Environment & Society Program Publications (2010 and earlier)


Ritchie, Liesel, Kathleen Tierney, and Brandi Gilbert. "Disaster Preparedness among Community-Based Organizations in the City and County of San Francisco: Serving the Most Vulnerable." In Community Disaster Recovery and Resiliency: Exploring Global Opportunities and Challenges (pp. 3-39), DeMond S. Miller and Jason David Rivera (Eds.), Taylor and Francis.

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Abstract: In the past, societies would learn from disasters and move the location of their urban development to safer areas, allowing naturally occurring ecosystems to maintain themselves and for societies to exist symbiotically with the environment. These days, however, it seems that society no longer takes cues from the environment but rather relies on technical advancement to attempt to control and overcome the environment, sometimes with wholly unsuccessful and even catastrophic results. Emphasizing non-traditional approaches to disaster recovery and rebuilding communities, Community Disaster Recovery and Resiliency: Exploring Global Opportunities and Challenges brings together leading research from top academics and scholars on the different ways various societies have experienced disasters, learned from them, and revised their thinking about building community preparedness and resiliency pre- and post-disaster. * Provides a clear, concise, and up-to-date understanding of best practices for rebuilding community institutions and community development after a disaster * Focuses on integrated solutions for ecological restoration and community development in disaster recovery planning and implementation * Compares and contrasts community rebuilding between different nations at different stages of development, economic power, and stability * Includes case studies that illustrate best practices, integrating the concept of community and community rebuilding for local, national, and international stakeholders All chapters offer diverse community examples that form a framework for comparing best practices. They focus on integrated solutions for ecological restoration and community development and explain how communities can reduce their vulnerability to disasters and reduce recovery time following a disaster. The book indentifies the opportunities and challenges communities are most likely to face on the road to recovery and supplies the interdisciplinary, social scientific understanding required to effectively address those challenges.

Hunter, Lori M. and Wayne Twine. "Adult Mortality, Food Security and the Use of Wild Natural Resources in a Rural District of South Africa: Exploring the Environmental Dimensions of AIDS," In AIDS and Rural Livelihoods: Dynamics and Diversity in sub-Saharan Africa. Edited By Anke Niehof, Gabriel Rugalema and Stuart Gillespie. Earthscan. 2010.

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Abstract: AIDS epidemics continue to threaten the livelihoods of millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa. Three decades after the disease was first recognized, the annual death toll from AIDS exceeds that from wars, famine and floods combined. Yet despite millions of dollars of aid and research, there has previously been little detailed on-the-ground analysis of the multifaceted impacts on rural people. Filling that gap, this book brings together recent evidence of AIDS impacts on rural households, livelihoods, and agricultural practice in sub-Saharan Africa. There is particular emphasis on the role of women in affected households, and on the situation of children. The book is unique in presenting micro-level information collected by original empirical research in a range of African countries, and showing how well-grounded conclusions on trends, impacts and local responses can be applied to the design of HIV-responsive policies and programmes. AIDS impacts are more diverse than we previously thought, and local responses more varied - sometimes innovative, sometimes desperate. The book represents a major contribution to our understanding of the impacts of AIDS in the epidemic's heartland, and how these can be managed at different levels.

Ritchie, Liesel A. and Duane A. Gill. (2010). "Fostering Resiliency in Renewable Resource Communities: Subsistence Lifescapes and Social Capital." In Jason D. Rivera and DeMond S. Miller (eds.), How Ethnically Marginalized Americans Cope with Catastrophic Disasters: Studies in Suffering and Resiliency.. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press.

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Hunter, Lori M., Susie Strife, and Wayne Twine. (2010). "Environmental Perceptions of Rural South African Residents: The Complex Nature of Environmental Concern." Society and Natural Resources23(6): 525-541.

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Abstract: The state of the local environment shapes the well-being of millions of rural residents in developing nations. Still, we know little of these individuals' environmental perceptions. This study analyzes survey data collected in an impoverished, rural region in northeast South Africa, to understand the factors that shape concern with local environmental issues. We use the "post-materialist thesis" to explore the different explanations for environmental concern in less developed regions of the world, with results revealing the importance of both cultural and physical context. In particular, gendered interaction with natural resources shapes perceptions, as does the local setting. Both theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

McLeman, Robert A. and Lori M. Hunter. 2010. "Migration in the Context of Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: Insights from Analogues." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. Volume 1 Issue 3 (March/April).

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Abstract: Migration is one of the variety of ways by which human populations adapt to environmental changes. The study of migration in the context of anthropogenic climate change is often approached using the concept of vulnerability and its key functional elements: exposure, system sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. This article explores the interaction of climate change and vulnerability through review of case studies of dry-season migration in the West African Sahel, hurricane-related population displacements in the Caribbean basin, winter migration of snowbirds to the US Sun-belt, and 1930s drought migration on the North American Great Plains. These examples are then used as analogues for identifying general causal, temporal, and spatial dimensions of climate migration, along with potential considerations for policy-making and future research needs.

Gill, D.A. Picou, J.S., and Ritchie, L.A. (2010). "When the Disaster is a Crime: Legal Issues and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill." Pp. pp. 81- 109 in Dee Wood Harper and Kelly Frailing (eds.), Crime and Criminal Justice in Disaster. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

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Sutton, Jeannette N. "Social Media Monitoring and the Democratic National Convention: New Tasks and Emergent Processes." Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management: Vol. 6 : Iss. 1, Article 67 (2009).

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Abstract: Public information officers and FEMA external affairs personnel routinely monitor online media reports in times of crises and disaster events. Online news sources now include citizen driven social media such as blogs, i-reports, photo and video sharing and networked information and communication technologies such as Facebook, MySpace, and the microblogging network, Twitter. While these communication mechanisms are increasing, little is known about the attention public officials devote to accessing, monitoring, and addressing public communication through social media. Utilizing data gathered through observations, interviews, and document analysis, this study concentrates on the new task of social media monitoring and the emergent processes used by public officials during the 2008 Democratic National Convention. Although some strategies were developed to monitor and utilize social media, there was a tendency to fall back upon standard operating procedures, limiting the emergence of new processes. Recommendations are provided for media monitoring activities in future crisis and disaster response.

White, Michael J. and Lori M. Hunter. "Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana." Social Science Quarterly, 90 No. 4 (2009):960-982.

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Abstract: Objective. Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still, surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. Methods. We undertake survey research with 2,500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. Results. Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. Conclusion. In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change.

Boland, John J., Nicholas Flores, and Charles W. Howe. "The Theory and Practice of Benefit-Cost Analysis," in The Evolution of Water Resource Planning and Decision Making, edited by Cliff Russell and Duane Baumann. Edward Elgar Publishers, 2009.

