Problem Behavior Program Publications (2010 and earlier)


Belknap, Joanne. 2010. "'Offending Women': A Double Entendre." Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 100(3): 1061-1098.

Online Article

Abstract: Two of the most significant contributions of feminist criminology since the 1970s are the documentation of (1) the significant amount of violence against women and girls perpetrated by men and boys; and (2) how girls' and women's victimizations and trauma, often at the hands of abusive men, are risk factors for their subsequent offending or labeling as "offenders." On this one-hundredth anniversary of The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Journal), I examined the nineteen articles written about women offenders in the first one hundred years, and in this Article, I summarize and critique the articles and place their findings in the context of current-day scholarship on feminist criminology. Overwhelmingly, these nineteen Journal "historical articles" were written primarily by women in the first three decades of the Journal (1910-1939), and they describe the characteristics of offending women and (speculations about) their offending, the reformatories and prisons in which these women were housed, and the laws regarding and leading to the implementation of women's reformatories. Unlike much of today's work on incarcerated women, these articles rarely consider race or the prisoners' lifetime traumas. When race is considered, it is frequently done so in a racist manner. The women's victimizations, if acknowledged, are typically indicated in a veiled manner. Still, these articles describe women who are highly marginalized by class and the conditions associated with economic marginalization: extremely poor health and very limited education and employment opportunities. At the same time, their survival behaviors, including prostitution, are criminalized alongside other offenses for which men are never incarcerated (such as having sex outside of marriage).

Belknap, Joanne. 2010. "Rape: Too Hard to Report and Too Easy to Discredit Victims." Violence Against Women, 16: 1335.

Online Article

Abstract: Although false charges of rape are reprehensible, they are extremely rare, with statistics indicating that of all rapes, regardless of whether they are reported to the police, 0.005% are false reports. Conservatively, at least 90% of rapes are never reported to the police, yet falsely charged rapes seem to supersede unreported rapes as prioritized social and legal problems. Moreover, when examining high -profile cases portrayed as "false rape charges" by the courts and/or media, it is vital to examine them in the context of historical legacies and the roles and intersections of gender, race, and class. This article addresses why "real" rape victims may recant, particularly given the often hostile media, legal, and social responses to victims more marginalized by race, gender, and/or class who identify rapists who are more entitled by race, gender, and/or class.

Belknap, Joanne and Courtney McDonald. 2010. "Judges' Attitudes about and Experiences with Sentencing Circles in Intimate-Partner Abuse Cases." Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 52(4):369-395.

Online Article

Abstract: During the 1980s and 1990s, two important changes that occurred in criminal processing were seemingly at odds for intimate partner abuse cases. First was the move to treat gendered violence cases more seriously and punitively. Second was the design and implementation of restorative justice practices, which became mandated for consideration in First Nation cases in R. v. Gladue in 1999. There has also been an ongoing debate globally as to whether restorative justice is appropriate in gendered violence cases. Additionally, some First Nation scholars worry that restorative justice is simply another medium to control and punish Aboriginal people. This study draws on interviews with 27 judges in a large Western province, a year before the Gladue decision, regarding their attitudes about and experiences with sentencing circles in intimate partner abuse cases. The findings suggest cautious judicial support tempered by serious concerns.

Sakai, Joseph T., Jason D. Boardman, Heather Gelhorn, Andrew Smolen, Robin P. Corley, Scott Menard, David Huizinga, Del Elliott, and Mike C. Stallings. 2010. "Utilizing trajectory analyses to refine phenotype for genetic associations: conduct problems and 5HTTLPR." Psychiatric Genetics, 20(5):199-206.

Online Article

Abstract: Background: Conduct disorder is a serious, relatively common disorder of childhood and adolescence. Findings from genetic association studies searching for genetic determinants of the liability toward such behaviors have been inconsistent. One possible explanation for differential results is that most studies define phenotype from a single assessment; for many adolescents conduct problems decrease in severity over time, whereas for others such behaviors persist. Therefore, longitudinal datasets offer the opportunity to refine phenotype. Methods: We used Caucasians that were first assessed during adolescence from the National Youth Survey Family Study. Nine waves of data were used to create latent growth trajectories and test for associations between trajectory class and 5HTTLPR genotype. Results: For the full sample, 5HTTLPR was not associated with conduct problem phenotypes. However, the short (s) allele was associated with chronic conduct problems in females; a nominally significant sex by 5HTTLPR genotype interaction was noted. Conclusion: Longitudinal studies provide unique opportunities for phenotypic refinement and such techniques, with large samples, may be useful for phenotypic definition with other study designs, such as whole genome association studies.

Tiet, Q.Q., Huizinga, D., and Byrnes H.F. (2010) Predictors of Resilience Among Inner City Youths. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19:360-378.

Online Article

Abstract: Prior studies have suggested that living in high-risk neighborhoods is associated with youths' maladjustment. Youths who maintained favorable outcomes, despite being exposed to such neighborhood risks, were considered resilient. Data from the Denver Youth Survey were examined to identify predictors of resilience, longitudinal interrelations among predictors, and bi-directional relationships between resilience and life context factors. Resilience was longitudinally predicted by bonding to family and teachers, involvement in extracurricular activities, lower levels of parental discord, fewer adverse life events, and being less involved with delinquent peers. A positive feedback loop was found, in which resilience predicted further resilience. Early intervention to strengthen traditional bonding, decrease involvement with delinquent peers, and reduce the effects of adverse life events and parental discord may be essential in enhancing functioning of high-risk youths.


Belknap, Joanne. "Meda Chesney-Lind," in Keith Hayward, Shadd Maruna, Jayne Mooney (Eds.) Fifty Key Thinkers in Criminology. Routledge, 2009, pp. 19-45.

Online Information

Radelet, Michael L.. "The Executioner's Waning Defenses," in Charles Ogletree & Austin Sarat (eds.) The Road to Abolition. New York: New York University Press, 2009, pp. 19-45.

Online Information

Chesney-Lind, Meda, and Joanne Belknap. 2009. "Trends in Delinquent Girls' Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review of the Evidence," in Women's Lives, K. Ferraro, (Ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson, pp. 230-241.

Belknap, Joanne. 2009. "The Multi-Pronged Potential Effects of Implementing Domestic Violence Programs in Men's Prisons and Reentry Programming," in Natasha A. Frost, Joshua D. Freilich, & Todd Clear (Eds.) Contemporary Issues in Criminal Justice Policy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, pp. 397-400.

Belknap, Joanne, Heather C. Melton, Justin T. Denney, Ruth Fleury-Steiner, and Cris M. Sullivan. "The Levels and Roles of Social and Institutional Support Reported by Survivors of Intimate Partner Abuse." Feminist Criminology, 4, no. 4 (2009):377-402.

Online Article

Abstract: This article explores the roles of social (informal) and institutional (formal) support in the lives of 158 women whose intimate partner abuse (IPA) cases reached the courts in three jurisdictions in the United States.Women were asked who knew about the IPA and their levels of supportiveness. Data analysis includes comparisons across the women in terms of social support and institutional support, and how these were related to the women's demographic characteristics, whether they were still in a relationship with their abusers, the severity of the violence, and the women's mental health.

Denney, Justin T., Richard G. Rogers, Patrick M. Krueger, Tim Wadsworth. "Adult Suicide Mortality in the United States: Marital Status, Family Size, Socioeconomic Status, and Differences by Sex." Social Science Quarterly 90, no. 5 (2009):1167-1185.

