The following books and articles highlight some of our important
research findings. For a complete list of our publications click
here. If you would like a copy of a particular article of
interest please contact us.
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. and Ageton,
S. S. Explaining Delinquency and Drug Use. Beverly Hills,
CA : Sage Publications, 1985.
This book introduces a new model designed to
explain delinquent behavior and drug use in adolescents. The model
presented is an integration of traditional strain, social control,
and social learning perspectives. Through the eight chapters,
the authors describe the fully integrated model, the sample of
individuals (National Youth Survey participants), and the implications
this model may have on new treatments designed to help delinquent
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. and Menard,
S. Multiple Problem Youth: Delinquency, Drugs and Mental Health
Problems. New York, NY: Springer, 1989.
This book addresses the following questions about
problems in adolescence, relying on data from the NYS.
- What patterns of joint delinquent and mental health problems
are found within the adolescent population?
- What proportion of youth exhibit each multiple problem pattern,
and how are youth exhibiting these patterns distributed in
the general population by age, sex, race, class, and place
- How do these patterns differ with regard to the frequency
of each type of behavior?
- Is there a typical order of onset of these behaviors?
- Can we identify a common set of causes for these problems?
- What is the predictive effect of joint delinquent and mental
health problems in adolescence on long range criminal involvement
or mental health issues?
Elliott, D. S. "Serious Violent
Offenders: Onset, Developmental Course, and Termination." Criminology
This paper is a copy of the presidential address
given by Delbert Elliott to the American Society of Criminology
in 1993. It addresses several important questions about youth
violence and criminal invovlement using data from the NYS. Some
of these questions include: "What is the prevalence of serious
violent offending in adolescence?, How does it begin?, How does
it develop over time?, and Can we predict the onset of violent
offending? In this paper Elliott answers these questions and stresses
the urgent need to develop policies and interventions strategies
to address the "violence crisis" in America.
Mihalic, S. Wofford and Elliott, D. S.
"Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Work."
Youth and Society 28(4):464-498, 1997.
This article examines the short- and long-term
consequences of working during adolescence. Negative short-time
effects are found in the domains of school, family and friend
bonding, beliefs, and substance use. A few of these effects persist
into adulthood. Those who work more years during adolescence report
higher rates of alcohol and marijuana use and less conventional
beliefs at ages 27 and 28. A long-term beneficial effect is that
the duration of early work is positively related to employability
Huizinga, D., Menard, S. and Elliott, D.
S. "Delinquency and Drug Use: Temporal and Developmental Patterns."
Justice Quarterly 6:419-455, 1989.
The long- and short-term relationships of alcohol
and illegal drug use to delinquent and criminal behavior are examined.
As anticipated, substance use and delinquency are positively associated,
but there is little evidence that substance use leads to delinquency.
Relationships between substance use and more serious delinquency
appear to be developmental, not causal.
Menard, S. “The ‘Normality’
of Repeat Victimization From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood,”
Justice Quarterly, 17(3):543-574. 2000.
This study examines the patterns of victimization
experienced by individuals from the time of adolescence through
early adulthood. Data from the NYS is used, chronicling individual's
experiences from ages 11 to 33. Researchers found that most individuals
in this age range (74% of respondents) are repeat victims of crime.
This victimization tends to be chronic, multiple, and intermittent,
and involves an average of one property victimization and one
violent victimization per year. However, most individuals do not
experience 2 victimizations per year because victimization tends
to be highly concentrated within a small percentage of the population
(these individuals are victims many times in a year, and this
raises the average). This concentration of victimization in a
small portion of the population also appears to increase with
Morse, B. J. "Beyond the Conflict
Tactics Scale: Assessing Gender Differences in Partner Violence."
Violence and Victims 10(4):257-272, 1995.
Previous studies of partner assault, particularly
those using the Conflict Tactics Scales, have produced the controversial
finding that women are as likely to assault their partners as
are men. Such findings are clearly at odds with medical, legal,
and social service agencies which find that women are far more
often the victims of partner assault. Self-reported data from
a national sample of young adults were used to determine the extent
to which this apparent discrepancy could be reconciled. Results
confirm previous findings of extensive violence by women, with
little evidence of systematic over or underreporting by either
men or women. However, although both men and women engaged in
frequent minor assault, men were more likely than women to repeatedly
beat their partner during the course of a year. In addition, women
were far more likely than men to suffer physical injury and seek
medical treatment as a consequence of incidents of male violence.
Taken together, these finding somewhat reconcile the discrepancy
regarding partner assault: women are more often than men the victims
of severe partner assault and injury not necessarily because men
strike more often, but because men strike harder.
REPORTS & PUBLICATIONS
OF THE NYSFS STAFF
Books and Monographs
Ageton, S. S. Sexual Assault Among Adolescents.
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, Washington, DC: Health and Company,
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. and Ageton, S. S.
Explaining Delinquency and Drug Use. Beverly Hills, CA : Sage Publications,
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. and Menard, S. Multiple
Problem Youth: Delinquency, Drugs and Mental Health Problems. New
York, NY: Springer, 1989.
