IBS Newsletter

November 1996


Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado


Program Activities

Population Program

Richard Rogers attended the annual meeting of the Southern Demographic Association (SDA), in Memphis, October 17-19, where the association elected him as their new president. Although the University of Colorado is not in the South, Rogers's work with SDA over the last decade qualified him for the position.

At the meeting, Rogers and colleagues Robert Hummer and Charles Nam presented a paper on "Religious Attendance and U.S. Adult Mortality." The authors investigate the relationship between one measure of religious participation--attendance at church or temple--and all-cause adult mortality in the United States. They use the National Health Interview Survey-National Death Index matched file to model the impact of religious attendance and social, health, and behavioral correlates on mortality. They find that more frequent religious attendance is related to lower mortality in a graded fashion and that the magnitude of the effect is similar to that exhibited by their socioeconomic status variables. Health selectivity is responsible for a portion of the religious attendance effect; i.e., there is a correlation between ill health (and thus mortality) and nonattendance at services. However, they also find evidence that religious attendance works through increased social support and more healthful behaviors to decrease the risks of death.

Also at the Southern Demographic Association meetings, Kimberly Peters, a doctoral candidate in Sociology and Population Program intern, chaired a session on Mortality.

Population Processes in Print

Deflem, Mathieu, and Fred C. Pampel. 1996. "The Myth of Postnational Identity: Population Support for European Unification." Social Forces, 75(1), pp. 119-143. The study of popular support for unification of Europe raises issues about the role of identification with national interests versus support for postnational identity in determining attitudes across countries and over time. It also raises issues about the roles of traditional cleavages in class position and partisan ideological views versus differences in postmaterialist values in determining support for unification. The authors find persistent differences between countries in their support for unification, even after equalizing for national differences in sociodemographic, ideological, and value priority variables over the 10-year time span of the study. This finding favors theoretical arguments for the continued importance of national identity.

Environment and Behavior Program

Mark Cronshaw presented an invited paper, "Dynamic Resolution of Inefficiency Due to International Environmental Externalities," at Wageningen Agricultural University in Wageningen, The Netherlands on October 9-11. In the paper, Cronshaw considers the use of future "punishments" in order to remedy economic inefficiency due to environmental externalities. He also reviews the literature on efficient equilibria in differential games, some of which are also enforced by threats. This suggests that the main problem of international environmental externalities is not inefficiency, but rather obtaining agreement on an equitable outcome.

Anthony Bebbington was in London to participate as point coordinator of case study research in Bolivia in a workshop at the International Institute for Environment and Development, October 7-10, on Policies for Sustainable Agriculture. While in London he also made a presentation at a conference on Environmental Transformations in Developing Countries, organized by the Royal Geographical Society/Institute of British Geographers Developing Areas Specialty Group (October 15-16). His invited paper was titled "Building Social Capital/Restoring Natural Capital? Indigenous Organizations and the Rural Environment in the Andes." Bebbington journeyed to Bolivia, October 17-22, to prepare two research projects for next summer and to provide advice on research design to a local research team about to start a research program on social capital, local level institutions, and local development.

Dennis Mileti presented the keynote lecture, on "Assessment of Natural Hazards" at the Hemispheric Congress on Disaster Reduction and Sustainable Development, hosted by the International Hurricane Center at Florida International University on September 30. He offered comments on how hazards management could be integrated into general community planning and sustainable development, and called for a shift in the paradigm that currently guides hazards research and management. On October 8, Mileti gave the keynote speech at the annual Colorado Emergency Management Conference, in Breckenridge, Colorado. His talk, on "The Second Assessment," addressed how local actions taken today influence and design future disasters. Mileti considered growth and development in Colorado in light of future hazards losses. Natural Hazards Center Co-Director Mary Fran Myers also attended the Breckenridge meeting.

Palm Springs, California was the setting for the October 20-21 meeting of the Advisory Council of the Southern California Earthquake Center. Mileti's role at the meetings was to review and comment on the center's activities regarding public education and outreach to the professional user community. He then went on to chair a meeting of the Advisory Board of Visitors of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's Emergency Management Institute (EMI) in Emmitsburg, Maryland on October 27-29. The Board of Visitors reviewed EMI's course curriculum and training programs, offered comments on future plans to expand educational activities to the nations's colleges and universities, and reviewed new course outlines prepared by consulting professors.

