Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado
John V. O'Loughlin and V. Kolossov presented their paper, "Pseudo-States as harbingers of a new geopolitics: The Example of the Trans-Dniester Moldovan Republic" at the International Geographic Union, Commission on the World Political Map meeting on "Nationalism and Identity in the Post Cold War World." The meeting was held at the National University of Ireland, Maynooth and Queens University, Belfast, August 16-23, 1998.
James R. Scarritt attended the African Studies Association meeting in Chicago on October 28-November 1. He presented his paper "Sustaining Transitions to Democracy and the Potential for Democratic Consolidation in Africa: A Theoretical Framework." The paper provides a theoretical framework for explaining democratic sustainability and predicting the potential for democratic consolidation in African countries. Justification is given for focusing on the strength, internal democracy, and interaction among selected political institutions, and hypotheses about the relationships between these variables, and democratic sustainability and consolidation potential are presented. Suggestions are made regarding the types of data that should be gathered to test these hypotheses.
On November 6, Paul J. Kubicek participated in a symposium "Turkey and Europe, 1923-1998" held at the University of Michigan to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Turkish Republic. He presented a paper, "History, Identity, and Nationalism: the Units of Turkish Europeanization," which argues that efforts to create a 'European' identity among Turks have had incomplete results and that differences in values help account for frictions in Turkish-European relations. The Consul General of Turkey and a large Armenian-American contingent were present, and there was heated discussion on Turkish democracy, the Kurdish question, and the Armenian-Turkish dispute over atrocities during World War I.
O'Loughlin, John and V. Kolossov. 1998. "New Borders for New World Orders: Territorialities at the Fin-de-Siecle." Geojournal, 44, pp. 259-273.
The impetus for the revival of limology (border studies) comes from the global context of a post Cold War order, which has led to challenges to existing political arrangements, and from the identity turn in human geography and related disciplines. The study of frontiers and borders needs to be integrated into the main theories of the discipline. World-system theory, long criticized for its lack of a territorial footing, offers an opportunity for extension of its three geographic scales (world-economy, nation-state and locality) to incorporate two newly-emerging spatial dimensions at the macro-regional (bloc) and sub-national levels. Global and geopolitical trends, as well as shifting identities at national and sub-national scales, are reviewed and their effects on the changing scales of territoriality are reviewed. A geographic model illustrating the shifting and overlapping nature of borders is developed based on the contemporary developments in Eastern Europe. The case of contemporary Ukraine, as an example of state and nation building, shows these geopolitical changes as complex and dynamic.
O'Loughlin, John, M.D. Ward, C.L. Lofdahl, J.S. Cohen, D.S. Brown, D. Reilly, K.S. Gleditsch, and M. Shin. 1998. "The Diffusion of Democracy, 1946-1994." Annals, Association of American Geographers, 88, pp. 545-574.
This article presents research that reveals the relationship between the temporal and spatial aspects of democratic diffusion in the world system since 1946. The authors show strong and consistent evidence of temporal clustering of democratic and autocratic trends as well as strong spatial association (or autocorrelation) of democratization. The analysis uses an exploratory data approach in a longitudinal framework to understand global and regional trends in changes in authority structures. The article reveals discrete changes in regimes that run counter to the dominant aggregate trends of democratic waves or sequences, demonstrating how the ebb and flow of democracy varies among the world's regions. The authors conclude that further analysis of the process of regime change from autocracy to democracy, as well as reversals, should start from a "domain-specific" position that dis-aggregates the globe into its regional mosaics.
Greenberg, Edward S., Leon Grunberg, and Sarah Moore. 1998. "Work stress and Alcohol Behavior: A Test of the Spillover Model." Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, pp. 487-502.
Although previous research has found weak support for the model of stressful work "spilling over" to negative coping responses during nonwork hours, the authors argue that a variety of conceptual and methodological problems may partially explain the weak and inconsistent findings. Two important shortcomings are inadequately specified models and a failure to consider nonescapist responses to job-related stress. The article proposes that there may be escapist (i.e., increased drinking, working though job dissatisfaction for those who believe that alcohol consumption is an effective means to reduce stress) and nonescapist (i.e., decreased drinking for those who are dissatisfied with their jobs but do not believe alcohol is an effective coping strategy) responses to work stress. These hypotheses were tested on a sample of 972 production workers in the Pacific northwest. Results show moderate support for the existence of both escapist and nonescapist responses to job-related stresses.
O'Loughlin, John, V. Kolossov, and A. Tchepalyga. 1998. "National Construction, Territorial Separatism and Post-Soviet Geopolitics in the Trans-Dniester Moldovan Republic." Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 39, pp. 332-358.
