issues regarding parallel imports (PIs) of brand-name pharmaceuticals in the European Union, where such trade is permitted. We develop a simple model in which an original manufacturer competes in its home market with PI firms. The model suggests that for small trade costs the original manufacturer will accommodate the import decisions of parallel traders and that the price in the home market falls as the volume of parallel imports rises. Using data from Sweden we find that the prices of drugs subject to competition from parallel imports fell relative to other drugs over the period 1994-1999. Econometric analysis finds that parallel imports significantly reduced manufacturing prices, by 12-19%. There is evidence that this effect increases with multiple PI entrants.
Maskus, Keith E., and Yongmin Chen. "Vertical Price Control and Parallel Imports: Theory and Evidence." Review of International Economics 12, no. 4 (2004): 551-70.
Abstract: The paper analyzes parallel imports, or goods traded without the authorization of a trademark owner. Parallel imports have multiple causes, including vertical price control, which the authors model. A manufacturer selling its product through an independent agent sets the wholesale price sufficiently low to induce a desired retail price abroad. This permits the agent to sell the product profitably in the originating market. Combined social surplus decreases and then increases in the cost of parallel trade. Restricting parallel imports benefits the manufacturer, but could raise or reduce global surplus. The econometric analysis indicates that the vertical-control explanation of parallel imports is important.
Maskus, Keith E. 2004. Intellectual Property Rights in the WTO Accession Package: Assessing Chinas Reforms. In Implications of China's Entry into the World Trade Organization, edited by D. Bhattasali, S. Li and W. J. Martin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.
Maskus, Keith E., and J. H. Reichman. "The Globalization of Private Knowledge Goods and the Privatization of Global Public Goods." Journal of International Economic Law 7, no. 2 (2004): 279-320.
Abstract: Global trade and investment have become increasingly liberalized in recent decades. This liberalization has lately been accompanied by substantive new requirements for strong minimum standards of intellectual property (IP) protection, which moves the world economy toward harmonized private rights in knowledge goods. While this trend may have beneficial impacts in terms of innovation and technology diffusion, such impacts would not be evenly distributed across countries. Deep questions also arise about whether such globalization of rights to information will raise roadblocks to the national and international provision of such public goods as environmental protection, public health, education, and scientific advance. This article argues that the globalized IP regime will strongly affect prospects for technology transfer and competition in developing countries. In turn, these nations must determine how to implement such standards in a pro-competitive manner and foster innovation and competition in their own markets. Developing countries may need to take the lead in policy experimentation and IP innovation in order to offset overly protectionist tendencies in the rich countries and to maintain the supply of global public goods in an emerging transnational system of innovation.
Maskus, Keith E. 2004. Trade and Competitiveness Aspects of Environmental and Labor Standards in East Asia. In East Asia Integrates: A Trade Policy Agenda for Shared Growth, edited by K. Krumm and H. Kharas. Washington DC: The World Bank; and Oxford: Oxford University Press
O'Loughlin, John V., Lynn A. Staeheli, and Edward S. Greenberg, eds. 2004. Globalization and Its Outcomes. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.
Abstract: Balanced, authoritative, and up to date, this volume examines the profound effects of economic globalization on the well-being of individuals and communities in both developed and less-developed societies. Using a variety of research methods and conceptual tools, leading experts from a range of disciplines trace the complex interactions of globalization with social, political, and health and welfare processes around the world. Compelling findings are presented on "winners" and "losers" across national boundaries, regions, class and ethnic divisions, gender, and age; the ways in which different groups have mobilized to respond to globalization's challenges; and the important policy questions raised. Also considered is the crucial question of whether globalization can adequately be addressed from the perspective of contemporary social scientific theory, or whether it requires a new paradigm for analysis.
O'Loughlin, John, G. O. Tuathail, and V. Kolossov. "A 'Risky Westward Turn'? Putin's 9-11 Script and Ordinary Russians." Europe-Asia Studies 56, no. 1 (2004): 3-34.
Abstract: President Putin has taken a strong pro-West stand since September 11, 2001 and argues that Russia must be a partner in the international war on terrorism while it fights its own domestic terrorism in Chechnya. First, using a critical geopolitics methodology, the authors examine the script developed and publicly articulated by Vladimir Putin in the six months after the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington. The authors show that, in official and other texts, President Putin sought to represent the event as a "global Chechnya" and that 9-11 provided the occasion for the development of an innovative geopolitical script that asserted the identity opposition "civilized/barbarian" as a fundamental axis in world politics, (re)located Russia within the West as a "civilized power," and prioritized Russian geoeconomic interests over traditional territorial geopolitics. Second, to test how well Putin's 9-11 script garnered support among ordinary Russians, the authors report on the results of a nationwide sampling of Russian public opinion on the events of September 11 (and sequel in the war in Afghanistan) that they organized and conducted in April 2002. They are particularly interested in the attitude of the Russian Federation's growing Muslim population. The authors' conclusions point to considerable variation in support for the different dimensions of Putin's policy of alliance with the United States in a war against "international terrorism.'" Simply put, there is significant support across all groups for Putin's foreign policy but support for an international war against terrorism is highly qualified, with great suspicion about U.S. intentions in Central Asia and policies designed to counter the "axis of evil" (Iraq, Iran, and North Korea).