Online Article

Abstract: Objective: This article addresses the relationship between suicide mortality and family structure and socioeconomic status for U.S. adult men and women. Methods. We use Cox proportional hazard models and individual-level, prospective data from the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File (1986-2002) to examine adult suicide mortality. Results: Larger families and employment are associated with lower risks of suicide for both men and women. Low levels of education or being divorced or separated, widowed, or never married are associated with increased risks of suicide among men, but not among women. Conclusions: We find important sex differences in the relationship between suicide mortality and marital status and education. Future suicide research should use both aggregate and individual-level data and recognize important sex differences in the relationship between risk factors and suicide mortality-a central cause of preventable death in the United States.

Kubrin, Charis E. and Tim Wadsworth. "Explaining Suicide Among Blacks and Whites: How Socioeconomic Factors and Gun Availability Affect Race-Specific Suicide Rates." Social Science Quarterly 90, no. 5 (2009):1203-1227.

Online Article

Abstract: Objectives: What are the correlates of suicide among blacks and whites? One body of literature suggests that structural factors such as poverty, inequality, joblessness, and family disruption are the key contributors, while another literature considers the availability of firearms to be the central factor. No studies have thoroughly explored both possibilities together and thus we know little about the relative contributions of motivation to commit suicide due to structural conditions and opportunity to commit suicide due to firearm availability. The current study addresses this issue. Methods: Using suicide data from Mortality Multiple Cause of Death Records and 2000 Census data, we examine the roles of motivation and opportunity in shaping suicide rates among young white and young black males in U.S. cities. Results: We find racial differences in the predictors of suicide; although concentrated disadvantage directly affects suicide among young white males, it only raises levels for young black males by increasing access to firearms. This finding is confirmed in additional analyses, which examine the effects of concentrated disadvantage on black and white gun and nongun suicides separately. Conclusion: The findings suggest complex relationships among the structural characteristics of cities, gun availability, and suicide. They also begin to address unresolved issues in the literature including why blacks have demonstrated comparatively lower rates of suicide despite higher levels of disadvantage as well as what may have fueled the increase in young black male suicide over the last 30 years. Finally, the findings have important implications for the study of race and suicide prevention.

Zahn, Margaret A., Jacob C. Day, Sharon F. Mihalic and Lisa Tichavsky. "Determining What Works for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System: A Summary of Evaluation Evidence." Crime & Delinquency 55, No. 2 (2009):266-293.

Online Article

Abstract: Despite increasing attention on gender-specific programming for girls involved in the juvenile justice system, not much is known about the effectiveness of gender-specific programs. The authors review the evidence base for the effectiveness of programs for girls in custody or under supervision by examining the evaluation evidence for nine gender-specific programs (which exclusively target girls) and six gender-non-specific programs (which target both girls and boys). Through this process, the authors summarize the evidence of effectiveness available to researchers and practitioners, identify barriers to determining what programs work for adjudicated girls, and make recommendations for building a solid evidence base on what works for adjudicated girls.


Belknap, Joanne and Kristi Holsinger. "An Overview of Delinquent Girls: How Theory and Practice Have Failed and the Need for Innovative Changes," in Ruth T. Zaplin (Ed.) Female Offenders: Critical Perspectives and Effective Interventions, 2nd Edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc., 2008, pp. 3-42.

Online Information

Belknap, Joanne, and Bonnie Cady. "Pre-Adjudicated and Adjudicated Girls' Reports on Their Lives Before and During Detention and Incarceration," in Ruth T. Zaplin (Ed.) Female Offenders: Critical Perspectives and Effective Interventions, 2nd Edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc., 2008, pp. 251-282.

Online Information

Jessor, Richard. "Description Versus Explanation in Cross-National Research on Adolescence." Journal of Adolescent Health 43, no.6 (2008):527-528.

Online Article

Abstract: This invited editorial is a commentary on an article, appearing in the same issue, by Vazsonyi et al.: "A test of Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory in a Eurasian and a Western European development context." (Pp. 555-564).

McDaniels-Wilson, Cathy and Joanne Belknap. "The Extensive Sexual Violation and Sexual Abuse Histories of Incarcerated Women". Violence Against Women 14, No. 10 (2008):1090-1127.

Online Article

Abstract: A growing body of research reports on the lifetime prevalence of sexual victimization experiences among incarcerated women. However, none of this research provides a detailed account of the many types and levels of sexual violations and sexual abuses, the age of occurrence, and the victim-offender relationship. This study used the Sexual Abuse Checklist (designed by the first author) and a modified version of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) to obtain a detailed account of 391 incarcerated women's self-reported sexual violation and abuse histories. Seventy percent of the women reported at least one violation consistent with what qualifies as "rape" in most states in the United States today, and half of the women reported child sexual abuse victimization. The most prevalent victim-offender relationships were male strangers, male lovers or boyfriends, male dates, husbands, uncles, brothers, male cousins, and stepfathers.

Mihalic, Sharon F., Abigail A. Fagan, and Susanne Argamaso. "Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity". Implementation Science 3, no. 5 (2008).

Online Article

Abstract: Background: Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured.
Methods: This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST) drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness.
Results: Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers), ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence). Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage). Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery) were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness).
Conclusion: Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that organizations should consider to ensure fidelity, such as selecting programs with features that minimize complexity while maximizing flexibility. Time constraints in the classroom should be considered when choosing a program. Student behavior also influences program delivery, so schools should train teachers in the use of classroom management skills. This project involved comprehensive program monitoring and technical assistance that likely facilitated the identification and resolution of problems and contributed to the overall high quality of implementation. Schools should recognize the importance of training and technical assistance to ensure quality program delivery.


Belknap, Joanne and Edna Erez. "Violence Against Women on College Campuses: Rape, Intimate Partner Abuse, and Sexual Harrassment" in Campus Crime: Legal, Social, and Policy Perspectives, 2nd ed, edited by Bonnie S. Fisher and John J. Sloan III, 188-209. Springfield, IL: Charles A. Thomas Publishers, 2007.

Joanne Belknap, "Culturally-Focused Batterer Counseling" (Editorial Introduction), Criminology & Public Policy 6, no. 2 (2007): 337-340.

Online Article

Mihalic, Sharon. "Social Learning Theory and Family Violence." In Encyclopedia of Domestic Violence, edited by Nicky Ali Jackson. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Abstract: This essay provides a complex picture of the role of social learning during childhood in explaining later intimate partner violence. While many of the earliest studies show associations between childhood exposure to violence (either as a witness or a victim), most of these studies have methodological weaknesses, such as the use of clinic or shelter samples (which generally show a stronger relationship between early and later violence), small samples, lack of comparison groups, and use of retrospective data and analyses. The relationship, however, is also supported in the stronger studies employing national samples. However, more sophisticated analyses, using multivariate statistics, have commonly demonstrated that the relationship between parental violence in childhood and later intimate partner violence could be explained by other social, family, and contextual factors. The preponderance of evidence suggests that while social learning is a viable explanation for intimate partner violence, its explanatory power is weak to moderate, and the mechanisms for intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are complex and remain unspecified.

Belknap, Joanne. The Invisible Woman: Gender, Crime, and Justice, 3rd Edition. Belmont, CA. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2007.