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Abstract: This broad review of the development of US water resource policy analysis and practice offers perspectives from several disciplines: law, economics, engineering, ecology and political science. The historical context provided goes back to the early 19th century, but the book concentrates on the past fifty years. A key feature is a discussion of the difficulty that has generally been encountered in bringing the disciplines of economics and ecology into collaboration in the water resource context.

The background work on the volume was funded by the Institute for Water Resources, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This is the first volume in the Arthur Maass-Gilbert White publication series sponsored by the Corps of Engineers' Institute of Water Resources. The series is named after the Institute's Maass-White Library of Water Resource Literature. The other chapters are a history of water resources planning (Viessman), environmental issues (Moreau and Loucks), ecology-economics collaboration (Russell and Sagoff), political decision-making (Rogers, Russell and Lydon), and making the 21st century transition (Galloway).

Alston, Lee J., Shannan Mattiace, and Tomas Nonnenmacher. "Coercion, Culture, and Contracts: Labor and Debt on Henequen Haciendas in Yucatan, Mexico, 1870-1915". The Journal of Economic History, 69, No. 1 (2009):104-137.

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Abstract: The henequen boom coincided with the rule of Porfirio Diaz (1876-1911). During the boom, many Maya in Yucatan lost their rights to land and moved to henequen haciendas. As part of the implicit contract with hacendados, peons accumulated large debts at the time of marriage, most of which were never repaid. We argue that the debts bound workers to the hacienda as part of a system of paternalism and that more productive workers incurred more debt. We examine the institutional setting in which debt operated and stress the formal and informal institutional contexts within which hacendados and workers negotiated contracts. "Debt and contract slavery is the prevailing system of production all over the south of Mexico...Debt, real or imaginary, is the nexus that binds the peon to his master...probably 5,000,000 people, or one-third of the entire population, are today living in a state of helpless peonage." ~ John Kenneth Turner

Andersson, Krister, Gustavo Gordillo de Anda, and Frank van Laerhoven. Local Governments and Rural Development Comparing Lessons from Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2009.

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Abstract: Despite the recent economic upswing in many Latin American countries, rural poverty rates in the region have actually increased during the past two decades. Experts blame excessively centralized public administrations for the lackluster performance of public policy initiatives. In response, decentralization reformshave become a common government strategy for improving public sector performance in rural areas. The effect of these reforms is a topic of considerable debate among government officials, policy scholars, and citizens' groups. This book offers a systematic analysis of how local governments and farmer groups in Latin America are actually faring today. Based on interviews with more than 1,200 mayors, local officials, and farmers in 390 municipal territories in four Latin American nations, the authors analyze the ways in which different forms of decentralization affect the governance arrangements for rural development "on the ground." Their comparative analysis suggests that rural development outcomes are systemically linked to locally negotiated institutional arrangements-formal and informal-between government officials, NGOs, and farmer groups that operate in the local sphere. They find that local-government actors contribute to public services that better assist the rural poor when local actors cooperate to develop their own institutional arrangements for participatory planning, horizontal learning, and the joint production of services. This study brings substantive data and empirical analysis to a discussion that has, until now, more often depended on qualitative research in isolated cases. With more than 60 percent of Latin America's rural population living in poverty, the results are both timely and crucial.


Gundimeda, Haripriya and Charles W. Howe. "Interstate River Conflicts: Lessons from India and the U.S." Water International 33, no. 4 (2008):395-405.

Abstract: In both countries, all major rivers cross state boundaries while the states, under their national constitutions and laws, retain strong legal power over water resources. This has led to extensive conflict over the allocation of stream flows. In India, the primary framework for resolving interstate river conflicts has been court appointment of tribunals that have relied on the vague principle of "equitable apportionment". The U.S. has relied on negotiated interstate compacts, an arrangement that has suffered from inflexibility in adapting to changes over time. A broader basis for "equitable apportionment" could include resources in addition to water, e.g. simultaneous bargaining over water and hydro-electric power sharing as was used in the Columbia River Compact between Canada and the U.S. The extension of water markets to the full river basin (rather then just in-state) would provide allocation flexibility over time.

Alston, Lee and Andres Gallo. "Argentina's Abandonment of the Rule of Law and Its Aftermath," in Law and the New Institutional Economics special issue of the Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 26 (2008):153-182.

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Abstract: After the impeachment of four out of five Supreme Court justices in 1947 and the subsequent new constitution in 1949, Argentina has never been able to return to cultivating a belief in a system of checks and balances. Beliefs in the legitimacy of the system matter in order to prevent short-run opportunistic behavior. The impeachment of the Court could be viewed as the culmination of the departure from the road toward a true system of checks and balances that was started by the coup of 1930 but burrowed into the beliefs of constituents with the decade of fraud during the 1930s. The legacy of President Peron is one of political instability, which in turn generated sudden changes in economic policies and institutions. Successive military and civilian governments appointed their own Supreme Court justices in order to accomplish their political goals. The military government in 1955 removed all thejustices of the Supreme Court and nullified the Peronist constitutional reform of 1949 by a simple Decree. In 1958 the new Democratic President replaced most of the justices of the Court and introduced two new justices; successive governments frequently either forced judges to resign or impeached them. Though the Supreme Court is not held in high regard, each government has believed that the Court poses some obstacle to their goals or they would not bother to change the composition of the Court. In this Article we show how, in the last sixty years, political and economic instability in Argentina have been accompanied by judicial instability. As a consequence, Argentina lacks adherence to the rule of law with deleterious effects on domestic business and foreign investment. We contend that in order to reach sustainable growth, Argentina has to solve this institutional problem. Otherwise, economic growth can surge in the short run but it will be unsustainable in the long run.

Alston, Lee and Bernardo Mueller, eds. "Legal Reserve Requirements in Brazilian Forests: Path Dependent Evolution of De Facto Legislation," Revista Economia, Selecta, Brasilia (DF) 7, no. 4(2008).

Alston, Lee, Marcus Melo, Bernardo Mueller, and Carlos Pereira. "On the Road to Good Governance: Recovering from Economic and Political Shocks in Brazil," in Policymaking in Latin America: How Politics Shapes Policies, edited by Ernesto Stein, Mariano Tommasi, Carlos Scartascini, and Pablo Spiller. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Hunter, Lori M. "Population, Health and Environment Through a 'Gendered' Lens." World Watch Magazine 21, no. 5 (2008):16-21.