Ageton, S. S. "The Changing Patterns of Female Delinquency:1976-1980."
Criminology 21(4): 555-584, 1983.
R. J. "Family Correlates of Male and Female Delinquency."
Criminology 20(2): 149-168, 1982.
Canter, R. J. "Sex Differences in Self-Reported
Delinquency." Criminology 20: 373-394, 1982.
Canter, R. J. and Ageton, S. S. "The Epidemiology
of Adolescent Sex Role Attitudes." Journal of Sex Roles 2(718),
Dunford, F. W. and Elliott, D. S. "Identifying
Career Offenders with Self-Reported Data." Journal of Research
in Crime and Delinquency 21(1): 57-86, 1984.
Elliott, D. S. "Self-Reported Driving While
Under the Influence of Alcohol/Drugs and the Risk of Alcohol/Drug-Related
Accidents." Alcohol, Drugs, and Driving 3(3-4):31-44, July-December,
Elliott, D. S. "Serious Violent Offenders: Onset, Developmental
Course, and Termination." Criminology 32:1-22, 1994. Reprinted
(in whole or in part): Conger, J.J.and N. L. Talambus (eds.) Adolescence
and Youth: Psychological Development In A Changing World New York:
Harpers, 1997; Greenberg, D. (ed.) Criminal Careers: Vol. II, Hampshire,
England; Dartmouth 1996. Dobrin, A., Loftin, C., McDowall, D. and
Wiersema, B. (eds.),The Statistical Handbook of Violence in America.
Phoenix, AZ: Oryn, 1996; NIJ,Technical Assistance and Support Program,
Elliott, D. S. "An Overview of Youth Violence."
Congressional Program: Children and Violence 9(2): 15-20, 1994.
Reprinted, Center for the Study of Youth Policy 1995, Adapted for
"Youth Violence: An Overview." Pp. 83-89 in Juvenile Crime:
Opposing Viewpoints, San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996.
Elliott, D. S. “Life-Threatening Violence
is Primarily a Crime Problem.” University of Colorado Law
Review 69:1081-1098, 1998.
Elliott, D. S. and Ageton, S. S. "Reconciling
Race and Class Differences in Self-Reported and Official Estimates
of Delinquency." American Sociological Review 45(1): 95-110,
Elliott, D. S., Ageton, S. S. and Canter, R. J.
"An Integrated Theoretical Perspective on Delinquent Behavior."
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 16(1): 3-27, 1979.
Elliott, D. S. and Huizinga, D. "Social Class
and Delinquent Behavior in a National Youth Panel: 1976-1980."
Criminology 21(2): 149-177, 1983.
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. and Morse, B. J. "Self-Reported
Violent Offending: A
Descriptive Analysis of Juvenile Offenders and Their Offending Careers."
of Interpersonal Violence 1(4): 472-514, 1986.
Elliott, D. S. and Morse, B. J. "Delinquency
and Drug Use as Risk Factors in Teenage Sexual Activity." Youth
and Society 21(1): 32-60, 1989.
Esbensen, F. and Elliott, D. S. "Continuity
and Discontinuity in Illicit Drug Use." Journal of Social Issues
Esbensen, F. and Menard, S. "Interviewer-Related
Measurement Error in Attitudinal Research: A Non-Experimental Study."
Quality and Quantity 25: 151-165, 1991.
Huizinga, D. and Elliott, D. S. "Reassessing
the Reliability and Validity of Self-Report Delinquency Measures."
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 2(4): 293-328, 1986.
Huizinga, D. and Elliott, D. S. "Juvenile
Offenders: Prevalence Offenders Incidence, and Arrest Rates by Race."
Crime and Delinquency 33(2): 206-223, 1987.
Huizinga, D., Menard, S. and Elliott, D. S. "Delinquency
and Drug Use: Temporal and Developmental Patterns." Justice
Quarterly 6:419-455, 1989.
Menard, S. "Short-Term Trends in Crime and
Delinquency: A Comparison of UCR, NCS and Self-Report Data."
Justice Quarterly 4(3): 455-474, 1987.
Menard, S. "Demographic and Theoretical Variables
in the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Illegal Behavior." Journal
of Research in Crime and Delinquency 29(2): 178-199, 1992.
Menard, S. "A Developmental Test of Mertonian
Anomie Theory." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency
Menard, S. “The ‘Normality’ of
Repeat Victimization From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood,”
Justice Quarterly, 17(3):543-574. 2000.
Menard, S. “Short- and Long-Term Consequences
of Adolescent Victimization,” Youth Violence Research Bulletin.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. 2002.
Menard, S. and Elliott, D. S. "Longitudinal
and Cross-Sectional Data Collection and Analysis in the Study of
Crime and Delinquency." Justice Quarterly 7:11-55, 1990.
Menard S. and Elliott, D. S. "Self Reported
Offending, Maturational Reform, and the Easterlin Hypothesis."
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 6: 237-267, 1990.