(First edition was published in 1996; second edition was published in 2001.)


Klein, Malcolm W., Frank M. Weerman, and Terence P. Thornberry. "Street gang violence in Europe." European Journal of Criminology. 3, no. 4 (2006):413-437.

Online Article

Abstract: Levels and descriptors of violence among European street gangs are summarized from studies reported primarily under the aegis of the Eurogang Program initiated in 1997 and continuing still. European gang violence is placed in the context of its American counterpart, of European non-gang youth violence, and of the definitional and structural components of the Eurogang Program. European gangs in over a dozen countries reveal a wide pattern of violent behaviour and levels of violence that are far greater than among non-gang youth, but largely less serious than in the USA. Some of these latter differences may be attributable to the recentness of the European gang development, the lower levels of firearms availability, and lower levels of gang territoriality in Europe.

Pogarsky, Greg, Terence P. Thornberry, and Alan J. Lizotte. "Developmental outcomes for children of young mothers." Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, no. 2 (2006):332-344.

Online Article

Abstract: This study tested the association between mother's early age at first birth and various life outcomes for her children in later adolescence and early adulthood. Data were analyzed from the Rochester Youth Development Study, an ongoing panel study of adolescents enrolled in seventh or eighth grade in Rochester Public Schools in 1988 (N =729). Boys born to mothers who began childbearing before age 19 had elevated risks of drug use, gang membership, unemployment, and early parenthood. Girls born to young mothers only had elevated risks of early parenthood. Of the mediators tested, low maternal education had the largest mediating effects. The findings suggest that the risks associated with being born to a young mother are substantial but perhaps disproportionately so for boys.

Hall, Gina Penly, Terence P. Thornberry, and Alan J. Lizotte. 2006. "The gang facilitation effect and neighborhood risk: Do gangs have a stronger influence on delinquency in disadvantaged areas?" In Studying Youth Gangs, edited by James F. Short Jr. and Lorine A. Hughes, 47-61. New York: AltaMira Press, 2006.

Ireland, Timothy O., Terence P. Thornberry, and Rolf Loeber. "Residential stability among adolescents in public housing: A risk factor for delinquent and violent behaviour?" In Housing, Urban Governance, and Anti-Social Behaviour: Perspectives, Policy, and Practice, edited by John Flint, 301-322. Bristol: The Policy Press, 2006.

Belknap, Joanne and Hillary Potter. "Intimate Partner Abuse." In Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice (2/e), edited by C. Renzetti, L. Goodstein, and S. Miller, 168-184. Roxbury Publishing Co., 2006.

Fleury-Steiner, Ruth, Deborah I. Bybee, Cris M. Sullivan, Joanne Belknap, and Heather C. Melton. "Contextual Factors Impacting Battered Women's Intentions to Re-Use the Criminal Legal System." Journal of Community Psychology, 34, no. 3 (2006):327-342.

Online Article

Abstract: While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews were conducted with 178 women whose assailants had been charged with a domestic violence-related crime against them. Survivors of intimate partner violence were asked about the violence itself, their relationship with the perpetrator (including financial dependence on him), community supports, their expectations, and desires regarding the criminal legal response, and their prior experiences with the police, prosecutors, legal advocates, and the courts. Regression analyses were conducted to examine women's intentions to reuse the criminal legal system in the event of future violence. Consistent with an ecological perspective on behavior (e.g., Bronfenbrenner, 1979), the context of women's lives, the violence they had experienced, and their experiences with the police and the legal system all impacted their intentions. Specifically, women were more likelyto want further involvement with these systems if they were employed, felt supported by their communities, had received information about services from the police, had experienced case outcomes consistent with their desires, and had been treated well by the criminal legal system. Women were less inclined to intend to use the system in the future if they were legally or financially tied to their perpetrators, if they had been assaulted again before the court case was closed, if court proceedings had been cancelled at least once, and if they had been pressured rather than supported by the criminal legal system. Implications of the findings are discussed. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Belknap, Joanne and Kristi Holsinger. "The Gendered Nature of Risk Factors for Delinquency." Feminist Criminology, 1, no. 1 (2006): 48-71.

Online Article

Abstract: Traditional delinquency theories typically exclude girls and examine economic marginalization as the primary risk factor for boys. More recent mainstream theories expand the childhood strains associated with delinquency but fail to account for the link between childhood abuses and subsequent offending reported in the feminist pathways studies of girls and women. In addition, policies since the 1990s request the development of "gender-specific services" for delinquent girls without examining how the risks are gendered. This study of 444 incarcerated youths' self-reports indicates the contribution of feminist pathways to better understand the risks associated with and improve the responses to girls' and boys' delinquency by examining demographic, abuse, family, school and peer, and self-esteem variables.

Jessor, Richard, Frances M. Costa, Patrick M. Kreuger and Mark S. Turbin. "A developmental study of high-volume drinking among college students: The role of psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 67, no. 1 (2006): 86-94.

Online Article

Abstract: Objective: A theory-based protection/risk model was applied to explain variation in college students' heavy episodic drinking. Key aims were (1) to establish that psychosocial and behavioral protective factors and risk factors can account for cross-sectional and developmental variation in heavy episodic drinking, and (2) to examine whether protection moderates the impact of risk on heavy episodic drinking. Method: Random- and fixed-effects maximum likelihood regression analyses were used to examine data from a three-wave longitudinal study. Data were collected in fall of 2002, spring of 2003, and spring of 2004 from college students (N = 975; 548 men) who were first-semester freshmen at Wave 1. Results: Psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors accounted for substantial variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking, and protection moderated the impact of risk. Findings held for both genders and were consistent across the three separate waves of data. Key predictors of heavy episodic drinking were social and individual controls protection (e.g., parental sanctions for transgression and attitudinal intolerance of deviance, respectively); models risk (peer models for substance use); behavioral protection (attendance at religious services); and behavioral risk (cigarette smoking and marijuana use). Changes in controls protection, models risk, and opportunity risk were associated with change in heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions: An explanatory model based on both psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors was effective in accounting for variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking. A useful heuristic was demonstrated through the articulation of models, controls, support, opportunity, and vulnerability to characterize the social context, and of controls, vulnerability, and other behaviors to characterize individuals.

Elliott, Delbert S., University of Colorado; Scott Menard, Sam Houston State University; Bruce Rankin, Koc University (Turkey); Amanda Elliott, University of Colorado; William Julius Wilson, Harvard University; and David Huizinga, University of Colorado. Good Kids from Bad Neighborhoods: Successful Development in Social Context. Cambridge University Press, October 2006.

Abstract: Good Kids from Bad Neighborhoods: Successful Development in Social Context is a study of successful youth development in poor, disadvantaged neighborhoods in Denver and Chicago - a study of how children living in the worst neighborhoods develop or fail to develop the values, competencies, and commitments that lead to a productive, healthy, and responsible adult life. While there is a strong focus on neighborhood effects, the study employs a multicontextual model to take into account the effects of other social contexts embedded in the neighborhood that also influence development. The unique and combined influence of the neighborhood, family, school, peer group, and individual attributes on developmental success is estimated. The view that growing up in a poor, disadvantaged neighborhood condemns one to a life of repeated failure and personal pathology is revealed as a myth, as most youth in these neighborhoods are completing the developmental tasks of adolescence successfully.