Abstract: The water lapped at the side of our tiny outrigger boats as we struggled to get our sea legs up onto the dock. We had just arrived at Gilutongan, one of more than 7,000 islands that make up the Philippines nation. Coming from land-locked Colorado, the turquoise blue water signaled vacation in my mind-but we weren't on vacation. I was one of 50 visitors to Gilutongan as part of the second annual Population, Health, and Environment conference held in Cebu City, a bustling hub in the centralVisayas region. Among us were journalists, activists, researchers, and development practitioners, and our island excursion was meant as a window into the harsh reality that governs island life.We were also there to witness first-hand the components of an integrated development program that aims to reshape the islanders' harsh and remote reality. Filipino life and culture are permeated by the sea, which is the source of sustenance, income, and transportation and is never far away. Yet the nation's once-prolific fisheries are in dramatic decline. Filipino fishing households typically live far below the Philippines' official poverty threshold; on average, a household has six members, each earning 20 pesos (US$0.40) a day. Related to this wrenching poverty, malnourishment is common among fishing families. Although the fisheries crisis is driven by myriad forces, population growth is part of the problem.Unlike the rapid fertility declines (and thus smaller families) in other East Asian nations, such as Korea and Taiwan, Filipino families remain relatively large. Larger families require more fish, both for consumption and as a hopeful path out of poverty.

Hunter, Lori M., Roger-Mark deSouza, and Wayne Twine. "The environmental dimensions of the HIV/AIDS pandemic: a call for scholarship and evidence-based intervention." Population and Environment 29, no. 3-5 (2008):103-107.

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Wiener, John D., Kathleen A. Dwire, Susan K. Skagen, Robert R. Crifasi, and David Yates. "Riparian Ecosystem Consequences of Water Distribution Along the Colorado Front Range." Water Resources Impact 10, no. 3 (2008):18-22.

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Abstract: Relates how water diversions along Colorado's Front Range have changed the west and its riparian zones and the issues that riparian management faces in this altered environment.

Lisa Keranen and Virginia Sanprie. "'Oxygen of Publicity' and 'Lifeblood of Liberty': Communication Scholarship on Mass Media Coverage of Terrorism for the Twenty-First Century." In Christina S. Beck (ed) Communication Yearbook 32. New York, Routledge, 2008. Pgs 231-275.

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Book Abstract: The Communication Yearbook annuals publish diverse, state-of-the-discipline literature reviews across the field of communication. Sponsored by the International Communication Association, volumes offer insightful descriptions of research as well as reflections on the implications of those findings for other areas of the discipline. Editor Christina S. Beck presents a diverse, international selection of articles that highlight empirical and theoretical intersections in the communication discipline.

Tierney, Kathleen. "Hurricane Katrina: Catastrophic Impacts and Alarming Lessons," Pp. 119-136 in John M. Quigley and Larry A. Rosenthal (eds.) Risking House and Home: Disasters, Cities, Public Policy. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Public Policy Press, 2008.

Ritchie, L.A. and D.A. Gill. "The Selendang Ayu Shipwreck and Oil Spill: Considering Threats and Fears of a Worst-Case Scenario." Sociological Inquiry 78, no. 2 (2008): 184-206.

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Abstract: On December 8, 2004, the Selendang Ayu, a Malaysian-flagged freighter, ran aground off Unalaska Island in Alaska's Aleutian chain. Despite rescue efforts by the United States Coast Guard, six of the Selendang Ayu's crew members died. In addition to the deaths, more than 300,000 gallons of heavy bulk fuel oil spilled into the sea. Much of the oil washed onto the island's shores, into areas providing cultural, recreational, subsistence, and commercial fishing resources for residents of the renewable resource community of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. The purpose of this article is to identify and examine different dimensions of risk, based on qualitative research conducted in 2005. We use a contextual constructionist approach to understand risk, which conceptualizes risk as an objective hazard, threat, or danger that is mediated through social and cultural processes. Research methods included 31 personal interviews, participatory observation, and a review of media coverage. Findings revealed several dimensions of risk perceived by residents: the incident in relation to Dutch Harbor/Unalaska as a high-risk community and more general current events; threats to the community's annual $1 billion seafood industry; threats to Alaska Native subsistence culture; and issues of future risk and uncertainty. Interviews and observations support our conclusion that the Selendang Ayu incident represented a "shot across the bow" that could have been a "worst case" if oil had contaminated commercial fish processing. Residents believe that it is only a matter of time before another, more damaging accident occurs. Given this general perception, it is important to more clearly assess risk in Dutch Harbor/Unalaska and help the community increase resilience to the multiple hazards it faces. More broadly, Dutch Harbor/Unalaska serves as an example-all communities could benefit from better risk assessments and increased attention to resiliency.

Paton, D., B.F. Houghton, C.E. Gregg, D.A. Gill, L.A. Ritchie, D. McIvor, P. Larin, S. Meinhold, J. Horan, and D.M. Johnston. "Managing tsunami risk in coastal communities: Identifying predictors of preparedness." The Australian Journal of Emergency Management 23, no. 1 (2008): 4-9.

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Abstract: This paper discusses the testing of a model predicting tsunami preparedness. Using data collected from a community identified as facing a high risk from locally-generated tsunami, the model illustrates how people's beliefs about the efficacy of mitigation interact with social context factors (community participation, collective efficacy, empowerment, trust) to influence levels of tsunami preparedness. The implications of the findings for tsunami hazard education programs are discussed.

deSherbinin, Alex, Leah VanWey, Kendra McSweeney, Rimjhim Aggarwal, Alisson Barbieri, Sabine Henry, Lori M. Hunter, Wayne Twine, Robert Walker. "Rural Household Micro-Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment." Global Environmental Change 18, no. 1 (2008): 38-53.

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Abstract: This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of microlevel studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.


Ritchie, L.A. and D.A. Gill. "Guest Editors' Introduction: Voices of Katrina." Journal of Public Management and Social Policy 13, no. 2 (2007): 1-4.

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Abstract: For several decades, qualitative social science research that employs sound, appropriate methodologies and theoretical frameworks to guide interpretation of findings has proven to be effective in efforts to inform decision-makers. Although policymakers tend to rely heavily on quantitative data, the value of qualitative research in planning and policymaking is well established in public management research. This is especially the case with respect to issues typically affecting underrepresented and at-risk populations. The work of qualitative researchers to identify and clarify social problems provides critical perspectives that might otherwise go unnoticed and unaddressed. Recognizing that there is no "correct" recounting of any given event or situation, qualitative researchers offer interpretations that, as Denzin and Lincoln (2000) suggest, may be likened to light striking a crystal, reflecting different perspectives.

The complexities of long-studied issues such as education, crime, poverty, disease, mental health, and others demand the attention of multiple disciplines, perspectives, and methodological approaches. The social impacts of natural and humancaused/ technological disasters also demand better understanding informed by a variety of perspectives. As a subfield, disaster sociology has a rich and established tradition of qualitative research dating back to Prince's (1920) research on the 1917 Halifax explosion. It is imperative that we build on these qualitative approaches to improve our understanding and public policy approaches to disasters.

Slaughter, Richard A. and John D. Wiener. "Water, adaptation, and property rights on the Snake and Klamath rivers". Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43, no. 2 (2007): 308-321.

