IBS Newsletter

August 1996


Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado


Program Activities

Problem Behavior Program

Delbert Elliott spoke to a bipartisan group of nine senators and representatives at a congressional breakfast held in U.S. Senate chambers, July 11, on the topic of youth violence. His participation was sponsored by the Aspen Institute Congressional Program.

Richard Jessor organized and chaired an international Conference on New Perspectives on Adolescent Risk Behavior, which was held in Los Angeles, June 28-30. Papers by participants covered several domains of adolescent risk behavior, including alcohol and illicit drug use, sexual activity, violence and aggression, delinquency, depression, and failure of role performance, especially in school. Participants discussed recent trends and the way new findings are changing contemporary perspectives about adolescent risk behavior, and addressed implications for future inquiry. Jessor will edit the conference papers for publication in a volume that will be published by Cambridge University Press in 1997.

Problem Behavior in Print

Costa, F.M., R. Jessor, J.D. Fortenberry, and J.E. Donovan. 1996. "Psychosocial Conventionality, Health Orientation, and Contraceptive Use in Adolescence." Journal of Adolescent Health, 18, pp. 404-416. The linkage of both psychosocial conventionality and health orientation to regularity of contraceptive use was examined in an urban sample of 971 white, black, and Hispanic, male and female, sexually active high school students. Correlational analysis and hierarchical regression analysis indicate that more regular contraceptive use is associated with greater psychosocial conventionality and also with greater orientation toward health for male and female adolescents. These relationships hold when the sociodemographic characteristics of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, grade in school, family composition, and pregnancy experience are controlled. The linkages of psychosocial conventionality and health orientation to contraceptive behavior are stronger for black than for white and Hispanic adolescents. In its negative relationship to problem behavior and its positive linkage with health behavior, contraceptive behavior may be seen as part of a larger, organized system of behavior in this stage of development (i.e., a more conventional adolescent lifestyle).

Jessor, R., A. Colby, and R.A. Shweder, (Eds.). 1996. Ethnography and Human Development: Context and Meaning in Social Inquiry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Studies of human development have taken an ethnographic turn in the 1990s. In this volume, leading anthropologists, psychologists, and sociologists discuss how qualitative methodologies have strengthened our understanding of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral development, and of the difficulties of growing up in contemporary society. Jessor authored the introductory chapter, "Ethnographic Methods in Contemporary Perspective." The volume is dedicated to Donald T. Campbell, one of the contributors to the Epistemology section of the book, who died unexpectedly just before its publication.

Environment and Behavior Program

Mark Cronshaw gave a paper at the Stanford Institute of Theoretical Economics (SITE) Summer Workshop on Computation of Dynamic Equilibrium, July 9-12, in Stanford. The paper, "Algorithms for Finding Repeated Game Equilibria," describes computational techniques for finding all equilibria in infinitely repeated games with discounting and perfect monitoring. Cronshaw illustrates these techniques with a three-player Cournot game. This is the first infinitely repeated three-player game ever solved. The paper also presents the solution for the set of equilibria in a two-country tariff war. In both games, the set of equilibria is large even when the players are not patient.

Charles Howe and Jean-Michel Salles (Université de Montpellier, and former Visiting Research Associate in the Environment and Behavior Program) presented a paper in Lisbon, Portugal, June 28, at the annual meeting of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. The paper, "Seeking an Optimum Mix of Property Rights, Regulation, and Liability: Theory and Application to Water Resources," seeks to clarify the meaning and establishment of property rights and the way such rights are shaped by the legal and regulatory frameworks. The problem of protecting a widening range of public values produced by water systems in the western U.S. is addressed, and alternative combinations of property right definition, reliance on liability (tort) law, and government regulation are evaluated as protectors of those values.

James (Russ) McGoodwin is in Newfoundland, Canada, for the summer, conducting research to explore culturally appropriate strategies for mitigating Newfoundland's fisheries crisis. For the project he will be interviewing representative stakeholders in Newfoundland's fishing industry, as well as scientists, academics, and others, regarding their evaluation of various proposals. McGoodwin will analyze the responses with hopes of discovering solutions for which there might be widespread agreement.

