IBS Newsletter

December 2001


Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado


Kudos

Lori A. Peek, Research Assistant at the Natural Hazards Center and Doctoral Student in the Department of Sociology, has been selected to receive a Beverly Sears Graduate Student Grant Award. Peek wrote the grant proposal (funded by the National Science Foundation and the Natural Hazards Center) after carrying out an initial Quick Response Research Project in New York City following the events of 9/11. Her Beverly Sears Grant Award will be used to conduct follow-up research with Muslim and Arab university students in Washington, DC.


Program Activities

Problem Behavior Program

Joanne Belknap presented “Supports of and Barriers to Women’s Participation in the Prosecution of Their Batterers” at an American Society of Criminology meeting held November 6-10 in Atlanta, Georgia. The terms “reluctant” and “uncooperative” are applied to battered women more than any other category of victim. Indeed, it is often assumed that battered women will not testify against their batterers or “cooperate” with the police or prosecutors. Unfortunately, little scholarly effort has been made to determine what barriers women face in the prosecution of their domestic violence victimization. Additionally, research has not adequately addressed what supports women to pursue the cases against their intimate abusers. This National Institute of Justice funded study involves almost 200 women interviewed three times at six-month intervals after their court cases had closed. The interview included detailed items addressing the women’s reported barriers to and support for their participation in the prosecution process.

Angela Bryan attended the Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) in Psychology Conference at Yale University. The conference was held at Yale in New Haven, Connecticut, November 16-17. The conference included graduate students from Yale and the University of Colorado as well as faculty members from these two institutions plus Colorado College, Connecticut College, Southern Connecticut State University, and Quinnipiac University. PFF is a professional development program that prepares doctoral students for the roles of research, teaching, and service, faced by faculty members at a variety of institutions (research university, liberal arts college, community college, etc.). Bryan was a panelist in a session on mentoring and discussed strategies for mentoring both graduate students and undergraduates. She is a faculty sponsor of the PFF in Psychology program directed by Dr. Irene Blair at the University of Colorado.

In Print

Bryan, A.D., Fisher, J.D., & Benziger, T.J. (2001). Determinants of HIV risk behavior among Indian truck drivers. Social Science and Medicine, 53, 1413-1426. Although there are very high levels of HIV risk sexual behavior in India, there has been little research on the determinants of this behavior, the psychosocial correlates of condom use, or the potential for effective behavior change interventions. The present research used the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB; J. Fisher & Fisher, 1992; 2000; W. Fisher & Fisher, 1993) model of HIV risk behavior to explore these issues in a sample of Indian truck drivers, a population that comprises an important vector of HIV transmission. The authors present correlational data on the predictors of HIV risk and preventive behavior in a sample of truck drivers in Chennai, India. The data were collected via detailed individual structured interviews with 300 Indian truck drivers. Results indicated that Indian truck drivers had substantial deficits with respect to HIV prevention information, motivation, and behavioral skills. Consistent with the IMB model, these deficits were often found to be predictive of HIV risk and preventive behavior. The intervention implications of these findings are discussed.

Bryan, A.D., Schindeldecker, M.S., & Aiken, L.S. (2001). Sexual self-control and male condom use outcome beliefs: Predicting heterosexual men’s condom use. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1911-1938. A model of condom-use intentions and behavior that the authors previously developed for women was replicated and extended with heterosexual men (n=203; M age=20.1 years). The general determinants of intentions to use condoms were consistent for men and women. The predictors of general condom attitudes and condom-use efficacy differed across gender. Male condom use outcome beliefs and sexual self-control emerged as predictors of sexually experienced men’s condom attitudes and self-efficacy, respectively. In a three-month follow-up, intentions and sexual self-control predicted condom-use behavior. These finding have implications for specificity vs. generality in the correlates of common behaviors across groups, the study of gender differences in condom use, and the development of intervention content targeted to specific populations.

Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence

Delbert S. Elliott attended meetings of the Centers for Disease Control Advisory Committee for Injury Prevention and Control and the Science and Program Review Subcommittee in Atlanta, Georgia on November 7-8. He also attended the 2001 American Society of Criminology Conference in Atlanta and presented “Division on Corrections and Sentencing Roundtable 3: Implications of Early Childhood Delinquency Prevention Research on Correctional Programs and Interventions” on November 7-9. He chaired a session entitled “Preventing School Violence: Safe Communities Safe School Initiative.” On November 27, Elliott attended “Youth Violence and Public Health: A Community Forum,” the beginning of the Surgeon General’s speaking tour in Chicago, Illinois. He presented “Overview of Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General.” He was the senior scientific editor on this report and moderated the listening session/responses and feedback on the report.

On November 7-10, Holly Bell, Dorian Wilson, Beverly Kingston, and Delbert Elliott attended the American Society of Criminology Conference in Atlanta and participated in a panel presentation. Bell presented “Interagency Coordination of Services through a Social Support Network.” Kingston and Wilson presented “The Use of Surveying to Assess School Climate.” Wilson and Elliott presented on “School Climate and Aggregate Levels of Problem Behavior.” At the annual Crossroads Conference in Grand Junction on November 30, Bell presented “Interagency Coordination of Services through a Social Support Network,” and “Best Practices in Violence Prevention: Making Sense of Various Agency Criteria for Program Effectiveness.”

Sharon Mihalic attended an Implementation Research meeting November 15-16 sponsored by Penn State University and the Collaborative to Advance Social and Emotional Learning. The meeting brought together researchers in the area of school-based prevention to discuss how the field should promote the science and practice of implementation.

Population Processes Program

Richard G. Rogers, Patrick Krueger, Robert A. Hummer (University of Texas), and S. Jay Olshansky (University of Illinois) presented “Comparing Prevalence and Mortality Risk Rates: The Case of Cigarette Smoking in the United States” at this year’s Southern Demographic Association meetings in Miami, Florida, October 11-13. A large number of covariates contribute to increased risk of death, including demographic characteristics, sociocultural factors, socioeconomic status, health conditions, health status, and health behaviors. Many of these factors vary in their prevalence and in their risk of death. To more clearly understand these relations, the authors employ the National Health Interview Survey, linked to the Multiple Cause of Death file to calculate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and its impact on mortality. Cigarette smoking is a particularly pernicious behavior because of its high prevalence-with about one-half the population that is currently smoking or that has smoked in the past-and high risk of death-compared to never smokers, heavy smokers can expect to live almost 14 fewer years. Better knowledge of the prevalence and mortal risk of various characteristics provides increased insight into the current and future health and longevity prospects of the entire population.

Patrick Krueger and Richard G. Rogers, along with Robert A. Hummer (University of Texas) presented “The Effects of Family Composition on Older-Age Mortality” at the Gerontological Society of America meetings in Chicago, Illinois, November 15-17. Although many studies examine the effect of individual characteristics on the risk of death, few researchers examine the relationship between family context and mortality. We use the National Health Interview Survey, a household survey, linked to the Multiple Cause of Death file through the National Death Index, to identify characteristics of family composition and the household that lead to increased risks of death among the elderly. Families generally strive to promote health, prevent disease, and encourage economic security. Although some family arrangements result from strong social bonds, others derive from financial needs or health problems. Cox proportional hazard models demonstrate that family members who endure economic or health hardships face an increased risk of death, especially within certain family contexts. The authors find that household composition is an often overlooked but nonetheless important factor that influences the risk of death among older individuals.

Environment and Behavior Program

Lori M. Hunter gave an invited presentation “Modeling the Habitat Implications of Alternative Future Development Scenarios in the California Mojave Desert.” Colloquium Speaker: Resource, Economics, and Policy Seminar Series at the University of Maine, Bangor, Maine on November 29.

Charles W. Howe presented a seminar in the Policy Research program of the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University on October 26, “Designing Water Management Institutions in an Era of Change.” The southeastern United States is rapidly moving from an era of plentiful, high quality water supplies to one of increased water scarcity, water quality degradation, and interstate water conflicts. Howe’s presentation drew lessons from the experience of the western U.S. that should be useful to the southeastern states as they move from the old English common law riparian system of water law and regulation towards more flexible interpretations of property rights in water and related administrative mechanisms. The fact that water rights are considered personal property subject to purchase and sale, generating a flexible pattern of water availability, as needs change is a positive feature of the western U.S. systems. A serious drawback is that important social and environmental values are not protected by existing state government review processes.