Environment and Behavior in Print

Davis, Robert K. 1995. "Using Markets to Achieve Wildlife Conservation." Pages 92-98 in G.C. Grigg, P.T. Hale, and D. Lunney (eds.) Conservation Through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Brisbane, Australia: University of Queensland. Using the example of elk and deer in Colorado, Davis argues that markets can be used to help achieve wildlife conservation in any society that supports reasonably free and open markets. In Australia, the critical variables with respect to a private role in kangaroo conservation concern the demand for kangaroo products and a system of rights that would allow private operators sufficient resource security. Both of these would encourage investment. As Colorado has done, Australian governments could enfranchise selected landowners to manage wildlife for sustainable harvests, all the while retaining the ultimate responsibility for conservation of the wildlife. The central element is a secure contractual relationship with land managers and other operators who are engaged in using the resource. Without this, the other variable in the management equation can have little meaning.

Bebbington, Anthony, Javier Quisbert and German Trujillo. 1996. "Technology and Rural Development Strategies in a Small Farmer Organization: Lessons from Bolivia for Rural Policy and Practice." Public Administration and Development, 16, pp. 195-213. At a time when public sector agricultural and rural development administration is changing, and when farmer organizations are being asked to assume more significant roles in rural and agricultural development, in-depth analysis of these organizations is an important input into policy and programmatic discussions. In this paper, the authors analyze one type of small farmer organization, a regional economic organization in Bolivia called El Ceibo. It is one of the most successful cases of small farmer organization around technology generation, product transformation, and marketing in the Andes. Factors favoring El Ceibo's success include long-term financial and technical support from external agencies, isolated location, and a cash/export crop specialization. The authors also compare the strategies and impacts of economically based organizations such as El Ceibo with those of more traditional, politically oriented small farmer organizations.

White, Gilbert F. 1996. A review of Luna B. Leopold's A View of the River, (Howard University Press), in Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 51(5), p 418.

White, Gilbert F. 1996. "The River as a System: A Geographer's View," Proceedings, Rivertech 96, First International Conference on New/Emerging Concepts for Rivers, pp. 84-87. Urbana, IL: International Water Resources Association. A review of stages of engineering approach, and of new emphasis on watersheds, landscape analysis, range of choice, and diversity in community values.

Natural Hazards Center News

David Butler served as moderator for the Week 7 session (October 7-15) of an Internet conference on The Role of Universities in Urban Disaster Management. The conference, on Solutions for Cities at Risk, was convened by the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Secretariat and took place at http://www.guipu.net/risk. This site contains a record of the entire conference, which was conducted from August 26-October 25. Butler's role included an introductory paper and concluding summary and remarks. In those remarks, he noted growing recognition in the disaster reduction community of the need for educational institutions at all levels and disaster managers and all the other actors involved in disaster reduction to be more closely allied and integrated.

Problem Behavior Program

Delbert Elliott made a presentation on youth violence at the annual conference of the Children's Institute International. The conference, In Harm's Way: A National Forum on Children and Violence, was held in Los Angeles on September 11. Elliott was interviewed recently for a segment of a program on KRMA-TV, Channel 6, one of metropolitan Denver's PBS stations. The program, "Act Against Violence," is expected to air some time in November. It profiles prevention, intervention, and treatment programs that show promise in deterring youth violence.

David Kaplan presented three workshops at the National Assembly on School Based Health Care, held in Baltimore this past spring. The workshops were on School-Based Health Centers and Managed Care, Using Data Systems for Evaluation, and Advanced Use of School HealthCare-ONLINE.

Anne Weiher is continuing her involvement in breast cancer research activism. Recently she sat as a consumer reviewer for the Department of Defense Army Peer Review Breast Cancer Research Program, September 18-20, in Washington, D.C.