Dennis Mileti was recently named to a one-year term as chair of the Advisory Board of the Emergency Management Institute of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. On June 11, he presented a paper, "What Is Sustainable Development?" at the third annual Congress on Natural Disaster Loss Reduction, sponsored by the Insurance Institute for Property Loss Reduction, in Irving, Texas. Use of the sustainability concept demands the definition of collective values in the present and future. This paper explores sustainability in terms of natural hazards and disasters, proposing that sustainable natural hazards development would require doing away with the use of mitigation that creates greater hazards in the long-term. Instead, mitigation should be consistent with local definitions of tolerable losses and bounded by local disaster resilience--the ability of local communities to cope indigenously with the disaster impacts they choose to accept. Mitigation should enhance local and global environmental quality for the long-term, contribute to sustainable local economies that support a quality lifestyle over the long-term, and foster an equitable distribution of costs and benefits, now and in the future. Mileti was a participant in the seventh annual Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Session, which focused on Global Change and Natural Hazards (July 10-20, in Aspen). The workshop produced a series of recommendations on public policies and programs that could be instituted or further expanded to reduce the impacts of future disasters. The workshop also explored the role of NASA in future national efforts to reduce losses from natural disasters.

Gilbert White journeyed to Amman, Jordan, June 17-19 to chair a meeting of the Committee on Sustainable Water Supplies for the Middle East. The committee is appointed jointly by the Israeli Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the Higher Council for Science and Technology and the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan, the Palestine Health Council, and the National Academy of Science, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine of the United States. At least two more meetings will be necessary before a final report on findings will be ready for review.

Environment and Behavior in Print

Howe, Charles W. 1996. "Water Resources Planning in a Federation of States: Equity versus Efficiency." Natural Resources Journal, 36(1), pp. 29-36. Howe argues that there are genuine efficiency-equity tradeoffs in some situations, but building equity into policy design will, in the long run, enhance efficiency. Governing institutions that more closely correspond to the resource systems being governed help assure consideration of both efficiency and equity.

White, Gilbert F. 1996. "Projections and Perceptions--Editorial Comments: Geography and Other Disciplines." The Geographical Bulletin, 38(1), pp. 5-6. A brief review of the role that geographers have been playing in selected interdisciplinary research programs dealing with international environmental problems, and a regretful note on the failure to gain a full place for geographic ideas in the execution of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.

White, Gilbert F. 1996. "Presentation of Research Panelist." Pages 95-97 in ASU's Environmental Agenda (February 8-9, 1996 Workshop). Tempe: Arizona State University. A summary comment on the problems faced by Arizona State University in its assessment of its environmental studies to date and its effort to define problems and new programs in research and education in that field. The workshop report contains a unique summary of such programs in the United States, with more detailed reports on 15 "peer institutions."

Natural Hazards Center News

Three hundred researchers and practitioners gathered in downtown Denver, July 7-10, to participate in the Natural Hazards Center's 21st annual invitational workshop on hazards research and applications. Thirty-seven percent of the attendees were at the workshop for the first time, including representatives from six foreign countries. Much of this year's workshop was devoted to presentation of preliminary findings of the Center's major Assessment of Research and Applications for Natural Hazards project. Eleven of the 36 concurrent sessions focused on the assessment project, and two of five plenary sessions were devoted to the topic as well. Other plenary sessions concentrated on the challenges of implementing the national mitigation strategy, the use of geographic information systems (GISs) in emergency and hazards management, and incorporating mitigation into development practices at the local level. Several center staff and graduate students were featured as moderators, discussants, or recorders at the workshop, including Dennis Mileti, Sylvia Dane, Nicholas Colmenares, Leonard Wright, David Butler, Betsy Forrest, Alice Fothergill, and JoAnne Darlington.

The Natural Hazards Center has entered into an agreement with the Colorado Office of Emergency Management to prepare the state's hazard mitigation plan. John Wiener, Visiting Research Associate with the Environment and Behavior Program, is taking the lead on this project.

Mary Fran Myers chaired the concurrent session panel on Lessons from the Mental Health Profession at the symposium on What We Have Learned Since the Big Thompson Flood--20 Years Later, held in Fort Collins, Colorado, July 10-13. The symposium was organized by Eve Gruntfest (Geography, CU-Colorado Springs), and sponsored by the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, FEMA, and other interested organizations. Myers also attended the Colorado Hazard Mitigation Council spring meeting on June 7 and participated in the Association of State Floodplain Managers annual conference in San Diego June 8-12.