Natural Hazards Center

On November 12, Sylvia Dane participated on a university panel that discussed bioterrorism as it relates to the University of Colorado. The panel was convened to inform the university community about what the university is doing to prepare for and respond to these threats. Information was also provided on types of hazardous materials equipment, the biological characteristics of anthrax, and personal safety and disaster preparedness. Panel members also included Jim Fadenrecht, Director of Public Safety; Dave Wergin, Director of Environmental Health and Safety; Tom Carney, CU Emergency Manager; Bobbie Barrow, Executive Director of University Communications; Michael Yarus, Professor of Biology; and Alex Taylor, Student Tri-Executive.

On November 3, Mary Fran Myers and Lori A. Peek were invited speakers at CU President Betsy Hoffman’s annual meeting for Colorado Community College Representatives and the President’s Business & Community Councils. Myers discussed the resources available from the Natural Hazards Center while Peek reported initial findings from her research, “Ethnic Issues on University Campuses Following an Act of Terrorism: Arab and Muslim Student Response” undertaken following the events of September 11 in New York City.


BITS and BYTES from SSDAC

Social Science Data Analysis Center

This is a tentative schedule of workshops offered by SSDAC for the spring semester. Dates and times may be changed. Email reminders will be sent prior to the workshops. If you would like to register for any of these sessions or would like more information, please send e-mail to jani.little@colorado.edu.

Basic Computer Security

Jan 9, Wed 2:00-3:30 PM

This workshop will teach the basics steps in computer and file security as well as the vocabulary that is specific to these issues, e.g. defanging, quarantine, encryption, cookies, worms, firewalls.

From Windows '98 to Windows 2000: What are the Differences?

Jan 9, Wed 3:30-5:00 PM

Windows 2000 is past the new release stage and is now recommended for new IBS computers. The features of Windows 2000 are transparent at first. However, its architecture is quite different from earlier Windows operating systems. This workshop will present the major changes in management of personal computers as well as file sharing and security.

Introduction to Statistical Analysis with S-Plus

Jan 11, Fri, 2:00-5:00 PM

Introduction to Statistical Analysis with SAS

(Date and time to be announced.)

Introduction to Thematic Mapping with ArcView (2 Sessions)

Jan 24 and Jan 31, Thu, 3:00-5:00 PM

Introduction to Spatial Statistics with S-Plus

Feb 8, Fri, 2:00-4:00 PM

Introduction to Spatial Regression with SpaceStat

March 1, Fri, 2:00-4:00 PM

Introduction to Multilevel Models

April 11, Thu, 2:00-5:00 PM


In Focus

Andrew Calabrese, Associate Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication, is a Faculty Research Associate in the Program on Political and Economic Change. He received his bachelor’s degree from Denison University (1979) and his master’s and doctoral degrees (1983, 1988) in communication from the Ohio State University. Prior to joining the CU-Boulder faculty, he held a faculty position at Purdue University (1988-1992). He was a Fulbright teaching fellow at the University of Ljubljana in Slovenia in 1998 and a research fellow at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia in 1999. His research and publications deal mainly with the relationship between communications media and citizenship.

My research and publishing focus on the role of media in state- and civil society-related conceptions of citizenship and civic engagement. Although citizenship is most often defined according to formal criteria in explicit relation to the nation-state (emphasizing such issues as voting rights, immigration and naturalization status, tax status, and welfare rights), civil society theorists emphasize the informal nature of citizenship. The latter tend to focus on such indicators of civic engagement as membership in civic associations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and participation in related advocacy and protest activity.