The Trans-Dniester Moldovan Republic (TMR) is representative of a new kind of quasi-state that has emerged from the geopolitical debris of the former Soviet Union. Starting at the time of the end of the Soviet Union, this mixed ethnic region east of the Dniester River has tried to assert its autonomous status. The aftermath of the war between the TMR and Moldova has resulted in a stalemate with the presence of Russian troops and a state of "cold peace" across the Dniester. The TMR authorities have been successful in promoting a new regional identity and have tried to construct a national consciousness that is civic-based but relies on close economic and social ties to Russia. Economic and population trends have been strongly negative since 1991 for the region, and attempts to replace Soviet-era economic links have generally failed. The positions of the parties to the crisis are reviewed, the current situation is described, and possible resolution scenarios are outlined. In the next few decades, we can expect to see more examples of this kind of "pseudo-state" that retains a precarious, unrecognized status in the geopolitical interstices of great power control.
Rogers, Richard G., Robert A. Hummer, and Isaac W. Eberstein. September 1998. "Sociodemographic Differentials in Adult Mortality: A Review of Analytic Approaches." Population and Development Review, 24(3) pp. 553-578.
Sociodemographic differences in US adult mortality, although increasingly better documented, remain poorly understood. Differential mortality studies often adopt descriptive approaches that are narrow in scope and conceptually ambiguous. Following a discussion of the conventional approaches used to analyze differentials in adult mortality, the authors pose a series of questions aimed at encouraging research on differential mortality along new, causally pertinent directions. These include the modeling of differential mortality in a proximate determinants perspective, the incorporation of time into differential mortality models, the inclusion of more refined outcome measures, and the use of a macro-level perspective to better understand mortality differentials.
Pampel, Fred C. October 1998. "National Context, Social Change, and Sex Differences in Suicide Rates." American Sociological Review, 63, pp. 744-758.
The author examines a hypothesis of institutional adjustment in which the sex differential in suicide rates first narrows and then widens with continued societal change. Further, among high-income nations the degree of institutional adjustment varies with national context. Using aggregate data on age-specific suicide rates for men and women in 18 nations from 1953 to 1992, the analysis shows curvilinear effects of age, time and the female labor force participation rate, the divorce rate, and the marriage rate consistent with the institutional adjustment hypothesis.
Silvey, Rachel M. 1998. [Review of Roxanne Lynn Doty's Imperial Encounters: The Politics of Representation in North-South Relations]. Antipode, 30(4), pp. 395-397.
Delbert S. Elliott was one of 40 invited guests who participated in the Juvenile Justice and Substance Abuse National Planning Meeting, November 3-6 in Annapolis, MD.
The American Society of Criminology 50th Annual Meeting, "Crime, Justice, and Public Policy: Examining our Past and Envisioning Our Future," was held November 11-14 in Washington, DC. Delbert S. Elliott, Susanne B. Argamaso, Abigail A. Fagan, Heather Melton, and Dorian M. Wilson (along with other researchers from CU's Sociology Department) presented, "Violence over the Lifecourse: An Epidemiological Analysis." Elliott also participated in panel discussions on "Looking Forward: Strain Theory" and "The Future of Juvenile Justice on the 100th Anniversary of the Founding of the Juvenile Court." Sabrina Arredondo and Tonya Aultman-Bettridge presented "Using Research to Inform Practice." Kirk R. Williams and Aultman-Bettridge hosted a session on "State-Level Variation in Youth Homicide Trends: A Comparative Analysis." Williams and Fred C. Pampel (Population Program) gave a presentation on "Compensating for Missing Information in the Supplementary Homicide Report."
Sharon F. Mihalic delivered two presentations on November 18 at the Community Anti-Drug Coalition of American National Leadership Forum which was held in Washington, DC. Her speech, "Prevention Principles When Dealing with Youth: What Works," was sponsored by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Robert K. Davis delivered two invited Charles A. Dambach Lectures on November 10 to the School of Natural Resources at Ohio State University. The principal lecture was entitled "Thinking Like a Market: New Directions in Wildlife Conservation." The lecture traced the history of wildlife and found flaws in the North American model of wildlife management with its emphasis on public ownership and prohibition of commercial activity. Until we can take the radical step of placing ownership of both habitat and wildlife into the hands of producers who have the ability to trade those rights, we can never have the diversity and abundance of wildlife that we want and are willing to pay for. Until then, the existence of wildlife will largely be accidental and incidental to other activities. This disruptive idea cannot survive unless new and innovative wildlife organizations can be created to see it through. The second lecture dealt with the "Seemingly Unbridgeable Gap between Economics and the Natural Sciences." Taking a cue from E.O. Wilson's use of the term "consilience," the lecture reviewed some of the outstanding disagreements between economists and natural scientists over environmental policies and presented the position that economists and biologists cannot agree on policy unless they can start from the same moral system or set of value premises. The commercial and guardian moral syndromes identified by Jane Jacobs were presented to illustrate the point.