Problem Behavior in Print

Kaplan, D.W., and K.A. Mammel. 1966. "Adolescence." In G. Merenstein, D.W. Kaplan, A. Rosenberg, and H. Silver (eds.), Handbook of Pediatrics, 18th edition. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Kaplan, D.W., and K.A. Mammel. 1996. "Adolescence." In W. Hay, J. Groothuis, and A. Hayward (eds.) Current Pediatric Diagnosis and Treatment, 13th edition. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Kaplan, D.W. 1994, 1995, 1996. School HealthCare-ONLINE!!! Software Documentation. Denver: University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.

Political and Economic Change Program

James Scarritt attended the annual meeting of the International Studies Association-West, in Eugene, Oregon, October 12-14, in his role as president of the organization. He also chaired a panel at the meeting.

Profile

Democracy, Inequality, and Human Capital in a Changing World

David Brown is the inaugural recipient of the Kenneth Boulding Post-Doctoral Fellowship, sponsored by the Research Program on Political and Economic Change. He spent last year as a visiting lecturer in the Department of Political Science at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he received his M.A. (1991) and Ph.D. (1995). This fall he joined the IBS Professional Staff to participate in the Globalization and Democratization Project in the Political and Economic Change Program.

The motivation behind my research stems from the incredible disparity one observes in levels of economic development throughout the world. My primary focus involves the interaction between political institutions and economic development. My dissertation addressed the debate on regime type (authoritarian vs. democratic) and economic growth. Rather than proceeding down the well-traveled path of correlating regime type with annual growth rates, I concentrated instead on what economists now argue may be the most important component of economic growth: the accumulation of human capital--that is, the skills and knowledge one brings into the productive process. By examining human capital, I sought to establish a concrete causal connection between regime type and growth. To understand the relationship between regime type and human capital, I examined democracy's impact on primary and secondary school enrollment. The study consists of a broad statistical analysis of 139 countries between the years 1960 and 1985. An integral part of the study involved field research in Brazil. Actually seeing how the relationship between democracy and education plays out in a democratizing country has proven invaluable to my research.

I am currently involved in a collaborative effort with Wendy Hunter of Vanderbilt University. Our goal is both to measure and explain government spending on education, health, and social security in Latin America. Once we establish spending patterns over the last two decades, we will evaluate the ability of international and domestic political institutions to account for government budget outlays. Specifically, we want to determine what impact, if any, multilateral lending agencies have on social spending in Latin America. Preliminary results indicate that international lending institutions do have an impact on spending patterns. Interestingly, their impact varies according to whether the recipient country is a dictatorship or democracy.

In a second collaborative effort that is just now getting underway, Michael Ward and I are beginning work on a project that examines the relationship between democracy, inequality, and the accumulation of human capital. In addition to addressing issues raised in current research, we intend to investigate how the relationship between inequality, human capital, and democracy changes over both time and space.

Along with the collaborative work, there are two projects I am planning to undertake, both of which build on the dissertation. The first project assesses democracy's impact on women's education. Recent evidence suggests that educating women is the single most important policy governments can adopt to raise their populations' living standards. Are women's interests--as measured by the female share of enrollment--better served by democracy? The answer could identify a potential link between democracy and development. The second project addresses the effect of regime type on other important factors associated with economic development: investment, trade, wages, and health. It is my belief that by breaking the aggregate measure of economic growth down into its component parts, concrete causal mechanisms that link political institutions to economic development can be identified.

FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES

Nominations for the Alan T. Waterman Award should be submitted to the National Science Foundation by December 31, 1996. This award is given annually to an outstanding young scientist in the forefront of science or engineering. In addition to a medal and other recognition, the recipient will be awarded a three-year grant of up to $500,000 for research or advanced study at an institution of the recipient's choice. Candidates must be U.S. citizens, not older than 35, and not more than five years beyond receipt of their doctorate. For more information and nomination guidelines, contact Susan Fannoney, National Science Board: (703) 306-1096.

The S.V. Ciriacy-Wantrup Postdoctoral Fellowships in Natural Resource Economics provide support for advanced research at the University of California, Berkeley. Preference is given to proposals whose orientation is broadly institutional or historical, and to those that are conceptually and theoretically innovative. There are two types of fellowships: a one-year sabbatical leave or a one-year postdoctoral award; the latter is renewable for a second year. Applicants must have received their Ph.D. within the last seven years. Direct questions to Thalia Banis at (510) 642-7541; Thaliab@uclink4.berkeley.edu; http://cois.chance.berkeley.edu/research/announcements.html. The application deadline is January 6, 1997.

