IBS Newsletter

January-February 1999


Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado


Kudos

Delbert S. Elliott received an award from the US Department of Juvenile Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, on December 10 at the annual meeting. The award reads, "In recognition of Delbert S. Elliott whose achievements have made the future safer and brighter for children and families in America's communities."

Program Activities

Environment and Behavior Program

Charles W. Howe participated in the first meeting of the Lead Authors Group for the Third Assessment Review of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The meeting was held in Geneva on January 4-8. Howe is one of a group of six responsible for assessing the current state of knowledge concerning the likely impacts of climate change on water systems, adaptation options, and implications for water management. The work involves an exhaustive literature review and assessment. While the team works primarily through e-mail, a follow-up meeting will be held in London in the spring.

Gilbert F. White took part in a meeting of Plan Boulder County on January 15 when there was long discussion of environmental problems involved in present and prospective use of the 306 acres known as the Flatirons Property. Much of the property is floodplain, and its use will affect the flood hazard for about 2,500 residences in the South Boulder Creek floodplain.

Natural Hazards Center

David L. Butler attended the Global Consultation Meeting on Disaster Information Centers of the World Health Organization and Pan American Health Organization on November 18-20 in San Jose, Costa Rica. He presented a paper, "Natural Hazards Information: Problems, Solutions, Current Services, Future Possibilities." He also participated in a panel on "Dissemination of Technical Information on Emergencies and Disasters: A Global Picture," and chaired a working group on the integration of global disaster information resources.

Environment and Behavior Program
In Print

Gilbert F. White. 1998. "Reflections on the 50-year International Search for Integrated Water Management." Water Policy, Vol 1, pp. 21-27. In the roughly 70 years since the concept of integrated water management in river basins replaced primarily single-purpose management, there has been increasing question by international science and policy agencies as to the fulfillment of the notions underlying sustainable development. The experience suggests there is continuing urgent need for expanding the range of management measures considered as part of the planning process; for deepening the quality of criteria to judge each measure for reconciling the various evaluation principles; and for making incisive, correct post-audits of what actually resulted from their applications. It also reminds us that realization of the full potential of truly integrated water management may be very long in coming. Problems of improved analysis and of necessary institutional reform are formidable.

Political and Economic Change Program

Keith E. Maskus attended the Allied Social Sciences Association meeting on January 3-5 in New York City. He presented an invited paper (co-authored with Christine McDaniel), "Impacts of the Japanese Patent System on Productivity Growth." This paper computes growth rates in Japanese total factor productivity and relates them to measures of Japanese and foreign patenting over the period 1960-92. The results indicate that Japan's liberal treatment of utility models and its practice of disclosing patent applications before granting protection served effectively to diffuse technical information into the economy, with a positive impact on productivity growth. During the meeting he was also a member of panel discussion on worker rights and international trade policy. On December 12, Maskus presented a talk, "Globalization and International Economic Organizations," to the Boulder County League of Women Voters. The talk was a review of the role of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization in promoting and managing globalization pressures.

Betrall L. Ross, an undergraduate intern in the Program on Political and Economic Change, has recently been the recipient of a number of awards for his academic achievements. He won the prestigious British Marshall scholarship (one of 40 students in the United States last year), a $30,000 Woodrow Wilson Fellowship for graduate study, summa cum laude and Dean's Lists designations in the College of Arts and Sciences, and membership in Phi Beta Kappa. He is a senior in International Affairs and will graduate in May 1999. For the past year, Ross has been an undergraduate research assistant for John O'Loughlin working on the "transition to democracy in Ukraine" project, funded by a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates supplementary award.