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Abstract: Water demand in a viable economy tends to be dynamic: it changes over time in response to growth, drought, and social policy. Institutional capacity to re-allocate water between users and uses under stress from multiple sources is a key concern. Climate change threatens to add to those stresses in snowmelt systems by changing the timing of runoff and possibly increasing the severity and duration of drought. This article examines Snake and Klamath River institutions for their ability to resolve conflict induced by demand growth, drought, and environmental constraints on water use. The study finds that private ownership of water rights has been a major positive factor in successful adaptation, by providing the basis for water marketing and by promoting the use of negotiation and markets rather than politics to resolve water conflict.

Hunter, Lori M., Wayne Twine, and Laura Patterson. '"Locusts are now our beef": Adult mortality and household dietary use of local environmental resources in rural South Africa'. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 35, no. 3 (2007): 165-174.

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Abstract: There is currently a lack of research on the association between demographic dynamics and household use of natural resources in rural Africa. Such work is important because in rural Africa natural resources buffer households against shocks, offering both sustenance and income-generating potential. Aims: The article focuses on adult mortality as a household shock, examining use of local environmental resources as related to household dietary needs. Methods: The authors analyze two sources of data collected during May-December 2004 in the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) in rural South Africa. Quantitative analyses use survey data from 240 households, stratified by adult mortality experience. Qualitative data are based on 31 interviews with members of households having recently experienced adult mortality. Results: The interviews provide insight into a variety of household-level mortality impacts and also suggest the importance of proximate resources in the maintenance of food security following the loss of an adult household member. Quantitatively, there are significant differences, both in patterns of usage of the natural environment and in levels of food security, between households that have lost an adult and those that have not. The association between mortality and household use of local environmental resources is further shaped by the gender of the deceased and the time elapsed since the death. Conclusions: Adult mortality, particularly the death of a male wage-earner, affects household food security. Time allocation is affected as resource collection responsibilities shift, and wild foods may substitute for previously purchased goods.

Kirkland, Tracy, Lori M. Hunter, and Wayne Twine. '"The Bush is No More": Insights on Institutional Change and Natural Resource Availability in Rural South Africa.' Society & Natural Resources 20, no. 4 (2007): 337-350.

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Abstract: The past decade has brought substantial transition to South Africa. The introduction of democracy in 1994 has yielded important political and socioeconomic transformations affecting millions of people. Here, we explore the impact of institutional and structural changes on the availability and management of fuelwood, a key natural resource in rural South Africa. As in other developing regions, many households depend on natural resources for both sustenance and energy needs. Drawing on qualitative data from 32 interviews, our objective is to describe, from the perspective of the respondents, (1) resource scarcity, (2) the underlying causes of resource scarcity, (3) the role of traditional authority in managing resources, and (4) strategies used by community members in the face of resource scarcity. The results have important implications for the well-being of both social and natural systems in many transitional, rural developing societies.

Tierney, Kathleen J. "From the Margins to the Mainstream? Disaster Research at the Crossroads." Annual Review of Sociology 33 (2007): 503-525.

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Abstract: The sociology of disasters has developed in ways that have weakened its ties with mainstream sociology. It has remained remarkably resistant to changes in the broader sociological landscape, and its strong applied focus has been a barrier to theoretical innovation. This situation is changing, as indicated by critiques of traditional ways of conceptualizing and explaining disasters; greater acceptance of constructivist formulations; willingness to acknowledge that disasters are accompanied by both social solidarity and social conflict; and recognition of the significance of the interaction of disasters and risk with gender, class, and other axes of inequality. However, the field is unlikely to overcome its marginal status without significant efforts to link the sociology of disasters with the related fields of risk and environmental sociology and, more broadly, to focus on core sociological concerns, such as social inequality, diversity, and social change.

Miles, Michelle and Duke Austin. "The Color(s) of Crisis: How Race, Rumor, and Collective Memory Shape the Legacy of Katrina" in Racing the Storm: Racial Implications and Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina, edited by Hillary Potter. New York: Lexington Books, 2007. Pgs 33-49.

Travis, William R.. New Geographies of the American West: Land Use and the Changing Patterns of Place. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2007.

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Alston, Lee J. and Joseph P. Ferrie. "Shaping Welfare Policies in the U.S., 1895-1965: Economic Interests and Political Institutions in the South." In Price Fishback (editor) Government and the American Economy from Colonial Times to the Present. University of Chicago Press, 2007.


Alston, Lee J., Jeffery A. Jenkins, and Tomas Nonnenmacher. "Who Should Govern Congress? Access to Power and the Salary Grab of 1873." Journal of Economic History 66, no. 3 (2006): 674-706.

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Abstract: We examine the politics of the "Salary Grab" of 1873, legislation that increased congressional salaries retroactively by 50 percent. A group of New England and Midwestern elites opposed the Salary Grab, along with congressional franking and patronage-based civil service appointments, as part of a reform effort to reshape "who should govern Congress." Our analyses of congressional voting confirm the existence of this nonparty elite coalition. Although these elites lost many legislative battles in the short run, their efforts kept reform on the legislative agenda throughout the late nineteenth century and ultimately set the stage for the Progressive movement in the early twentieth century.

Alston, Lee J.. "The 'Case' for Case Studies in the New Institutional Economics". In New Institutional Economics: A Guidebook, edited by Jean-Michel Glachant and Eric Brousseau. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Alston, Lee J.. Historical Statistics of the United States, Volume Four: Economic Sectors, edited by Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Reviewed for EH.NET.

De Vries, D. H., P.W. Leslie, and J. Terrence McCabe "Livestock acquisition dynamics in nomadic pastoralist herd demography: a case study among Ngisonyoka herders of South Turkana, Kenya." Human Ecology 34, no. 1 (2006): 1-25.

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Abstract: Despite the attention given to social relations in the pastoral literature, the role of livestock acquisitions-additions of livestock to herds through bridewealth, exchanges, gifts, payments, and begging (requests)-in herd build up has usually been assumed to be relatively minor compared to births and relevant mostly when the need for rebuilding arises after major losses. This study is based on an unusual set of data-the reproductive histories of the female cattle, camels, and goats and sheep of 13 Ngisonyoka Turkana nomadic herders in northwestern Kenya, collected in 1987. The article reports on the means by which mothers were added to the herd and how these changed through time. The results suggest that for this population in the late 1970s and 1980s, acquisitions were not merely relevant when disaster struck, but instead were a continuously important component of herd management. The results demonstrate the crucial role of social networks in the survival of Ngisonyoka pastoralists in their non-equilibrial ecosystem. Social exchanges, such as bridewealth, provide a resource security well suited to the challenges of coping with such unpredictable environments. Researchers and policymakers are urged to make efforts to support such indigenous networks if they want nomadic pastoralists to continue their effective use of arid, marginal lands.

Tierney, K. J. 2006. "Foreshadowing Katrina: Recent Sociological Contributions to Vulnerability Science." Review symposium article, Contemporary Sociology 35, no. 3 (2006): 207-212.

