Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado
Charles W. Howe, of the Environment and Behavior Program, has been appointed a Lead Author for a chapter in the forthcoming Third Assessment report of Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC was established in 1988 under joint sponsorship of the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program to assess the major scientific and technical issues confronting governments and others interested in climate change. The IPCC has produced two comprehensive assessments, in 1990 and 1995, in support of negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Third Assessment is scheduled for 2001. Howe will be part of Working Group II, concerned with climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation.
Population Processes Program
On October 12 Charles Becker addressed the members of the Asian Development Bank in Manila, Philippines. The title of the talk was "Social and Economic Change in the Kyrgyz Republic: Implication for Pension Reform Strategies." The talk examined demographic age structure, life-expectancy of middle-aged populations, marriage and fertility patterns in Kyrgyzstan and the implications of each of these factors for pension strategies. Appa rent declines in mortality in 1996 and 1997 and the onset of post-War baby-boom retirement have added to the already great pressure for social expenditures in Kyrgyzstan and other formerly Soviet republics, and fiscal balance will require substantial increases in retirement ages. At the same time, marriage rates have plummeted, raising the possibility that Kyrgyzstan will move from a society with near universal marriage to one with a substantial population that never marries. Since pension payments in the future will be tied to earnings, there is a strong argument for removing early female retirement.
Jessor, Richard, Mark S. Turbin, and Frances M. Costa. 1998. "Protective Factors in Adolescent Health Behavior." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(3), pp. 788-800. The role of role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionally-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality-unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence.
Delbert S. Elliott, Beatrix Hamburg, and Kirk R. Williams (Eds.). 1998. Violence in American Schools: A New Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 386. Experts from a range of disciplines use a variety of perspectives, notably those of public health, criminology, ecology, and developmental psychology, to review the latest research on the causes of youth violence in the nation's schools and communities and on school-based interventions that have prevented or reduced it. They describe and evaluate strategies for the prevention and treatment of violence that go beyond punishment and incarceration. The volume offers a new strategy for the problem of youth violence, arguing that the most effective interventions use a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach and take into account differences in states of individual development and involvement in overlapping social contexts, families, peer groups, schools, and neighborhoods.
Delbert S. Elliott announced the publication of Violence in American Schools: A New Perspective at a press conference in Washington, DC, which was broadcast on CNN, on October 14. During the press conference he addressed school violence issues, such as how parents can help prevent violent incidents on school campuses, the question of whether or not US schools are more violent now than in the past, and the role of firearms and weapons on school grounds.
CSPV hosted a satellite link to the White House Teleconference on School Violence which was viewed at the Coors Events Center on the CU Boulder campus on October 15. A panel which included Delbert Elliott, Kirk Williams, State Senator Dorothy Rupert, Boulder Valley Schools Superintendent Thomas Seigel, and Boulder County Healthy Initiatives Coordinator Susan Foster, gave brief reactions to the comments made at the White House. If interested in obtaining a copy of the video, please contact CSPV at 303-492-1032.
Tonya Aultman-Bettridge presented an overview of youth violence and Sharon F. Mihalic delivered a presentation on the CSPV Blueprints project at the Colorado Interagency Training Institute. The conference, sponsored by the Colorado Judicial Branch, was held in Northglenn, Colorado, on October 26.
Jennifer K. Grotpeter and Miriam F. Jebe, with the Governor's Community Partnership Office, conducted orientation sessions for the new Youth Crime Prevention and Intervention grantees in Denver on October 20 and in Pueblo on October 27. Another session conducted by Grotpeter will take place in Grand Junction on November 4.
Aultman-Bettridge and Grotpeter co-convened a panel, "Researcher and Community Partnerships: Building Evaluation Capacity," at the Society for Applied Sociology Conference in Denver on October 22-25.
Mary Fran Myers was an invited speaker at a Canadian National Mitigation Policy Workshop, sponsored by Emergency Preparedness Canada and the Insurance Bureau of Canada, held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, on October 2. Myers' speech was entitled "Building Safer Communities: Lessons from the U.S." Her remarks focused on the US' traditional approach to dealing with natural disasters and on the recommendations for changes in that approach which have emerged from the Center's "Assessment of Research and Applications on Natural Hazards" project.