Matsueda, Ross L., Derek A. Kreager, and David Huizinga. "Deterring delinquents: A rational choice model of theft and violence." American Sociological Review 71, no. 1 (2006):95-122.

Online Article

Abstract: Using data from the Denver Youth Survey, the authors examine a subjective utility approach and specify experiential learning models to understand the formation of risk perceptions for violent and property offending. The core finding is that perceived risk follows a Bayesian updating model "in which current risk perceptions are a function of prior risk perceptions plus new information based on experience with crime and arrest and observations of peers.

Thornberry, Terence P., Marvin D. Krohn, and Adrienne Freeman-Gallant. "Intergenerational roots of early onset substance use." Journal of Drug Issues 36, no. 1 (2006):1-28.

Online Article

Abstract: This paper examines intergenerational continuity in drug use across three successive generations of the families in the Rochester Intergenerational Study. Despite the common assumption that drug use "runs in families," there are no prior studies of this issue using prospective data from multiple generations. For the mothers in the Rochester study, maternal drug use during adolescence is significantly related to the child's early onset drug use. In addition, in these families grandmaternal use is also a risk factor for their grandchild's use. These same relationships are not observed in the families of fathers, however. Paternal use is not related to child use, nor is the grandmother's use related to child use in these families. The primary mechanism for these gender differences appears to be parental contact. Almost all mothers reside with their children and the grandmothers have frequent contact and childrearing responsibilities. Only a quarter of the fathers live with their children. The non-resident fathers (and the paternal grandmothers) have little contact with the child. Continued involvement is crucial for the intergenerational transfer of risk.

Jessor, Richard. "Foreword." In Good kids from bad neighborhoods:Successful Development in Social Context, by D.S. Elliott, S. Menard, A.C. Elliott, B. Rankin, W.J. Wilson, and D. Huizinga, Pp. x-xvi. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Turbin, Mark, Richard Jessor, Frances M. Costa, Qi Dong, Hongchuan Zhang, and Changhai Wang. "Protective and Risk Factors in Health-Enhancing Behavior Among Adolescents in China and the United States: Does Social Context Matter?" Health Psychology 25, no.4 (2006): 445-454.

Online Article

Abstract: An explanatory model of adolescent health-enhancing behavior based on protective and risk factors at the individual level and in four social contexts was employed in a study of school-based samples from the People's Republic of China (n = 1739) and the United States (n = 1596). A substantial account of variation in health-enhancing behavior-and of its developmental change over time-was provided by the model for boys and girls, and for the 3 grade cohorts, in both samples. In both samples, social context protective and risk factors accounted for more unique variance than did individual-level protective and risk factors, and context protection moderated both contextual and individual-level risk. Models protection and controls protection were of particular importance in the explanatory account.


Miklowitz, D. J. "Psychosocial treatments." In Fifty years of bipolar psychopharmacology, edited by H. Akiskal and M. Tohen. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

Morris, C. D., D. J. Miklowitz, S. R. Wisniewski, A. A. Giese, M. H. Allen, and M. R. Thomas. "Care satisfaction, hope, and life functioning among adults with bipolar disorder: data from the first 1,000 participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program." Comprehensive Psychiatry 46, no. 2 (2005):98-104.

Online Article

Abstract: Objective: The Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) is designed to evaluate the longitudinal outcome of patients with bipolar disorder. The STEP-BD disease-management model is built on evidence-based practices and a collaborative care approach designed to maximize specific and nonspecific treatment mechanisms. This prospective study examined the longitudinal relationships between patients' satisfaction with care, levels of hope, and life functioning in the first 1000 patients to enter STEP-BD.
Methods: The study used scores from the Care Satisfaction Questionnaire, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Range of Impaired Functioning Tool, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale at 5 time points during a 1-year interval. Analyses tested mediational pathways between care satisfaction, hope, and life functioning, depression, and mania using mixed-effects (random and fixed) regression models.
Results: Increases in care satisfaction were associated with decreased hopelessness (P < .01) but not related to symptoms of depression or mania. Similarly, decreased hopelessness was associated with better life functioning (P < .01) but not related to symptoms of depression or mania. Depression was independently associated with poorer life functioning (P < .0001).
Conclusions: This study provided support for the hypothesized mediational pathway between care satisfaction, hopelessness, and life functioning. Findings suggest that providing care that maximizes patient hope may be important. By so doing, patients might overcome the learned helplessness/hopelessness that often accompanies a cyclical illness and build a realistic illness-management strategy.

Miklowitz, D. J. "Psychological treatment and medication for the mood and anxiety disorders: moderators, mediators, and domains of outcome." Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 12, no. 1 (2005):97-99.

Online Article

Abstract: Studies that combine pharmacotherapy with psychological treatment for the mood and anxiety disorders must consider the role of moderators (pretreatment variables that specify the conditions under which treatments are effective) and mediators (change mechanisms in the causal pathways between treatments and outcomes) in explaining the impact of experimental treatments. This article gives examples of the kinds of moderators and mediators-both psychosocial and biological-that are important to examine in combination treatment studies. It conceptualizes outcome as involving multiple domains, including mood and anxiety symptoms, life functioning, and illness costs. Research should also examine the appropriate sequencing of pharmacological and psycho-social interventions and how this sequencing may vary from disorder to disorder.

Miklowitz, D. J., S. R. Wisniewski, S. Miyahara, M. W. Otto, and G. S. Sachs. "Perceived criticism from family members as a predictor of the one-year course of bipolar disorder." Psychiatry Research 136, no. 2-3 (2005):101-111.

Online Article

Abstract: Few studies have examined the prognostic value of family factors in the course of bipolar affective disorder. The current study examined a self-report measure of expressed emotion as a predictor of the 1-year course of the illness. Patients with bipolar disorder (N = 360) filled out the four-item Perceived Criticism Scale concerning one or more relatives or close friends. Independent evaluators followed patients over 1 year and rated them on measures of depressive and manic symptoms and the percentage of days in recovery status. Patients' ratings of the severity of criticisms from relatives did not predict patients' mood disorder symptoms at follow-up. However, patients who were more distressed by their relatives' criticisms had more severe depressive and manic symptoms and proportionately fewer days well during the study year than patients who were less distressed by criticisms. Patients who reported that their relatives became more upset by the patients' criticisms had less severe depressive symptoms at follow-up. Results indicate that a brief rating of subjective distress in response to familial criticism is a useful prognostic device and may aid in planning psychosocial interventions for patients with bipolar disorder.

Goldberg, J. F., M. H. Allen, D. J. Miklowitz, C. Bowden, C. J. Endick, C. A. Chessick, S. R. Wisnewski, S. Miyahara, K. Sagduyu, M. E. Thase, J. R. Calabrese, and G. S. Sachs. "Suicidal Ideation and Pharmacotherapy Among STEP-BD Patients." Psychiatric Services 56, no. 12 (2005):1534-1540.