Problem Behavior Program

Scott W. Menard attended Juvenile Justice and Substance Abuse National Planning Meeting, sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, in Annapolis, Maryland on November 3-6. He presented the invited paper "Prevalence and Frequency of Substance Abuse and Delinquent Behavior" (one of five papers commissioned for this meeting). In the paper, the following five conclusions are made. 1) Available data on the prevalence of substance use are fairly good; data on prevalence of illegal behavior are fairly poor. Available data on the frequency of both substance use and illegal behavior are poor, and available data on the frequency of victimization for predatory crimes are fairly good. 2) Available data on substance use are more consistent with respect to period trends, developmental trends, and correlates of substance use, rather than with respect to precise estimates of annual prevalence. 3) Currently available data on substance abuse among arrestees are based on urban arrestees. These data vary from city to city and from region to region, and may not be applicable to less urban areas in the same region or to other urban areas not included in the sample of cities. 4) In early adolescence, substance use appears to be a marker but not a risk factor for other illegal behavior. (In fact, other illegal behavior may be a risk factor for substance use, but it seems more likely that the two are spuriously related.) In early to middle adulthood, however, serious illicit substance use does appear to be a risk factor for other serious illegal offenses. 5) Both general population self-report surveys and arrestee samples using urinalysis to detect illicit drugs could benefit from the additional collection of radioimmunoassay of hair data, and serious consideration should be given to the collection of true frequency data in self-report surveys.

Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence

Jennifer K. Grotpeter attended the second annual Crime Mapping Research Conference in Washington, DC on December 10-12.

Delbert S. Elliott delivered the opening keynote speech, "Violent Careers: Implications for the Prevention and Control of Violence," at the RAND Criminal Justice Program's Workshop on "Balancing Investments in Prisons, Police and Prevention: How States Implement Crime-Fighting Strategies." The conference was held January 15-17 in Santa Monica, California.

Problem Behavior Program
In Print

Richard Jessor, Mark S. Turbin, and Frances M. Costa. 1998. "Risk and Protection in Successful Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Adolescents." Applied Developmental Science, 2(4), pp. 194-208. The role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in successful adolescent development under circumstances of socioeconomic disadvantage was investigated among 1,638 high school students in a large, urban school district. Success referred to two important developmental tasks: engagement in school and avoiding more than minimal involvement in problem behavior. Significant negative effects on success were found for disadvantage and for risk factors, whereas protective factors had significant positive effects. In addition, protection moderated the effects of risk, especially for more disadvantaged youth. Further, in longitudinal analyses, both risk and protective factors accounted for significant variance in change in successful outcomes over time and development. Key risk factors are Low Expectations for Success, Low Self-Esteem, Hopelessness, and having Friends as Models for Problem Behavior. Key protective factors are Attitudinal Intolerance of Deviance, Positive Orientation to Health, and having Friends as Models for Conventional Behavior. Strengthening protective factors, as well as reducing risk, may enhance successful development, especially in disadvantaged life circumstances.


BITS and BYTES from SSDAC

The Social Science Data Analysis Center has CensusCD+Maps from Geolytics (http://www.geolytics.com) available for the analysis and mapping of Census data. The CD includes STF 3 data from the 1990 Census and several supplemental data sets including more recent data and projections. It can be used to make thematic maps directly and also has an interface to ArcView (site licensed at CU). The CD will be used by the Population Processes and Problem Behavior Programs. Contact the SSDAC for a demonstration.

See http://www.colorado.edu/IBS/DAC/news.html at the SSDAC Web site for more computing news. If you have computing problems, questions, or comments, send e-mail to SSDAC@Colorado.EDU.


Profile: Edward Greenberg

Delving Deeper into Corporate Restructuring:
Effects on the Employees

Edward S. Greenberg has been at the University of Colorado since 1973. He served as chair of the Political Science Department from 1985 to 1998 and has been the Director of the Program on Political and Economic Change at IBS since 1979. He received a BS in Chemistry from Miami University (Ohio) in 1964 and a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1969. He held faculty positions at Stanford University (1968-1972) and Indiana University (1972-73 AY). His research has been supported by major grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.