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The Natural Hazards Center has released Special Publication #40 (2006, 472 pp.), Learning from Catastrophe: Quick Response Research in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina. This peer-reviewed edited volume is a collection of 18 chapters from 39 researchers who conducted social science research during or immediately after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast in September 2005. At that time research teams were deployed under the Center's own Quick Response program, the National Science Foundation's Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) effort, or through support of other various academic institutions.

The devastation and social and institutional failures wrought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, unfortunately, provided ample fodder for quick response research. Quick response studies are also important because they frequently identify research questions for future, longer-term research. Disasters inevitably bring surprises, and quite often those surprises turn into researchable topics.

Because of the multiple severe impacts and the utter devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina, rapid response field work was especially challenging-perhaps more so than in any recent U.S. disaster. Field workers witnessed catastrophe and its depredations first hand and are now bringing the human story of Katrina and its research and policy implications to a wider audience through the publication of this edited volume.

For additional information, visit www.colorado.edu/hazards/publications/katrina.html.

Hunter, Lori M. "Household Strategies in the Face of Resource Scarcity: Are They Associated with Development Priorities." Population Research and Policy Review. 25, no. 2 (2006): 157-174.

Online Article

Abstract: In many developing regions, women and young girls spend several hours daily in the collection of natural resources. Still, the link between these household resource strategies and stakeholder perceptions of development priorities remains unexplored. This project examines this association with survey data representative of the adult population from Ghana's Coastal Region. Although natural resource scarcity and the sustainability of resource use represent key development challenges, there are others (e.g., energy, sanitation, employment and educational opportunities). As such, even in the face of natural resource scarcity, individuals may place greater importance on other dimensions of development, especially if household resource strategies are perceived as relatively efficient. The analytical focus here is on water and the results suggest that gender roles shape household water collection strategies, while also shaping these strategies' perceived opportunity costs. Specifically, Ghanian adults more often see drinking water provision as their primary development need when water sources are distant and/or when male household members collect water (particularly male heads). In the end, I argue that social science inquiry benefits by contextualizing social dynamics within environmental context, particularly within cultural settings in which human subsistence is intimately tied to the state of the natural environment.

Sutton, Jeannette. "Review of: In the Wake of Disaster: Religious Responses to Terrorism and Catastrophe." Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 3, no. 3 (2006): Article 10.

Online Article

Abstract: A well-respected author has created an overview of faith-based responses to disaster and the role of clergy in providing mental health and spiritual care to victims. The text surveys a range of issues, including the effects of traumatic events on psychological and spiritual health and the roles of disaster response agencies, both state-sponsored and faith-based organizations, and offers practical guidance in how to prepare for a disaster. He includes a reference section that directs readers to additional resources on the mental health aspects of disaster and disaster response. The author also develops a strategy to overcome barriers to the incorporation of clergy and faith communities into disaster response and strongly encourages collaboration and the building of cross-disciplinary relationships. Overall, the book serves as a good primer on disaster response for persons within faith communities who wish to provide effective disaster relief.

Haggerty, Julia H. and William R. Travis.. "Out of Administrative Control: Absentee Owners, Resident Elk, and the Shifting Nature of Wildlife Management in Southwestern Montana." Geoforum 37, no. 5 (2006): 816-830.

Online Article

Abstract: This paper describes the historical roots of an ongoing wildlife management dilemma involving decreasing opportunities for elk management via public hunting on private land in the context of an expanding elk presence on private land in southwest Montana. Our main focus is on the role of private ranchland in elk ecology, and the ability of land owners to set elk migration in new directions through cumulative decisions about hunting and tolerating elk. This takes elk management, traditionally the purview of the state, out of administrative control. We document connections between the region's historical and emerging land tenure patterns, and analyze associated changes in hunter access. Elk numbers expanded rapidly in the Upper Yellowstone Valley at a moment of significant transition in ranchland tenure. New owners more interested in natural amenities than in livestock production encouraged the elk and discouraged hunting. This reinforced the spread of elk, and further weakened the ability of the state and other ranchers to manage elk (which interfere with livestock production in numerous ways). Though elk and cattle use the landscape in similar ways, elk became more effective agents of landscape change in a reflexive relationship with ideas of land that stress natural amenities over production.

Gosnell, Hannah, Julia H. Haggerty and William R. Travis.. "Ranchland Ownership Change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Implications for Conservation." Society and Natural Resources 19, no. 8 (2006): 743-758.

Online Article

Abstract: Most of the public lands protected for conservation in the western United States are surrounded by working landscapes of various types, typically in agro-pastoral ownership and use. How these working landscapes evolve over time and how their inhabitants respond to various conservation goals will in large measure determine the success or failure of efforts to maintain regional biodiversity. This article contributes to a better understanding of ecological threat on the important private lands of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem by suggesting the ways in which changes in ranch ownership become conservation opportunities or challenges. Relying on a combination of real estate sales data, land ownership data, and interviews with key informants, we assess trends and patterns of ownership change around Yellowstone National Park. The main ranchland dynamic in this region involves the transition from traditional ranchers, typically full-time livestock producers, to a more diverse cohort of landowners, including absentee owners focused on amenity or conservation values in addition to, or instead of, livestock production. We present a conceptual model for distinguishing between different ranch landscapes and discuss some of the conservation implications of these geographical patterns.

Brenkert-Smith, Hannah.. "The Place of Fire." Natural Hazards Review 7, no. 3 (2006): 105-113.

Online Article

Abstract: As the wildland-urban interface (WUI) grows in size and density and increasing levels of funding are being directed toward education and outreach programs targeting residents in these communities, it is becoming increasingly important to investigate residents' responses to wildfire risk. This is particularly true because participation of WUI residents in reducing fire risk constitutes an important piece in the management of wildland fire problem. Few studies have examined how residents living in fire-prone areas feel about and adapt to increasing levels of wildfire risk. In this paper, I investigate "place" as a salient theme shaping the decision-making process around the implementation of wildfire risk reduction measures on private property. Insight into this process will be valuable to fire and forest managers who are increasingly charged with the responsibility of galvanizing WUI residents and communities to take part in wildfire risk reduction.

Brenkert-Smith, Hannah, Patricia A. Champ, and Nicholas Flores. "Insights Into Wildfire Mitigation Decisions Among Wildland-Urban Interface Residents." Society and Natural Resources 19, no. 8 (2006): 759-768.

Online Article

Abstract: In-depth interviews conducted with homeowners in five Colorado wildland-urban interface communities reveal that the homeowners face difficult decisions regarding the reduction of wildfire risk. Rather than seeing risk reduction as straightforward, homeowners appear to be involved in a complex decision-making process with social considerations. The interviews shed light on the social context in which homeowners make wildfire mitigation decisions, participants' perceptions of how the biophysical landscape near their residences affects mitigation, and participants' perceptions of wildfire mitigation options.