Online Article

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the effects of lithium on suicidal ideation or about the possible antisuicidal effects of divalproex, second-generation antipsychotics, or antidepressants among persons with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, the authors examined patterns of psychotropic drug use relative to suicidal ideation among 1,000 patients with bipolar disorder in the National Institute of Mental Health's Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). RESULTS: The presence of suicidal ideation was similar between patients who were taking any lithium and those who were not (22.2 percent and 25.8 percent, respectively) and between those who were taking any divalproex and those who were not (20.3 percent and 21.5 percent). Suicidal ideation was significantly more prevalent among patients who were taking a second-generation antipsychotic than those who were not (26 percent and 17 percent) and those who were taking an antidepressant and those who were not (25 percent and 14 percent). After other variables had been controlled for, lithium prescriptions were significantly more common among patients who had suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with bipolar disorder who have suicidal ideation, antidepressants and second-generation antipsychotics appear to be prescribed by community practitioners more often than other medications, with lithium reserved for those with more severe illness characteristics.

Waxmonsky, J. A., M. R. Thomas, D. J. Miklowitz, M. H.Allen, S. R. Wisniewski, H. Zhang, M. Ostacher,and M.D. Fossey. "Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use in bipolar disorder: data from the first 2000 participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program." General Hospital Psychiatry 27, no. 5 (2005):321-328.

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Abstract: Objective: Only a few small descriptive studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among bipolar patients. We predicted that poorly controlled manic, depressed and mixed states, and the presence of psychotic symptoms, would be associated with a greater prevalence of smoking among patients with bipolar disorder. Method: We examined the prevalence of smoking in a cross-sectional sample of 1904 patients with bipolar disorder enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health's Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) database. We also examined the relationship between smoking and other factors including: bipolar subtype, current clinical status, illness severity (e.g., number of prior mood episodes), age of bipolar onset, gender, education, socioeconomic status, and concurrent substance use. Results: At STEP-BD program entry, 31.2% of patients reported that they were smokers. Patients who were male, less educated, and/or had lower income were more likely to be smokers (P<.01). Additionally, patients with rapid cycling, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and/or substance abuse, and those experiencing a current episode of illness were more likely to be smokers (P<.0001). More lifetime depressive and manic episodes as well as greater severity of depressive and manic symptoms were associated with smoking (P<.001). Use of atypical antipsychotic medications was more prevalent among smokers (P=.04). Conclusions: Clinical and demographic variables are associated with smoking in this sample of bipolar patients. Longitudinal analyses are needed to determine how mood and bipolar symptoms interact with smoking over the episodic course of bipolar disorder. Additional studies should focus on whether controlling bipolar symptoms is associated with cessation of smoking.

Mansour, H. A., M. E. Talkowski, J. Wood, M. Bamne, K. V. Chowdari, M. H. Allen, C. L. Bowden, J. Calabrese, R. S. El-Mallakh, A. Fagiolini, M. D. Fossey, E. Friedman, L. Gyulai, P. Hauser, J. Loftis, L. Marangell, D. J. Miklowitz, A. A. Nierenberg, J. Patel, G. Sachs, J. Smoller, M. E. Thase, E. Frank, D. J. Kupfer, and V. L. Nimgaonkar. "Serotonin Gene Polymorphisms and Bipolar I Disorder: Focus on the Serotonin Transporter." Annals of Medicine 37 (2005):590-602.

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Abstract: The pathogenesis of bipolar disorder may involve, at least in part, aberrations in serotonergic neurotransmission. Hence, serotonergic genes are attractive targets for association studies of bipolar disorder. We have reviewed the literature in this field. It is difficult to synthesize results as only one polymorphism per gene was typically investigated in relatively small samples. Nevertheless, suggestive associations are available for the 5HT2A receptor and the serotonin transporter genes. With the availability of extensive polymorphism data and high throughput genotyping techniques, comprehensive evaluation of these genes using adequately powered samples is warranted. We also report on our investigations of the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4 (17q11.1-q12). An insertion/deletion polymorphism (5HTTLPR) in the promoter region of this gene has been investigated intensively. However, the results have been inconsistent. We reasoned that other polymorphism/s may contribute to the associations and the inconsistencies may be due to variations in linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns between samples. Therefore, we conducted LD analyses, as well as association and linkage using 12 polymorphisms, including 5HTTLPR. We evaluated two samples. The first sample consisted of 135 US Caucasian nuclear families having a proband with bipolar I disorder (BDI, DSM IV criteria) and available parents. For case-control analyses, the patients from these families were compared with cord blood samples from local Caucasian live births (n = 182). Our second, independent sample was recruited through the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD, 545 cases, 548 controls). No significant associations were detected at the individual polymorphism or haplotype level using the case-control or family-based analyses. Our analyses do not support association between SLC6A4 and BDI families. Further studies using sub-groups of BDI are worthwhile.

Allen, M. H., C. A. Chessick, D. J. Miklowitz, S. R. Wisniewski, S. Miyahara, J. R. Calabrese, J. F. Goldberg, M. R. Thomas, C. L. Bowden, L. Marangell, G. S. Sachs, and M. S. Bauer. "Differing contributors to suicidal ideation among bipolar patients with and without a history of suicide attempts." Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 35, no. 6 (2005):671-680.

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Abstract: This study was designed to develop models for vulnerability to suicidal ideation in bipolar patients. Logistic regression models examined correlates of suicidal ideation in patients who had versus had not attempted suicide previously. Of 477 patients assessed, complete data on demographic, illness history, and personality variables were available on 243. The regression models achieved positive predictive values of 55% and 59% for the attempter (N = 92) and nonattempter groups (N = 151), respectively. Depression was cross-sectionally associated with suicidal ideation in both the attempter and nonattempter groups but made a smaller contribution among attempters. Poor psychosocial adaptation and the personality factor "openness" were stronger contributors to suicidal ideation among prior attempters while anxiety and extraversion appeared protective against ideation. Among nonattempters, depression, anxiety, and neuroticism were the predominant influences on suicidal ideation. Bipolar patients with suicidal ideation may benefit from different treatment strategies depending on their prior attempt status.

Miklowitz, D. J. "Bipolar affective disorder." In Corsini Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology and Neuroscience edited by C. Nemeroff and W. E. Craighead. London: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

Ozerdem, A., M. Oguz, D. J. Miklowitz, and Z. Tunca. "Family focused treatment in bipolar disorder: a case report from a cross-cultural perspective." Bipolar Disorders 7, suppl 2 (2005):58.

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Abstract: Family Focused Treatment (FFT) is a 9-month, 21 session outpatient program. It consists of 3 modules: (1) psychoeducation, (2) communication enhancement training; and (3) problemsolving training. Here, we present the first case who has been treated in our recently initiated FFT program in Izmir, Turkey.

Gyulai, L., M. S. Bauer, L. B. Marangell, S. R. Wisniewski, E. Dennehy, M. W. Otto, H. Zhang, D. J. Miklowitz, J. Kogan, C. Baldessano, D. R. Kim, C. G. Hahn, M. H. Rapaport, M. E. Thase, and G. S. Sachs. "Determinants of functioning in bipolar disorders - a study of patients in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD)." Bipolar Disorders 7, suppl 2 (2005):63.

Taylor, D. O., D. J. Miklowitz, E. L. George, K. L. Mullen, A. Biuckians, T. Goldstein, and W. Wardlaw. "Developmental pathways to adolescent bipolar disorder." Bipolar Disorders 7, suppl 2 (2005):106.

Radelet, Michael L. "Foreword," In Hidden Victims: The Effects of the Death Penalty on Families of the Accused by Susan Sharp, vii-x. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005.

Radelet, Michael L. Review of "Bill Kurtis, The Death Penalty on Trial." Judicature 89 (2005):87-89.