David Butler attended a meeting in Denver, July 7, of the Earthquake Information Providers (EQUIP) Group and moderated a discussion on the group's goals and program. EQUIP is a consortium of U.S. institutions involved in earthquake research and information provision. The group's goals include coordination of information through the creation of a "front end" World Wide Web site with links to all earthquake information available on the Web.

Butler is the moderator of the Education and Training section of the Conference on Electronic Communication and Disaster Management convened by the Disaster Prevention and Limitation Unit, University of Bradford, U.K. The conference is being conducted on the World Wide Web, at http://www.mcb.co.uk/services/conferen/jun96/disaster/conhome.htm. The ever-cosmopolitan Butler is also a member of the organizing committee for the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Internet Conference on Solutions for Cities at Risk. The conference will run from mid-August until October on the Internet, but a Web site address (URL) has yet to be established.

Population Program

Joan O'Connell and Debra Pearson, graduate student interns in the Population Program, presented their dissertation research at the annual meeting of the Association for Health Sciences Research (AHSR), held in Atlanta, June 9-11. Pearson's poster, "Extending HMO Insurance to the Uninsured," compared HMO health service utilization of previously uninsured, low-income patients to a random sample of commercially enrolled patients. O'Connell presented her work on "Determinants of Medical Spending by the Elderly: The Importance of Medicare Supplemental Insurance," both in the poster session at the AHSR meeting and in a seminar at the Public Policy Research Center, Georgia State University. O'Connell's paper addresses demand for Medicare supplemental insurance and differences in patterns of medical spending between elderly Medicare beneficiaries with and without supplemental coverage.


IN FOCUS

Regions, Contexts, and Political Changes in Italy:
NSF Award Facilitates Examination of
Geography and Politics

Michael Shin has been awarded a dissertation grant from the National Science Foundation to conduct research in Italy in 1996-97. He has completed a B.A. in International Affairs and an M.A. in Geography (1995) at CU-Boulder. Shin is a Graduate Research Assistant working with John O'Loughlin on the Diffusion of Democracy project in the Political and Economic Change Program.

My research uses a geographic perspective to examine the nature, formation, and succession of political attitudes and behavior in central Italy. Within electoral geography, contextual effects are believed to influence and alter the attitudes and behavior of the voter differently in different places. However, outside of aggregate analyses, little work has been done to confirm and/or validate these effects at the local level. The framework of this project blends quantitative, qualitative, and spatial analyses in order to detect, identify, and evaluate contextual effects. By specifying a context-sensitive model of political behavior, I can further examine locations in which contextual effects may be present.

The two major parties of the Italian left are the focus of the study. The three main research objectives for my work in Italy are to:

I will further scrutinize communes that deviate significantly from similar, neighboring communes or the study area as a whole through statistical and spatial analyses performed on the communal census and electoral data. After identifying the outliers of the study, I will conduct interviews and surveys with party officials, community leaders, journalists, party members, and others in these communes to reveal the processes and factors contributing to such place-specific attitudes and behavior.

My hope is that this research will make a substantial contribution towards a theory of contextual effects with respect to political behavior by 1) identifying important social processes, 2) presenting a methodological framework that detects, identifies, and evaluates contextual effects and can be replicated elsewhere, and 3) revealing the inherent role of local geographies in the formation and alteration of political attitudes and behavior.


DIVERSITY MATTERS

East-West Center Scholarships and Fellowships

The U.S. Congress established the East-West Center in 1960 to foster mutual understanding and cooperation among the governments and peoples of the Asia-Pacific region, including the United States. The Center promotes responsible development, long-term stability and human dignity for all people in the region and helps prepare the United States for constructive involvement in Asia and the Pacific through research, education, and dialogue. Areas of interest in which the Center is engaged include international economics and politics, the environment, population, energy and mineral resources, cultural studies, communications and journalism, and Pacific Islands development.

Graduate Degree Fellowships are available to individuals interested in participating in the educational and research programs at the East-West Center while pursuing graduate degree study at the University of Hawai'i. Preference is given to master's applicants, but outstanding doctoral applicants will be considered as well.

Asian Development Bank/Government of Japan Scholarship Program was established to foster economic and social development in the Asia-Pacific region. The scholarships are designed for potential leaders and agents of change and support study at the University of Hawai'i in the fields of economics (master's and doctorate), Japan-focused executive MBA, MBA, and Master's in Urban and Regional Planning. Applicants must be citizens of a developing member country of the Bank.