Gilbert F. White made a statement to the Boulder City Council at its November 17 meeting on the proposed study of the flood problems on South Boulder Creek by a consultant to be supervised by a four-party committee representing the City, the University of Colorado, the Urban Drainage District, and Boulder County. His major point was that unless the study went beyond estimates of flood hazard and the costs of alternate methods of dealing with that hazard to include more comprehensive analysis of the history of various uses of the floodplain, it would be necessary to examine the broader picture at a later time.
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Richard G. Rogers has focused much of his research energies into understanding how social inequality affects a population's physical health, functional independence, and overall length of life. Over the years, in addition to his many sole-authored publications, he has published with 28 different co-authors, including faculty and graduate students in the Population Processes Program. Much of his research has coalesced into a book entitled Living and Dying in the USA: Health, Behavioral, and Social Forces of Adult Mortality to be published by Academic Press (with Charlie Nam, Florida State University and Bob Hummer, University of Texas).
People of the United States enjoy one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and throughout the twentieth century their life expectancy has increased tremendously. When the twentieth century began, a U.S. baby born could expect to live, on average, about 49 years. By 1960, that number had risen to 70 years, and it has continued increasing to the present. Yet, prospects of survival or death in the U.S. vary greatly for persons having different characteristics. Women do not have as high a mortality risk as men. Racial and ethnic groups vary in their mortality chances. And persons in higher educational, income, and occupational groupings have a survival advantage over those in lower socioeconomic groupings.
The influence of social forces on mortality, however, has remained relatively stable or even increased over time. Thus, I have endeavored to better understand social inequality in mortality. Much previous research on mortality has examined one or two dimensions of socioeconomic status, rather than working to understand its multidimensional nature. Socioeconomic status can incorporate knowledge, money, community standing, and power. Poverty, as the root cause of many diseases, was underscored early on. Generally, the dimensions of high socioeconomic status provide both knowledge about health risks and ways to avoid them, and the means with which to manage risks and undergo treatment. Such mechanisms are transportable to new situations and new diseases. Dimensions of socioeconomic status are many and include levels of education, occupational pursuits, and income needed to facilitate health care (as through obtaining health insurance). Moreover, although income is important, so too are the sources of income. Individuals obtain money through job income, dividends, interest, and governmental support. Each source contributes to differences in the risk of death.
For instance, there is enormous national concern about the relatively high mortality among the uninsured, who may number from 30 to 40 million. Many individuals cannot afford health insurance because it is too expensive or because they lose their coverage through layoff or poor health. Their high mortality may be due to their inability to get appropriate care because of lapses in insurance or gaps in coverage, or to other socioeconomic factors, including underemployment, unemployment, or lack of education. Individuals who lack health insurance may delay seeking medical care for current health conditions, thus reducing the likelihood of timely diagnosis, treatment, and remedy, and increasing the chances that these health conditions will persist, worsen, and become life-threatening. I have found that compared to those aged 18-64 who have private health insurance, those who are uninsured are 30 to 40 percent more likely to die. These percentages translate into millions of young adults who suffer higher mortality due in part to their inability to acquire health insurance. Thus, the inability to obtain health insurance highlights how social inequality can affect individuals' length of life.
Two types of S.V. Ciriacy-Wantrup Postdoctoral Fellowships in Natural Resource Economics awards are available to support advanced research at the University of California, Berkeley. Preference will be given to proposals whose orientation is broadly institutional or historical, and which are conceptually and theoretically innovative. Proposals with a primarily statistical or econometric orientation are not eligible for consideration. The first type of award is a one-year award with a stipend of $28,000. The second, also a one-year award, is to support a professional on sabbatical leave from an academic or professional position providing support not to exceed $30,000. Application deadline is January 11, 1999. For more information contact Ms. Lupe Pinela at (510) 643-4797 or e-mail email@example.com.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has released new guidelines for "Support of Scientific Meetings by NIH." These guidelines provide general guidance for applicant organizations in the development of applications requesting support for scientific meetings. They include information about NIH policy and procedures concerning the application process; and NIH staff contacts and funding opportunities available from each NIH component for support of scientific meetings via grants or cooperative agreements. The Web address is http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-151.html.
By federal law, all faculty, staff, and student research that involves any contact with human beings requires some level of prior review and approval. All new protocols requiring regular review are due in the Graduate School office by 3:00 pm on the following dates:
January 4 February 8 March 8 April 5 April 26
Contact Sheryl Jensen in the Graduate School at 2-7099 for more information on regular, expedited, and exempt review and to obtain appropriate forms. Forms are also available in department offices. Be sure you are using the most current version of the form. You can also check their Web site at http///www.colorado.edu/Graduate School/HRC.
D.S. Elliott, S.W. Menard, D.H. Hunziga, J.K. Hewitt,
and J.C. DeFries
NYS family study: Problem alcohol use and problem behavior
NIH/NIAAA, 07/01/99 - 06/30/04, new, $6,476,207
There is an online listing of upcoming and recent colloquia.
The next issue of the IBS Newsletter will be published the first week of February 1999.