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Radelet, Michael L. "How Social Science Research Has Eroded Support for the Death Penalty in the U.S." Published in both English and Chinese In Living in a Society Without the Death Penalty, edited by Chih Kuang Wu. Taipei: Fujen University Press, 2005.

Pierce, Glenn L. and Michael L. Radelet "The Impact of Legally Inappropriate Factors on Death Sentencing for California Homicides, 1990-99." Santa Clara Law Review 46 (2005): 1-47.

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Abstract: This study examines the racial, ethnic, and geographical variations present in the imposition of the death penalty in California. In doing so, it analyzes all reported homicides committed in California during the 1990s, comparing those that resulted in a death sentence with those that did not.

Black, Tyra, Joanne Belknap, and Jennifer Ginsburg. "Racism, sexism and aggression: a study of black and white fraternities." In African American Fraternities and Sororities: The Legacy and the Vision, edited by T. L. Brown, G. S. Parks, and C. M. Phillips. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2005.

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Abstract: Rape has been referred to as the most prevalent serious crime on college campuses. Numerous studies report that college women are at significant risk of rape, and a study of college men found that one-third reported they would rape a woman if they knew they could get away with it. In the past two decades, a considerable amount of research has documented the problem of rape in college and university fraternities. This chapter summarizes the existing research on fraternities, alcohol/drugs, and rape, conducted almost exclusively on the White Greek system. The review of the existing studies is followed by a report on the findings of the only study to date which included the Black Greek system in a study on fraternities and aggression. There were four important points identified in our study. First, structural differences appeared to be the factor that contributed to the most major differences between Black and White fraternities. Second, Black and White fraternities did not interact on any level (although Blacks sometimes pledged White fraternities and a few Blacks attended White fraternity functions). Fraternity parties were almost completely segregated. Third, sexual assaults were more commonly reported in predominately White fraternities as compared to Black fraternities. Fourth, non-sexual physical violence appeared to be more common in Black fraternities as compared to White fraternities.

Smith, Carolyn A., Timothy O. Ireland, and Terence P. Thornberry. "Adolescent Maltreatment and Its Impact on Young Adult Antisocial Behavior." Child Abuse & Neglect 29, no. 10 (2005): 1099-1119.

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Abstract: Childhood maltreatment is known to be a risk factor for a range of later problems, but much less is known about adolescent maltreatment. The present study aims to investigate the impact of adolescent maltreatment on antisocial behavior, while controlling for prior levels of problem behavior as well as sociodemographic characteristics. Data are from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a cohort study of the development of problem behaviors in a sample of 1,000 urban youth followed from age 13 into adulthood. Subjects include 68% African American, 17% Hispanic, and 15% White youth. This analysis includes a maximum of 884 subjects, of whom 9.3% had substantiated maltreatment reports in adolescence. Among the maltreated adolescents, 14 experienced sex abuse, 36 experienced physical abuse, and 32 were neglected or emotionally abused. Outcomes explored in late adolescence (ages 16-18) and young adulthood (ages 20-22) include arrest, self-reported general and violent offending, and illicit drug use. Control variables include prior levels of these outcomes as well as sociodemographic characteristics like poverty, parent education, and caregiver changes.

Thornberry, Terence P. and Marvin D. Krohn. "Applying interactional theory to the explanation of continuity and change in antisocial behavior." In Integrated Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Offending, edited by David P. Farrington. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2005.

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Thornberry, Terence P. "Explaining Multiple Patterns of Offending across the Life Course and across Generations." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 602 (November 2005): 296-298.

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Abstract: Four general topics are discussed in this article. The first section uses data from the Rochester Youth Development Study to explore the development of antisocial careers across the life course. The second section presents interactional theory's explanation of offending. The theory recognizes that antisocial careers can begin at any point, from childhood through adulthood, and identifies causal influences associated with varying ages of onset. It then offers an explanation for changing patterns of offending. The third section presents an intergenerational extension of the theory, focusing specifically on the major pathways that mediate the impact of a parent's own adolescent antisocial behavior on the chances that his or her children will also show antisocial behavior. The final section tests key parts of this intergenerational theory using data from the Rochester Intergenerational Study. Adolescent antisocial behavior has indirect effects on a child's early delinquency, mediated by the disruption it causes to the parent's development and his or her subsequent style of parenting.

Thornberry, Terence P. "Notes on theory construction and theory testing: A response to Osgood and Lauritsen." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 602 (November 2005): 229-239.

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Brame, Robert, Shawn D. Bushway, Raymond Paternoster, and Thornberry, Terence P. "Temporal Linkages in Violent and Nonviolent Criminal Activity." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 21, no. 2 (2005): 149 - 174.

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Abstract: Research on the temporal distribution of criminal behavior has highlighted two distinct mechanisms-population heterogeneity and state dependence. Most of this work indicates that long-term patterns of criminal offending reflect a mixture of stable individual differences and the causal effect of life events and experiences. Yet several ambiguities remain. Among the most important of these problems is whether both population heterogeneity and state dependence processes operate for different types of offending. We use longitudinal official record and self-report data for violent and non-violent offending activity from the Rochester Youth Development Study to address these ambiguities.

Jessor, Richard. "Remarks on the Changing Nature of Inquiry." Journal of Adolescent Problem 37, no. 1 (2005): 9-10.

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Abstract: Richard Jessor's address upon receiving the Outstanding Achievement in Adolescent Medicine Award from the Society for Adolescent Medicine in Los Angeles, California, on April 1, 2005.

Jessor, Richard. "Chapters 1, 2." In Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries, edited by Cynthia B. Lloyd, xix + 700. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2005.

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Abstract: The volume was edited by Cynthia Lloyd of the Population Council who served as Chair of the Panel on Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. The panel members were an interdisciplinary group of 15 economists, demographers, adolescent physicians, and behavioral scientists who met frequently-in Washington, Mexico City, and Boulder-and who worked together over a three-year period to produce the final report. The volume provides an assessment of the impact of the changing global context-technological, political, economic, cultural, etc.-- on the way young people are moving to adulthood in the developing world. It presents a conceptual framework for understanding how changes at the global level can affect the daily lives of youth, and it provides in-depth reviews of changes that have been underway in recent decades in the domains of schooling, health, work, citizenship, marriage, and parenthood in the world's developing countries.
Chapter 1: C. Lloyd and R. Jessor
Chapter 2: B. Cohen, R. Jessor, H. Reed, C. Lloyd, J. Behrman and D. Lam
"Richard Jessor served as the panel's theoretician and conscience. He challenged us to develop a conceptual framework that would outlive the temporal nature of our material, provided all of us with lots of good humor along the way, and provided me most importantly with a helpful sounding board throughout the project." - Cynthia Lloyd

Costa, Frances M., Richard Jessor, Mark S. Turbin, Qi Dong, Hongchuan Zhang, and Changhai Wang. "The Role of Social Contexts in Adolescence: Context Protection and Context Risk in the United States and China." Applied Developmental Science 9, no. 2 (2005): 67-85.