The roots of the concept of civil society can be found in the thought of Hobbes, Locke, Ferguson, Tocqueville, Hegel, Marx, and Gramsci. The concept was enthusiastically rediscovered in the late 1980s, as the communist regimes of Central and Eastern Europe collapsed. Just prior to that time, the term was used in describing the welling up of resistance and the formation of underground means of communication that articulated new visions of a state and society that opposed the viewpoints expressed in official, state-run media. Today, the term civil society is more often used to refer to the rapidly growing number of transnational NGOs that are involved in a wide range of advocacy, aid-giving, and protest. Perhaps the most visible manifestation of what the popular and academic literature now call “civil society” are the protests that have been mounted in recent years against the activities of a variety of policy-making and advising organizations, including the WTO, IMF and World Bank, G8, World Economic Forum, and the Organization For Economic Co-Operation And Development. One widely made observation about this protest activity is that the Internet has been instrumental as a tool of mobilization and coordination.

I am in the process of finishing a book about media and citizenship that focuses both on the relationships between citizens and states and between citizens and civil society. The book examines a series of ways in which the media have had an impact on the theoretical and political understanding of citizenship, not only at the national level but transnational level as well. In the United States, a wave of mass media and telecommunications industry re-regulation that began with the break-up of AT&T, and culminated in the Telecommunications Act of 1996, has had a profound impact on both domestic and international communication, leading to numerous debates about the proper role of media in a democratic society. At the same time, the model of de-regulation that began here has had an enormous influence on industry restructuring in Europe and other parts of the world, and it has been the foundation of the telecommunications agreements for NAFTA, the EU, and the WTO. An irony of the loosely amalgamated global anti-corporate movement is that it depends very much on the global communication infrastructures that have grown rapidly due to corporate globalization. In other words, the globalization of the radical edge of global civil society is in no small measure attributable to the global formation of capital. My book focuses on a range of issues that demonstrate this new pattern of development, and to the increased attention and enthusiasm the ideas of “global civil society” and “postnational citizenship” have gotten in recent years. In addition to addressing media policy developments at the national and transnational levels, I also provide related case studies and analyses to illustrate the role of media in the re-definition of civil society, focusing on new expressions of citizen activism, civil disobedience, and civic competence, concluding with an analysis of new policy challenges. I have already published several journal articles and book chapters that are related to this work. I expect to complete the book by this summer.

A second book project I began more recently is based on research about the political history of U.S. cultural policy, emphasizing the conditions and justifications of government funding of arts and media, language policies, U.S. participation in transnational cultural policy making and deliberation (including through UNESCO and, more recently, the GATT and WTO), government influence on the use of the Internet for maintaining diasporic communication networks, and media-related immigration policies (including foreign-ownership restrictions).

I also am collaborating with Lynn Staeheli (Geography and IBS) on a research project about the use of the Internet as a tool for activism among university students, which is being funded by the National Science Foundation. This grant also funds a new interdisciplinary course that Staeheli and I have developed, titled “Technology, Literacy, and Citizenship.”


Research Proposals Funded

Problem Behavior Program

D.S. Elliott Youth violence prevention listening sessions
HHS, Off Surgeon General 09/27/01 – 09/26/02 new

$99,957

D.S. Elliott Safe communities, safe schools
Colorado Trust 10/01/99 - 03/31/04 cont

$999,000

D.S. Elliott NYS family study: Problem alcohol use and problem behavior
HHS, NIAAA 09/30/01 – 08/31/02 cont

$2,385,505

D.S. Elliott Blueprints for violence prevention: Drug program
DoJ 03/01/00 - 02/28/04 cont

$4,072,804


Research Proposals Submitted

Political and Economic Change Program

J. Scarritt Multiethnic parties, human rights, and conflicts in Africa, 1945-2005
Bridgewater Sate College 05/15/02 – 05/15/04 new

$43,064


Upcoming Colloquia

There is an online listing of upcoming and recent colloquia.


Institute of Behavioral Science

Jane A. Menken, Institute Director


IBS Newsletter

Julie Klauss and Sugandha Brooks, Co-editors
Richard L. Cook, Web Site Coordinator


Institute of Behavioral Science
University of Colorado at Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309-0483

(303) 492-8147

IBS@Colorado.EDU