South Pacific Islands Scholarship Program for Undergraduate Study. Through a grant from the U.S. government, funds are available for college scholarships to citizens of sovereign South Pacific countries. the objective of the program is to ensure that academically talented Pacific Islanders, many of whom may eventually assume leadership roles in their countries, have an opportunity to pursue undergraduate degree study and to obtain first-hand knowledge of the U.S. system of government. All students begin their program at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo campus on the island of Hawai'i. Applicants must be a citizen of the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, or Western Samoa.

Whether or not a fellowship or scholarship competition is conducted as well as the number of fellowships or scholarships offered is dependent on the availability of funds.

Application forms and additional information on the fellowship and scholarship competitions may be obtained from: Award Services Officer, East-West Center, Box USP 97, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawai'i 96848-1601.


MORE FUNDING OPPORTUNITITES

Interdisciplinary Postdoctoral Fellowships

The Michigan Society of Fellows (founded in 1970 through grants from the Ford foundation and the University of Michigan) provides financial and intellectual support for individuals selected for outstanding achievement, professional promise, and interdisciplinary interests. Candidates should be near the beginning of their professional careers: those selected must have received the Ph.D. between January 1, 1994, and September 1, 1997. Fellows are appointed as Assistant Professors or Research Scientists in appropriate departments and as Postdoctoral Scholars in the Michigan Society of Fellows. They are expected to be in residence in Ann Arbor during the academic years of the fellowship, to teach for the equivalent of one academic year, to participate in the informal intellectual life of the Society, and to devote time to their independent research. Four new Fellows will be selected for three-year terms to begin September 1, 1997. The annual stipend is $32,500. Consult the bulletin board in IBS #1 for application materials, or contact: Michigan Society of Fellows, 3030 Rackham Building, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070; phone (313) 763-1259. The application deadline is October 12, 1996.

Dissertation Fellowship Grants

The Health Care Financing Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has funds for a grant program designed to stimulate the involvement of new health service researchers in the study of health care financing and delivery issues. This program provides financial support to graduate students while they complete their dissertations in various social science disciplines investigating health care financing and delivery issues. Grant support is designed to aid the career development of new health services researchers and to encourage individuals to study issues affecting the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Applicants must be enrolled in an accredited doctoral degree program. Research priorities include: monitoring and evaluating health system performance: access, quality, program efficiency and costs; improving health care financing and delivery mechanisms: current programs and new models; meeting the needs of vulnerable populations; and information to improve consumer choice and health status. Applications for dissertation research grants must be jointly submitted by the student and the degree-granting institution. Grants will be awarded for a 12-month period, for a total of not more than $20,000 in direct costs. From 10 to 15 grants will be awarded. Consult the bulletin board in IBS #1 for application instructions, or contact: HCFA Grants Office, Office of Financial and Human Resources, Office of Acquisition and Grants, 7500 Security Boulevard, C-2-21-15, Baltimore, MD 21244-1850; phone (410) 786-5701. The application deadline is October 15, 1996.


RESEARCH PROPOSALS FUNDED

Problem Behavior Program

Scott W. Menard, Delbert S. Elliott, & Sharon F. Mihalic
Adolescent work and the transition to adulthood
NSF 07/01/97 - 06/30/99 $208,047 new

David H. Huizinga
Developmental processes in violence and problem behavior
NIH/NIDA 09/01/96 - 08/31/98 $55,034 supplement

David H. Huizinga
Developmental processes in violence and problem behavior
NIH/NIDA 09/01/96 - 08/31/98 $108,080 supplement

Environment and Behavior Program

J. Terrence McCabe
Land use chance in the East African savannas: A case study of northern Tanzania
NSF 01/01/97 - 12/31/99 $52,480 new

Population Program

Fred C. Pampel
Age patterns of fertility in developed nations
NSF 05/01/97 - 04/30/98 $36,053 new

Political and Economic Change Program

Walter J. Stone
From movement to third party? The Reform Party in 1996
NSF 10/01/96 - 09/30/97 $5,000 new


IBS Newsletter August 1996

Illana Zhenya Gallon, Newsletter Editor
Sugandha Brooks, Assistant Editor


Institute of Behavioral Science

Richard Jessor, Director

Institute of Behavioral Science

University of Colorado at Boulder

Boulder, CO 80309-0483

(303) 492-8147

IBS@Colorado.EDU