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Abstract: A theoretical framework about protective factors (models protection, controls protection, support protection) and risk factors (models risk, opportunity risk, vulnerability risk) was employed to articulate the content of 4 key contexts of adolescent life —family, peers, school, and neighborhood— in a cross-national study of problem behavior among 7th-, 8th-, and 9th-grade adolescents in the United States (n = 1,596) and the People's Republic of China (n = 1,739). Results were very similar in both samples and across genders. Measures of protection and risk in each of the 4 contexts uniquely contributed to the account of problem behavior involvement even when individual-level measures of protection and risk were controlled. Context protection was also shown to moderate individual-level risk and protection in 1 context moderated risk within that context and in other contexts. Controls protection —protection provided by rules, regulations, and expected sanctions for transgression from adults and peers— was the most important measure of context protection in all but 1 context. The family and peer contexts were the most influential in the U.S. sample, and the peer and school contexts were the most influential in the Chinese sample; the neighborhood context was least influential in both samples.

Henry, Kimberly L., R.C. Swaim, and M.D. Slater. "Intraindividual Variability of School Bonding and Adolescents' Beliefs About the Effect of Substance Use on Future Aspirations." Prevention Science 6, no. 2 (2005): 101-12.

Abstract: The study examines the dynamic relationship between school bonding,beliefs about the deleterious effects of substance use on future aspirations, and subsequent substance use among a sample of 1065 male and female middle school students. First, a mediation model was assessed. Adolescents' perceptions about the harmful effects of substance use on their future aspirations emerged as a salient mediator of the relationship between school bonding and subsequentsubstance use. Second, the intraindividual variability of school bonding and its effect on students' beliefs about the potential harm of substance use on future aspirations was assessed through random-coefficient models. Students who tended to be poorly bonded to school were less likely to perceive that substance use may impede the attainment of their future goals. Furthermore, a strong intraindividual effect of school bonding was observed, indicating that as a student became more or less bonded to school his/her belief that substance use could affect future aspirations similarly changed.


Miklowitz, D. J., Elizabeth L. George, David A. Axelson, Eunice Y. Kim, Boris Birmaher, Christopher Schneck, Carol Beresford, W. Edward Craighead, and David A. Brent. "Family-focused treatment for adolescents with bipolar disorder." Journal of Affective Disorders 82, no. 1001 (2004): S113-S128.

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Abstract: Background: Research has begun to elucidate the optimal pharmacological treatments for pediatric-onset bipolar patients, but few studies have examined the role of psychosocial interventions as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy in maintenance treatment. This article describes an adjunctive family-focused psychoeducational treatment for bipolar adolescents (FFT-A). The adult version of FFT has been shown to be effective in forestalling relapses in two randomized clinical trials involving bipolar adults.

Methods: FFT-A is administered to adolescents who have had an exacerbation of manic, depressed, or mixed symptoms within the last 3 months. It is given in 21 outpatient sessions of psychoeducation, communication enhancement training, and problem solving skills training. We describe modifications to the adult FFT model to address the developmental issues and unique clinical presentations of pediatric-onset patients.

Results: An open treatment trial involving 20 bipolar adolescents (11 boys, 9 girls; mean age 14.8±1.6) found that the combination of FFT-A and mood stabilizing medications was associated with improvements in depression symptoms, mania symptoms, and behavior problems over 1 year.

Limitations: These early results are based on a small-scale open trial.

Conclusions: Results from an ongoing randomized controlled trial will clarify whether combining FFT-A with pharmacotherapy improves the 2-year course of adolescent bipolar disorder. If the results are positive, then a structured manual-based psychosocial approach will be available for clinicians who treat adolescent bipolar patients in the community.

Boardman, J. D. "Health Pessimism among Black and White Adults: The Role of Interpersonal and Institutional Maltreatment." Social Science & Medicine 59, no. 12 (2004): 2523-33.

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Abstract: Using data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study (N = 1106) this paper finds that black adults report significantly worse self-rated health when compared to whites with similar levels of self-reported morbidity. This relationship, called health pessimism, persists despite statistical controls for age, gender, socioeconomic status, health care access, and health related behaviors. Interpersonal maltreatment is found to be positively associated with health pessimism and more importantly, when comparing adults who perceive similar levels of maltreatment, white and black adults do not differ with respect to health pessimism. This suggests that the increased risk of health pessimism among black adults is due in part to race differences in the perception of interpersonal maltreatment.

Boardman, J. D. "Stress and Physical Health: The Role of Neighborhoods as Mediating and Moderating Mechanisms." Social Science & Medicine 58, no. 12 (2004): 2473-83.

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Abstract: Using data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study (N = 1106) in conjunction with tract-level data from the 1990 census, this paper evaluates the relationship between residential stability and physical health among black and white adults. Results suggest that neighborhood-level variation in health is primarily mediated by key sociodemographic characteristics of individuals (e.g., age, race, and socioeconomic status). However, a significant portion of health differentials across neighborhoods is due to disparate stress levels across neighborhoods. Further, high levels of neighborhood stability provide an important buffer to the otherwise deleterious effects of increased stress levels on adults' overall health.

Chesney-Lind, Meda, and Joanne Belknap. "Trends in Delinquent Girls - Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review of the Evidence." In Aggression, Antisocial Behavior, and Violence among Girls: A Developmental Perspective, edited by M. Putallaz and K L. Bierman. New York: The Guilford Press, 2004.

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Abstract: From leading authorities, this book traces the development of female aggression and violence from early childhood through adulthood. Cutting-edge theoretical perspectives are interwoven with longitudinal data that elucidate the trajectories of aggressive girls' relationships with peers, later romantic partners, and with their own children. Key issues addressed include the predictors of social and physical aggression at different points in the lifespan, connections between being a victim and a perpetrator, and the interplay of biological and sociocultural processes in shaping aggression in girls. Concluding commentaries address intervention, prevention, juvenile justice, and related research and policy initiatives.

Elliott, D. S. and S. Mihalic. "Issues in Disseminating and Replicating Effective Prevention Programs." Prevention Science 5, no. 1 (2004): 47-53.

Abstract: The new frontier for prevention research involves building a scientific knowledge base on how to disseminate and implement effective prevention programs with fidelity. Toward this end, a brief overview of findings from the Blueprints for Violence Prevention-Replication Initiative is presented, identifying factors that enhance or impede a successful implementation of these programs. Findings are organized around five implementation tasks: site selection, training, technical assistance, fidelity, and sustainability. Overall, careful attention to each of these tasks, together with an independent monitoring of fidelity, produced a successful implementation with high fidelity and sustainability. A discussion of how these findings inform the present local adaptation-fidelity debate follows.

Mihalic, Sharon F. "The Importance of Implementation Fidelity." Emotional & Behavioral Disorders in Youth 4, no. 4 (2004): 83-105.

Abstract: Over the past several years, a large amount of information has been collected on the risk and protective factors for violence. Research has also identified prevention programs that can modify these risk and protective factors. The Blueprints initiative has been in the forefront in identifying exemplary programs that have been evaluated in rigorous, controlled trials, and much attention has been focused nationally on selecting and implementing quality programs. However, identification of effective programs is only the first step in the efforts to prevent and control violence. Widespread implementation of effective programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of violent crime unless there is careful attention given to the quality of implementation- the degree to which a program is delivered as intended (American Youth Policy Forum, 1999; Biglan & Taylor, 2000; Lipsey, 1999). Research demonstrates that successful implementation is not guaranteed by a site's decision to adopt a best practices program. Many science-based programs have been adopted in different settings with widely varying outcomes. In fact, a high-quality implementation of a less promising program may be more effective than a low-quality implementation of a best practice program (Gottfredson et al., 2000; Wilson & Lipsey, 2000).