Tierney, Kathleen J., Christine Bevc, and Erica Kuligowski. "Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and their Consequences in Hurricane Katrina." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 604, no. 1 (2006): 57-81.

Online Article

Abstract/Notes: This article focuses on the promulgation of disaster myths by the media during and following Hurricane Katrina. It was an invited article in the AAPSS special issue on Hurricane Katrina.

Natural Hazards Center "Holistic Disaster Recovery: Ideas for Building Local Sustainability after a Natural Disaster." Public Entity Risk Institute 1st Revision, 2006.

Online Information--NHC | Online Information--PERI

Abstract/Notes: The Natural Hazards Center has revised the 2001 handbook Holistic Disaster Recovery: Ideas for Building Local Sustainability after a Natural Disaster. Center staff member, Julie Baxter, and graduate students, Erica Kuligowski and Sarah Stapleton, completed the revision. The new version contains updated resources, including a more specific focus on the Hurricane Katrina recovery and new examples of recovery success stories. With funding from the Public Entity Risk Institute (PERI), the Center originally created the handbook to communicate the idea that for effective, long-term disaster recovery, communities must incorporate as many principles of sustainability-environmental quality, economic vitality, quality of life, social equity, citizen participation, and disaster resiliency-into their recovery processes as possible. The handbook is intended for local government officials and staff, state planners, activists, emergency management professionals, disaster recovery experts, mitigation specialists, and others who help communities recover from disaster.


Bento, Antonio M., Maureen L. Cropper, Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak, and Katja Vinha. "The Effects of Urban Spatial Structure on Travel Demand in the United States." The Review of Economics and Statistics 87, no. 3 (2005):466-478.

Online Article

Abstract: We examine the effects of urban form and public transit supply on the commute mode choices and annual vehicle miles traveled (VMTs) of households living in 114 urban areas in 1990. The probability of driving to work is lower the higher are population centrality and rail miles supplied and the lower is road density. Population centrality, jobs-housing balance, city shape, and road density have a significant effect on annual household VMTs. Although individual elasticities are small absolute values (?0.10), moving sample households from a city with the characteristics of Atlanta to a city with the characteristics of Boston reduces annual VMTs by 25%.

Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq. "Democracy, Volatility, and Economic Development." The Review of Economics and Statistics 87, no. 2 (2005):348-361.

Online Article

Abstract: Growth stability is an important objective-because development requires sustained increases in income, because volatility is costly for the poor, and because volatility deters growth. We study the determinants of average growth and its volatility as a two-equation system, and find that higher levels of democracy and diversification lower volatility, whereas volatility itself reduces growth. Muslim countries instrument for democracy, and measures of diversification identify volatility. In contrast to the lack of consensus on the democracy-growth relationship, the democracy-stability link is robust. Rather than focus on growth, this paper forges an alternative link between democracy and development through the volatility channel.

Antonovics, Kate, Peter Arcidiacono, and Randall Walsh. "Games and Discrimination: Lessons From The Weakest Link." Journal of Human Resources 40, no. 4 (2005): 918-947.

Online Article

Abstract: We use data from the television game show, The Weakest Link, to determine whether contestants discriminate on the basis of race and gender and, if so, which theory of discrimination best explains their behavior. Our results suggest no evidence of discriminatory voting patterns by males against females or by whites against blacks. In contrast, we find that in the early rounds of the game women appear to discriminate against men. We test three theories for the voting behavior of women: preference-based discrimination, statistical discrimination, and strategic discrimination. We find only preference based discrimination to be consistent with the observed voting patterns.

Tierney, Kathleen J., Bijan Khazai, L. Thomas Tobin, and Frederick Krimgold. "Social and Public Policy Issues Following the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake." Earthquake Spectra 21, no. S1 (2005): S513-S534.

Online Article

Abstract: The Bam, Iran, earthquake on 26 December 2003 took the lives of 26,271 people and left more than 20,000 injured. About 85% of the houses, commercial units, health and educational facilities, and administrative buildings were either damaged or completely destroyed, affecting 92,000 people in the city and 48,000 people in the surrounding villages, and leaving 75,000 homeless. A reconnaissance trip to Iran and the earthquake-stricken area was carried out from 8-16 May 2004, and focused on societal impacts five months after the Bam event, early recovery activities, long-term recovery planning, and public policy aspects of earthquake loss reduction in Iran. At the time of the reconnaissance team's trip, the major challenges facing the reconstruction process were public participation, public education and hazard communication, and inter-agency and inter-jurisdictional transition and coordination issues.

Tierney, Kathleen J.. "The 9/11 Commission and Disaster Management: Little Depth, Less Context, Not Much Guidance." Contemporary Sociology-a Journal of Reviews 34, no. 2 (2005): 115-120.

Online Article

Tierney, K. "Social Science, Hazards, and Disasters." In On Risk and Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina, edited by R. J. Daniels, D. F. Kettl, and H. Kunreuther. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005. Pgs 109-128.

Alston, Lee J. and Bernardo Mueller. "Pork for Policy: Executive and Legislative Exchange in Brazil." Journal of Law Economics and Organization 22, no.1 (2006): 87-114.

Online Article

Abstract: The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 gave relatively strong powers to the president. We model and test executive-legislative relations in Brazil and demonstrate that presidents have used pork as a political currency to exchange for votes on policy reforms. In particular Presidents Cardoso and Lula have used pork to exchange for amendments to the Constitution. Without policy reforms Brazil would have had greater difficulty meeting its debt obligations. The logic for the exchange of pork for policy reform is that presidents typically have greater electoral incentives than members of Congress to care about economic growth, economic opportunity, income equality, and price stabilization. Members of Congress generally care more about redistributing gains to their constituents. Given the differences in preferences and the relative powers of each, the legislative and executive branches benefit by exploiting the gains from trade.

Also published as NBER Working Paper 11273 Program in International Finance and Macroeconomics

Alston, Lee J. and Jopseph Ferrie. "Time on the Ladder: Career Mobility in Agriculture, 1890-1938." Journal of Economic History 65, no.4 (2005): 1058-1081.

Online Article

Abstract: We explore the dynamics of the agricultural ladder for black farmers in the U.S. South using individual-level data from a retrospective survey conducted in 1938 in Jefferson County, Arkansas. We develop and test hypotheses to explain the time spent as a tenant, sharecropper, and wage laborer. The most striking result of our analysis is the importance of individual characteristics in career mobility. In all periods-pre-World War I; the war years, and subsequent boom; the 1920s; and the Great Depression years-some farmers moved up the agricultural ladder quite rapidly while others remained stuck on a rung.