DIVERSITY MATTERS

IBS Graduate Student Diversity Fellowship

Patricia Jaramillo is the recipient of the 1996-97 IBS Graduate Student Diversity Fellowship. Jaramillo is in the second year of the Ph.D. program in the Department of Political Science. She has been working with Walter Stone in the Research Program on Political and Economic Change since arriving at CU. This past summer, she collaborated on the research, analysis, and writing (as lead author) of a paper presented at the American Political Science Association meetings (with James A. McCann, Ronald B. Rapoport, and Walter J. Stone), "Major-Party Contributors, Perot Activists, and the National Electorate: An Exploratory Comparison." Her IBS fellowship will support further studies of the nomination process and political mobilization.

Diversity Funding Opportunities

Career Advancement for Women in Science and Engineering. The National Science Foundation (NSF) is seeking applications from higher education institutions on behalf of women scientists and engineers who are experienced investigators holding faculty or research-related positions, typically having five years beyond postdoctoral study and current or previous research support as principal investigators or project leaders. Applicants may seek support for developing new skills in an area that will expand their research programs, conducting pilot work to determine the feasibility of a contemplated new line of inquiry, or developing innovative research methods in collaboration with other investigators. The program is designed to enhance applicants' research capability or assist those who have had a significant research career interruption to update skills for re-entry. One-year projects may receive awards up to $50,000, with an additional $10,000 for equipment. The behavioral sciences contact number is: (703) 306-1760; information is also available on the Internet at http://www.nsf.gov:80/bio/start.htm. The application deadline is December 15, 1996.

The National Research Council (NRC) plans to award approximately 20 Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowships for Minorities in a program designed to provide a year of continued study and research. The competition is open to U.S. citizens who are engaged in a teaching and research career or planning such a career, and who have held the Ph.D. for not more than seven years. Each fellow selects an appropriate institution of higher education or research to serve as host for the year of postdoctoral research. For more information, contact the NRC Fellowship Office: (202) 334-2872; email: infofell@nas.edu; Internet: http://fellowships.nas.edu. The application deadline is January 3, 1997.

Graduate School Research Grants

Application deadlines for Graduate School Faculty Research Grants are listed below. For information or application forms, contact Pat Peterson in the Graduate School: Campus Box 26, phone 492-1069, or email petersop@spot.

Council on Research and Creative Work

Grant Deadlines

Junior Faculty Development Awards: 01/15/97

Grants-in-Aid: 12/01/96, 02/01/97, 03/01/97, 04/01/97

Conference Awards: 02/28/97

Distinguished Research Lecture:r 02/01/97

Graduate Committee on the Arts and Humanities

Grant Deadlines

Travel, Research, Special Project: 12/01/96, 02/01/97, 03/01/97

Visiting Scholar Grants: 04/01/9

RESEARCH PROPOSALS FUNDED

Problem Behavior Program

Delbert S. Elliott
The Dow-Jones Violence Index
State of Colorado, 03/15/96 - 06/30/96, $4,000, new

David H. Huizinga
Developmental processes in violence and problem behavior
NIH/NIDA, 09/30/96 - 05/31/97, $27,039, supplement

Environment and Behavior Program

Dennis S. Mileti
Assessment of research and applications of natural hazards
NSF, 07/01/96 - 05/31/98, $42,100, supplement

Kenneth M Strzepek
Climate change vulnerability and adaptation: Methodology, development, application, and transfer
EPA, 10/01/96 - 09/30/99, $100,000, new

UPCOMING COLLOQUIA

There is an online listing of upcoming colloquia.


November 1996 IBS Newsletter

Illana Zhenya Gallon, Newsletter Editor

Sugandha Brooks, Assistant Editor


Institute of Behavioral Science

Richard Jessor, Director

Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado at Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309-0483

(303) 492-8147

IBS@Colorado.EDU