Thornberry, Terence P. Developmental Theories of Crime and Delinquency, Advances in Criminological Theory, V. 7. New Brunswick, N.J. London: Transaction, 2004.

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Abstract: In Developmental Theories of Crime and Delinquency, Terence P. Thornberry and his contributors show that criminal behavior is not a static human attribute, but ebbs and flows over the life course of the individual. Criminal behavior tends to follow a distinct psychological pattern. It is relatively uncommon during childhood, is initiated by most offenders during adolescence, flourishes during late adolescence and early childhood, and usually diminishes or disappears by the mid-twenties. This pattern is not characteristic of all people —some never commit crimes and others become career criminals— but it is a general description of the developmental pattern of criminal offenders. This pattern has profound implications for theories of crime and delinquency. Not only does it explain initiation into, maintenance of, and desistance from involvement in crime, it offers insight into why crime flourishes during adolescence.

Smith, Carolyn A., Terence P. Thornberry, and Timothy O. Ireland. "Adolescent Maltreatment and Its Impact: Timing Matters." The Prevention Researcher 11, no. 1 (2004): 7-11.

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Abstract: There is a well-developed literature examining the immediate consequences of experiencing maltreatment during childhood. However, because of the problems of conducting longitudinal studies which follow subjects over many years, less is known about the long-term consequences of maltreatment. Using the Rochester Youth Development study, a longitudinal study that followed a sample of seventh and eighth grade students into adulthood, the impact of the timing of maltreatment was examined. Youth were grouped into four categories: a) those who were never maltreated, b) those who were maltreated in childhood only, c) those who were maltreated in adolescence only, and d) those who were maltreated during both childhood and adolescence. Subjects were compared on a number of outcome variables which have been previously linked to maltreatment.

Thornberry, Terence P., David Huizinga, and Rolf Loeber. "The Causes and Correlates Studies: Findings and Policy Implications." Juvenile Justice 9 (2004): 3-19.

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Abstract: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency constitutes the largest, most comprehensive investigation of the causes and correlates of delinquency ever undertaken. The authors summarize a few of the many empirical findings generated by these studies and relevant policy implications.

Thornberry, Terence P., Carolyn A. Smith, and Susan Ehrhard. "Teenage Fatherhood and Involvement in Delinquent Behavior." The Prevention Researcher 11, no. 4 (2004): 10-13.

Abstract: Becoming a teen father can lead to negative consequences for both the young father and his offspring. It is important to understand the process that leads some young men into fatherhood while others delay it until they are more developmentally ready. One possibility is that becoming a teen father is part of a more general deviant lifestyle. The authors explore the link between teen fatherhood and other problem behaviors- delinquency and drug use. Data from this longitudinal study comes from the Rochester Youth Development Study. Adolescents (and their primary caretakers) were interviewed from seventh or eighth grades until their early 20s. Over a quarter (28%) of the young males in this study reported fathering a child before the age of twenty. Risk factors for becoming a teen father included high levels of violent delinquency and high levels of drug use. However, once they reached adulthood, the teen fathers were no more likely than the young men who delayed fatherhood to be involved in general delinquency or violent delinquency. A number of implications for this research are explored.

Menard, Scott. "Six Approaches to Calculating Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients." The American Statistician 58, no. 3 (2004): 218-23

Abstract: Six alternative approaches to constructing standardized logistic regression coefficients are reviewed. The least attractive of the options is the one currently most readily available in logistic regression software, the unstandardized coefficient divided by its standard error (which is actually the normal distribution version of the Wald statistic). One alternative suggested in Agresti (1996) has the advantage of simplicity, while a slightly more complex alternative suggested in Menard (1995) most closely parallels the standardized coefficient in ordinary least squares regression, in the sense of being based on variance in the dependent variable and the predictors. The sixth alternative, based on information theory, may be the best from a conceptual standpoint, but unless and until appropriate algorithms are constructed to simplify its calculation, its use is limited to relatively simple logistic regression models in practical application.

Bedau, Hugo Adam, Michael L. Radelet, and Constance E. Putnam. "Convicting the Innocent in Capital Cases: Criteria, Evidence, and Inference." Drake Law Review 52, no. Summer 2004 (2004): 587-603.

Abstract: The lead article in a symposium on "Wrongful Convictions," this paper documents a dramatic decrease in public support for the death penalty over the past half-decade, attributing that drop (in large part) to an increasing recognition of the problem of wrongful convictions. The authors discuss not only factual innocence (where the convicted person had no involvement in the homicide), but also procedural innocence (where the person sentenced to death should have been convicted of non-capital homicide or acquitted because of insanity or because the death was actually accidental). They also argue that recent advances in DNA technology will not guarantee infallibility in capital punishment, since the vast majority of homicides do not leave biological clues for DNA testing.

Belknap, Joanne. "Meda Chesney-Lind: The Mother of Feminist Criminology." Women & Criminal Justice 15, no. 2 (2004): 1-23.

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Abstract: No individual has contributed as much to feminist criminology as Meda Chesney-Lind. This article is a biography of Chesney-Lind conducted by two interviews with her, and a careful reading of her work and other works written about her. Feminism was always a strong force in Chesney-Lind's life. Her childhood was difficult, but positively affected by her strong mother. In college and graduate school, Chesney-Lind became a political activist. She "fell into" her master's work on delinquent girls, which began a career that has significantly impacted criminology and raised awareness about delinquent girls and incarcerated women. This biography describes how Chesney-Lind's early life experiences critically affected her career as a criminologist. Additionally, this essay illustrates a scholar who has changed the field of criminology despite a large portion of her academic life spent marginalized in a community college.

Gaarder, Emily, and Joanne Belknap. "Little Women: Girls in Adult Prison." Women & Criminal Justice 15, no. 2 (2004): 51-80.

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Abstract: Despite the growing trend of waiving youth charged with offenses to adult/criminal court, little is known about how these youth who are convicted experience adult prison. To date, nothing is known about girls in adult prisons. This study is an exception, where intensive interviews were conducted with 22 girls serving time in a women's prison in the Midwest. Additionally, four staff working in the "girls' unit" were interviewed. The findings describe the complex lives of girls housed in an adult women's prison and the need to highlight the experiences of this deeply marginalized group.

Entries in The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods, 2004 (Vol. 3). M. S. Lewis-Beck, A. E. Bryman, & T. F. Liao (Eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Scott Menard
"Standardized Regression Coefficient"
"Logit Models"
"Longitudinal Research"
"Period Effects"
"Polytomous Variables"
"Proportional Reduction of Error (PRE)"

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Abstract: Each entry is written by a leading authority in the field, covering both quantitative and qualitative methods. This unique multi-volume reference set offers readers an all-encompassing education in the ways of social science researchers. Written to be accessible to general readers, entries do not require any advanced knowledge or experience to understand the purposes and basic principles of any of the methods. The Encyclopedia features two major types of entries: definitions, consisting of a paragraph or two, provide a quick explanation of a methodological term; and topical treatments or essays discussing the nature, history, application/example and implication of using a certain method.

Mihalic, Sharon, and T. Aultman-Bettridge. "A Guide to Effective School-Based Prevention Programs." In School Crime and Policing, edited by W. L. Turk. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004.