Movement from rung to rung has been predominantly in the direction of descent rather than ascent. ... [There is] an increasing tendency for the rungs of the ladder to become bars-forcing imprisonment in a fixed social status from which it is increasingly difficult to escape.National Resources Committee

Hunter, Lori M., Jason D. Boardman, and Jarron M. Saint Onge. "The Association Between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth,and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being." Rural Sociology 70, no. 4 (2005): 452-469.

Online Article

Abstract: Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here empirically models long-term rural residents' economic well-being, making use of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. In general, the results suggest that long-term rural families residing in high-growth amenity and recreation areas tend to have higher annual incomes than do their counterparts in non-growth amenity/recreation areas, regardless of the sex, race, or age of the family head. However, higher costs-of-living in these areas supplant any relative gains in income. As such, these analyses provide empirical evidence of patterns inferred by earlier anecdotal evidence and case studies.

Hunter, Lori M. "Migration and Environmental Hazards." Population and Environment 26, no. 4 (2005): 273-302.

Online Article

Abstract: Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations.

Howe, Charles W., and Jeffrey W. Jacobs. "U.S. Water Services Privatization." The Water Report, no. 12 (2005).

Online Article

Abstract: The issue of privatizing social services like potable water supply and waste water treatment remains highly controversial. "Privatizing" can stand for many levels of public-private collaboration, from the "outsourcing" meter reading and other auxiliary services to the operation and maintenance of a publically owned system and, finally, to the outright sale of the water system assets to a private company. Most current privitizing activity takes the form of contractual operation and maintenance of publically owned systems. Privatization at one level or another can promise several advantages for towns: the large companies that seek contracts for operation & maintenance have capital resources often lacking in the city. Many urban utilities have large backlogs of maintenance but an inadequate tax base to catch up. The large water companies have engineering and administrative skills possibly not present in the urban utility staffs. Private companies have been successful in consolidating smaller systems to take advantage of scale economies. In cases where the sale of utility assets is under consideration, the private firms (often foreign owned) can offer substantial "up front" cash payments. Private ownership places the water utility under the supervision of the state public utilities commission, partially relieving the city government of oversight responsibility (political responsibility for results is never escapted). Thus there are situations in the U.S. where consideration of some degree of privatization is sensible. However, there are cautionary considerations on both sides of privatization. The city & its citizens fear loss of control, especially in situations where the system breaks down. Impacts on the local workforce are a matter of concern, as are concerns about maintenance of the watershed and the provision of services frequently provided by the water utility (chemical testing, vehicle maintenance). Writing contracts with adequate safeguards is complex. On the private company's side, there are problems of competing for complex contracts with no guarantee of success. Some cities have cancelled contracts while others have requested competitive bids to stimulate improved performance of their utility with little intent of actually privitizing. Privatization in Third World settings raises other difficult issues of equity and performance guarantees.

Howe, Charles W. "The Functions, Impacts and Effectiveness of Water Pricing: Evidence from the United States and Canada." International Journal of Water Resources Development 21, no. 1 (2005).

Online Article

Abstract: There are several types of numbers that are commonly referred to as "the price of water". Among them would be contractual prices between an irrigation district and its customers, but these "prices" might be on a volumetric basis, on an acreage basis or in the form of periodic payments over many years. At times, water service is paid for through real estate taxes. In many cases, the most relevant prices are reflected in active water markets through which water can be transferred from one large scale user to another. In cities, individual users typically pay according to a rate structure that depends on the volume of water used. Each of these prices serves some function: an unchanging contractual price may be important in figuring a farm budget but irrelevant to the farmer's decision about crops, acreage and irrigation intensity. Payment through real estate taxes is important in determining the budget of the taxing water district and the budgets of the farmers paying the taxes but will be relevant only to the farmer's decision whether or not to stay in business and not to planting and acreage decisions. Thus there are different prices, depending on the type of water service being provided and the decision being made. The "behaviorally relevant" price is the price that an economically rational water user will compare with their marginal benefits when faced with a decision on water use or a water-related investment. Urban water users are typically faced with a rate structure in which the marginal price increases with the (monthly) volume of use, reflecting the increased costs imposed on the water provider by the customer's use. In most agricultural settings, market prices are the most relevant to both short-run decisions on how much water to use and longer run decisions to remain in business. Prices historically set by irrigation districts are irrelevant to most decisions.

Hunter, Lori M., and Michael B. Toney. "Religion and Attitudes toward the Environment: A Comparison of Mormons and the General U.S. Population." The Social Science Journal 42, no. 1 (2005): 25-38.

Online Article

Abstract: Religion has been shown to influence attitudes toward an array of social issues. This manuscript focuses specifically on environmental issues, with empirical examination of the distinctiveness of contemporary Mormon environmental perspectives as contrasted with the general U.S. population. A belief in the importance of dominion over the environment is noted, by some, to be reflected in anti-environmental stance characterizing Mormon Culture Region political leaders and church members [Foltz, R. C. (2000). Mormon values and the Utah environment. Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion, 4, 1-19]. Yet, a set of highly regarded essays by a diverse group of Mormons, including some in church leadership positions, expresses strong personal commitments to environmental causes and point to Mormon teachings and doctrines promoting environmentalism (Williams, Smith, and Gibbs, 1998). We examine variation in environmental concern as expressed by Mormons in a local community survey undertaken in Logan, Utah, as contrasted with the nationally-representative General Social Survey (1993). We find substantial differences between Mormons and the national sample; While Mormons tended to express greater levels of environmental concern, they were less likely to have undertaken specific behaviors reflective of such concern.


Alston, Lee J., and Bernardo Mueller. "Property Rights and the State." In Handbook for New Institutional Economics, edited by Claude Menard and Mary M. Shirley. Norwell MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.

Abstract: New Institutional Economics (NIE) has skyrocketed in scope and influence over the last three decades. This first Handbook of NIE provides a unique and timely overview of recent developments and broad orientations. Contributions analyse the domain and perspectives of NIE; sections on legal institutions, political institutions, transaction cost economics, governance, contracting, institutional change, and more capture NIE's interdisciplinary nature. This Handbook will be of interest to economists, political scientists, legal scholars, management specialists, sociologists, and others wishing to learn more about this important subject and gain insight into progress made by institutionalists from other disciplines. This compendium of analyses by some of the foremost NIE specialists, including Ronald Coase, Douglass North, Elinor Ostrom, and Oliver Williamson, gives students and new researchers an introduction to the topic and offers established scholars a reference book for their research.

May, Ann, and J. Terrence McCabe. "City Work in a Time of Aids: Maasai Labor Migration in Tanzania." Africa Today 51, no. 2 (2004).