On October 5, Myers was the opening speaker at the eighth "Public-Private Partnership 2000" Forum (PPP 2000)-- "Reducing Losses from Floods"--held at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington, DC. The PPP 2000 Forums are a series of policy forums sponsored by the White House's Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction and the Institute for Business and Home Safety that are designed to increase communication at the national policy level among all those devoted to limiting the negative impacts of all natural disasters. Myers' topic was "Flood Management: History, Trends, and Options." On October 22-23, Myers participated in the annual Congress of the Institute for Business and Home Safety. The meeting was held in Orlando, Florida.
Keith E. Maskus attended the Joint Sino-US Conference on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), organized by the National Bureau of Asian Research. The conference was in Chongqing, China, September 15-17. He delivered an invited paper, "Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Development in China." The paper discusses the role of IPRs generally in advancing or curtailing economic development and the interactions between IPRs and other forms of economic regulation. It then looks at evidence from China, based on interviews of Chinese and foreign enterprise managers and data on technical change and development in China. The essential finding is that China has made considerable progress in improving its IPRs laws but the climate for protecting intellectual property is still quite weak, which is limiting the development of new enterprises and joint ventures. China has much work to do in modernizing its technology development systems.
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Rachel M. Silvey has just recently joined the IBS Professional Staff. She completed her Ph.D. last year at the University of Washington, Seattle, where she specialized in the fields of development, population, and gender geography, with a regional emphasis on Indonesia. In her dissertation work, she examined low-income women's and men's migration processes as these are negotiated in the context of an export-processing zone in South Sulawesi. She drew on current work in development studies, migration theory, and gender geography to reexamine population mobility with an eye towards the social and spatial dislocations wrought by economic globalization and cultural transnationalism.
While it is well established that the causes, consequences, and patterns of spatial mobility are place-specific and distinct for women and men, these differences have only begun to be documented and theorized for Indonesia. My research, which draws on extended ethnographic fieldwork, as well as demographic and historiographic sources, analyzes the ways in which region-specific forms of development are linked to particular changes in gender and mobility. The work as a whole provides both a multi-disciplinary comparative examination of gender and migration dynamics, as well as a reconceptualization of the economic development processes implicit in most migration studies.
In addition to this dissertation work, I have focused on U.S. immigration and labor issues. I have researched the conditions of work for Spanish-speaking migrants in Washington State's apple industry as part of a larger project that probes migrant workers' local responses to an increasingly globalized food production system. I have also worked on a project that examines the demographics of non-nuclear families in the U.S. to reveal the relationships between family structure and inter-generational exchange. A follow-up project in the planning stages will examine the changing migration patterns of low-income families during the current economic crisis in Indonesia, and will focus on the ways in which household composition and care of the young and elderly are changing as more young parents are forced by unemployment to return to rural areas.
Building on this background, in my future research I plan to address the broad topic of transnational migration, with a focus on the ways in which the contemporary development of global urban centers reflects, reinforces, and challenges patterns of socio-economic differentiation. More specifically, I am currently beginning a pilot-study that concentrates on the transnational linkages between the Southeast Asian immigrant groups in the Denver-Boulder area and their communities of origin, and the ways in which these ties restructure conceptions of community. The urban environments in both the origin and destination sites of these migrants are organized in ways that reflect differentiated discourses on gender, race-ethnicity, class, and sexuality. Preliminary work on these issues has led to my invitation to a conference on gender and transnationalism to be held in February 1999 at Yale University.
Understanding delinquency: a longitudinal multi-disciplinary study of developmental patterns
DOJ, 10/01/98 - 09/30/99, renewal, $229,999
Develop a typology of spouse abuse using existing data from the San Diego Navy experiment
Navy, 09/11/98 - 10/30/98, new, $24,500
Correction: In last month's Newsletter R. Jessor was cited as the Principal Investigator for the grant proposal "The effect of juvenile justice system processing on subsequent delinquent and criminal behavior: a cross-national comparison." The correct Principal Investigator is D.H. Huizinga.
There is an online listing of upcoming and recent colloquia.