I and my colleague, Leon Grunberg (Comparative Sociology at the University of Puget Sound), have been studying the effects on employees of major restructuring at one of America's leading manufacturing corporations with the help of a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Our focus in this research is on three major aspects of restructuring: downsizing (we are investigating "survivors" of downsizing), job redesign, and the introduction of work teams and other forms of organizational "flattening." We believe that these changes are having a broad range of outcome effects on employees, including job attitudes, work performance, mental outlooks, family relations, political orientations and behavior, and alcohol behavior, including intake, dependence, and negative incidents.

The study, which is longitudinal-panel in its design, will survey the same set of employees at two points in time, two years apart. Such a design will allow us to track employee layoff, job redesign, and teaming experiences and relate changes in each to the set of outcome effect variables in which we are interested. The second-stage survey will be done in the fall of 1999. We completed the first-stage survey last year, and are now deeply into the process of analyzing the data from that cross-section survey and writing papers for conferences and publication. Our sample includes 2,279 employees from all levels of the company's organization. A wide range of occupations and job skills is represented, from design engineers, to accountants, clerical workers, and hourly machinists. The first survey was preceded by a year of field work that included interviews and focus groups with a diverse set of employees and their managers.

Because our interests are so broad and because we find ourselves in the middle of the data analysis, I cannot present a complete or coherent picture of our findings. There are some very interesting nuggets, however, including the following:

Additional nuggets should emerge over the next two years. Leon Grunberg and I are particularly interested in the learning more about the "over time" effects of organizational restructuring.


Funding Opportunities

The Office of Contracts and Grants (OCG) offers current information in a new database of funded project accounts at the Boulder campus on the Web at http://www.colorado.edu/ocg/. Their homepage provides information about all existing funded projects, including the title of the project, sponsor, principal investigator, period of performance, cumulative funding amount, etc. It also provides direct connection to Community of Science. This connection allows access to a database of funding opportunities and sponsoring agency information plus access to the Federal Register and the Commerce Business Daily. Additionally, the monthly OCG newsletter is accessible on their Web site. Please contact Karen Springfield or Larry Nelson at 303-492-6221 for comments, suggestions, and questions.

National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research and Division of Mathematical Sciences announce a joint competition for a limited number of mid-career research fellowships in the social, behavioral, economic, and statistical sciences. The purpose of the fellowships is to facilitate the development of innovative methods and models for understanding complex social and behavioral science phenomena through interactions among statisticians and social, behavioral, or economic scientists. The complete text of the grant proposal guide (including forms) is available through the NSF Web site at http://www.nsf.gov. Paper copies may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, 301-947-2722 or by e-mail from pubs@nsf.gov.


Research Proposals Funded

Problem Behavior Program

D.S. Elliott
Blueprints for violence prevention: drug program
DOJ, OJJDP, 10/01/98 - 09/30/01 new, $4,999,963


Research Proposals Submitted

Population Processes Program

J.A. Menken
Population aging center
NIH, 07/01/99 - 06/30/04, new, $1,084,344

J.A. Menken
Healthy aging in rural populations
Rand Corp, 08/01/99 - 09/30/00, cont, $45,924

J.A. Menken
Social networks and adult survival in rural Bangladesh
Harvard, 12/01/99 - 11/30/02, new, $192,479

Environment and Behavior Program

J.T. McCabe
Examining the intensification of pastoral systems in the African savanna: a case study from northern Tanzania
NSF, 07/01/99 - 06/30/02, new, $195,597

J.L. Westcoat, Jr.
Water poverty and sustainable livelihoods in Colorado NSF, 08/01/99 - 07/31/02, new, $257,591

Problem Behavior Program

F.W. Dunford
Continuing the San Diego Navy experiment
San Diego State University Foundation, 01/01/99 - 12/31/01, new, $1,211,922

F.W. Dunford
Determine the equivalency of two experimental samples
Navy, 01/15/99 - 01/14/00, new, $16,124


Upcoming Colloquia

There is an online listing of upcoming and recent colloquia.


Institute of Behavioral Science

Richard Jessor, Institute Director


IBS Newsletter

Sugandha Brooks, Newsletter Editor
Richard L. Cook, Web site coordinator


Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado at Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309-0483

(303) 492-8147

IBS@Colorado.EDU