Online Article

Abstract: Around 1997, Tanzanian Maasai began seeking city jobs in noticeable numbers, due to intensifying poverty. Having limited knowledge of cities, elders were ill-equipped to advise their brothers, wives, and sons about migration, which has ostensibly diminished "traditional" elder authority. Ethnographic research between 1999 and 2001 revealed confusion and lack of accurate knowledge about the mechanisms of HIV/AIDS. Perceptions of Maasai "backwardness" perpetuate negative reactions, and there is little assistance or support in cities. Increasing impoverishment and migration from some areas, and misunderstandings about HIV/AIDS, are combined with customary Maasai polygyny and inability to rely on elders' guidance. This suite of circumstances puts Maasai labor migrants at particular risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. Health-education programs are critically needed to avert a catastrophe in Maasai communities.

McCabe, J. Terrence. Cattle Bring Us to Our Enemies: Turkana Ecology, Politics, and Raiding in a Disequilibrium System. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.

Online Article

Abstract: Based on sixteen years of fieldwork among the pastoral Turkana people, McCabe examines how individuals use the land and make decisions about mobility, livestock, and the use of natural resources in an environment characterized by aridity, unpredictability, insecurity, and violence. The Turkana are one of the world's most mobile peoples, but understanding why and how they move is a complex task influenced by politics, violence, historical relations among ethnic groups, and the government, as well as by the arid land they call home. As one of the original members of the South Turkana Ecosystem Project, McCabe draws on a wealth of ecological data in his analysis. His long-standing relationship with four Turkana families personalize his insights and conclusions, inviting readers into the lives of these individuals, their families, and the way they cope with their environment and political events in daily life.

Hunter, L. M., A. Hatch, and A. Johnson. "Cross-National Gender Variation in Environmental Behaviors." Social Science Quarterly 85, no. 3 (2004): 677-94.

Online Article

Abstract: Objective. This article presents a cross-national examination of gender variations in environmental behaviors. Research on environmental concern reveals modest distinctions between men and women, with women typically displaying higher levels of environmental concern and behavioral adjustments relative to men. Additionally, some prior research suggests that women appear more engaged in household-oriented (private) pro-environment behaviors (e.g., recycling), and men in community/society-oriented (public) pro-environment behaviors (e.g., protests). The analysis provided here offers an important extension to existing research through its cross-cultural, comparative perspective. Method. We make use of the 1993 International Social Survey to explore gender differences in "private" and "public" environmentally-oriented behaviors across 22 nations. Results. It is shown that women tend to engage in more environmental behaviors than men in many nations, particularly private behaviors. In addition, both women and men tend to engage in relatively more private environmental behaviors as opposed to public ones. Conclusion. The cross-national analysis provides support for gender distinctions with regard to some environmental behaviors within most of the incorporated 22 national contexts. Gender differences in level of private environmental behaviors tend to be more consistent within nations at the upper end of the wealth distribution.

Peek, Lori A. "Constructing the Enemy During Times of Crisis: America after 9/11." Divide: Journal of Writing and Ideas 1, no. 2 (2004): 26-30.

Abstract: This article draws on historical documents and in-depth interviews to assess the impacts of conflict events on ethnic, racial, and religious minority groups in the United States. Specifically, I explore the creation of an "other" in response to crisis, and examine how this serves to produce group solidarity and social alienation. I discuss the experiences of German Americans during WWI, Japanese, German, and Italian Americans during WWII, and Muslim, Arab, and South Asian Americans following the September 11 attacks.

Hunter, Lori M., and Jeannette Sutton. "Examining the Association between Hazardous Waste Facilities and Rural 'Brain Drain.'" Rural Sociology 69, no. 2 (2004): 197-212.

Online Article

Abstract: Rural communities are increasingly being faced with the prospect of accepting facilities characterized as "opportunity-threat," such as facilities which generate, treat, store, or otherwise dispose of hazardous wastes. Such facilities may offer economic gains through jobs and tax revenue, although they may also act as environmental "disamenities." This analysis examines the possibility that the presence of such facilities equates with lower loss of rural human capital; a question as yet unexamined on a national scale within the academic literature. Making use of secondary data from several different sources, we examine the association between age- and education-specific outmigration and 1) the number of hazardous waste facilities, 2) the number of large quantity hazardous waste generators, and 3) the number of hazardous waste landfills and incinerators across rural counties within the 48 contiguous states. Our findings suggest that the presence of hazardous waste facilities does not clearly equate with reductions in rural "brain drain."

Hunter, Lori M., and Joan Brehm. "A Qualitative Examination of Value Orientations toward Wildlife and Biodiversity by Rural Residents of the Intermountain Region." Human Ecology Review 11, no. 1 (2004): 13-26.

Online Article

Abstract: The values that individuals associate with wildlife and biodiversity are many (e.g., utilitarian, aesthetic, naturalistic) (Kellert 1996). This study explores the values associated with wildlife and biodiversity by residents of a small, rural community in the Intermountain Western region of the United States. The community is located within an area rich in wildlife and, in general, the research aims to examine how these individuals define their own value orientations toward wildlife and biodiversity, how these value systems have been shaped by regular interaction with nature within a rural setting, and whether these rural residents view their value systems as distinct from other population groups. Overall, the results demonstrate 1) the fallacy of assuming constant value orientations within rural population groups, 2) the importance of local context within value formation, and 3) the myriad ways in which individuals define "environmental value."

Hunter, Lori M., and Lesley Rinner. "The Association between Environmental Perspective and Knowledge and Concern with Species Diversity." Society and Natural Resources 17, no. 6 (2004): 517-32.

Online Article

Abstract: As communities continue to engage in debate surrounding land use and preservation, insight into stakeholder knowledge and concern with local species becomes increasingly important. This project explores the association between individual knowledge/concern with species diversity as related to environmental perspective, measured through the New Ecological Paradigm scale. We aim to understand if concern with local species diversity is associated with species-specific knowledge and/or ecocentric outlooks more generally. Results from a mail survey in Boulder, Colorado, USA, reveal that individuals with ecocentric perspectives place greater priority on species preservation relative to those with anthropocentric perspectives, regardless of species knowledge. These results imply that to engage local publics in issues of biodiversity, outreach should not simply provide background specific to local species, but also demonstrate the significance of ecological integrity and biological diversity more broadly.

Fothergill, Alice, and Lori A. Peek. "Poverty and Disasters in the United States: A Review of the Sociological Literature." Natural Hazards 32, no. 1 (2004): 89-110.

Online Article

Abstract: This article synthesizes the literature on poverty and disasters in the United States and presents the results from a wide range of studies conducted over the past twenty years. The findings are organized into eight categories based on the stages of a disaster event. The review illustrates how people of different socioeconomic statuses perceive, prepare for, and respond to natural hazard risks, how low-income populations may be differentially impacted, both physically and psychologically, and how disaster effects vary by social class during the periods of emergency response, recovery, and reconstruction. The literature illustrates that the poor in the United States are more vulnerable to natural disasters due to such factors as place and type of residence, building construction, and social exclusion. The results have important implications for social equity and recommendations for future research and policy implementation are offered.