Menard, S. and Elliott, D. S. "Data Set Comparability
and Short-Term Trends in Crime and Delinquency." Journal of
Criminal Justice 21:433-445, 1993.
Menard, S. and Elliott, D. S. "Delinquent
Bonding, Moral Beliefs, and Illegal Behavior: A Three-Wave Panel
Model." Justice Quarterly 11:173-188, 1994.
Menard, S. and Huizinga, D. "Age, Period,
and Cohort Size Effects on Self-Reported Alcohol, Marijuana, and
Polydrug Use." Social Science Research 18:174-194, 1989.
Menard, S. and Huizinga, D. "Changes in Conventional
Attitudes and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence." Youth and
Society 26:23-53, 1994.
Menard, S. and Mihalic, S. “The Tripartite
Conceptual Framework in Adolescence and Adulthood: Evidence From
a National Sample,” Journal of Drug Issues, 31(4):905-938.
Menard, S., Elliott, D. S. and Wofford, S. "Social
Control Theories in Developmental Perspective." Studies in
Crime and Crime Prevention 2:69-87, 1993.
Menard, S., Mihalic, S. and Huizinga, D. “Drugs
and Crime Revisited,” Justice Quarterly, 18(2):269-299.
Mihalic S. Wofford, S., Elliott, D. S. and Menard,
S. "Continuities in Marital Violence." Journal of Family
Violence 9:195-225, 1994.
Mihalic, S. Wofford and Elliott, D. S. "A
Social Learning Theory Model of Marital Violence." Journal
of Family Violence 12(1):21-47, 1997.
Mihalic, S. Wofford and Elliott, D. S."If
Violence Is Domestic, Does It Really Count?" Journal of Family
Violence 12(3):293-311, 1997.
Mihalic, S. Wofford and Elliott, D. S. "Short-
and Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Work." Youth and Society
Morse, B. J. "Beyond the Conflict Tactics
Scale: Assessing Gender Differences in Partner Violence." Violence
and Victims 10(4):257-272, 1995.
Roitberg, T. and Menard, S. "Adolescent Violence:
A Test of Integrated Theory." Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention
Chapters in Books
Elliott, D. S. "The Assumption That Theories
Can Be Combined with Increased Explanatory Power: Theoretical Integrations."
In R. F. Meier (ed.), Theoretical Methods in Criminology in Criminology.
Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1985.
Elliott, D. S. "Longitudinal Research in Criminology:
Promise and Practice." In E. G. M. Weitekamp and J. H. Kerner
(eds.) Cross National Longitudinal Research on Human Development
and Criminal Behavior Pp.189-201. Netherlands: Kluwer, 1994.
Elliott, D. S. and Huizinga, D. “Improving
Self-Reported Measures of Delinquency.” In M. W. Klein (ed.),
Cross-National Research in Self-Reported Crime and Delinquency.
Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer, 1989.
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. and Dunford, F. W.
"The Identification and Prediction of Career Offenders Utilizing
Self-Reported and Official Data." Pp. 90-121 (Chapter 4) in
J. Burchard and S. Burchard (eds.), Primary Prevention of Psychopathology.
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1987.
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. and Morse, B. J. "A
Career Analysis of Serious Violent Offenders." Pp. 23-34 in
Violent Juvenile Crime: What Do We Know About It and What Can We
Do About It? Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs,Minneapolis,
MN: University of Minnesota, 1987.
Elliott, D. S. and Menard, S. "Delinquent
Friends and Delinquent Behavior: Temporal and Developmental Patterns."
Pp. 28-67 in David Hawkins (ed.) Delinquency and Crime: Current
Theories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Elliott, D. S. and Morse, B. J. "Drug Use,
Delinquency and Sexual Activity." In C. Jones and E. McAnarney
(eds.) Drug Abuse and Adolescent Sexual Activity, Pregnancy and
Parenthood. NIDA, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,
Esbensen, F. "Measurement Error and Self-Reported
Delinquency: An Examination of Interviewer Bias." In Waldo,
G. P. (ed.) Measurement Issues in Criminal Justice. Beverly Hills,
CA: Sage Publications, 1983.
Huizinga, D. "Assessing Violent Behavior
with Self-Reports." In J. Milner (ed.) Neuro- psychology of
Aggression Kluwer Academic Publishing, 1991.
Huizinga, D., Esbensen, F. and Weiher, A.. "Examining
Developmental Trajectories in Delinquency Using Accelerated Longitudinal
Research Designs." In E.G.M. Weitekamp and H. J. Kerner (eds.),
Cross-national Longitudinal Research on Human Development and Criminal
Behavior, Pp. 203-216. Netherlands: Kluwer, 1994.
Menard, S. "A Developmental Test of Cloward's
Anomie-Opportunity Theory." In N. Passas and R. Agnew (eds.)
The Future of Anomie Theory. Boston, MA: Northeastern University
OTHER PUBLICATIONS USING NYS DATA
Adams, M.S. (1997). Labeling and differential association:
towards a general social learning theory of crime and deviance.
American Journal of Criminal Justice 20:146-164.
Adams, M.S. and Evans, T.D. (1996). Teacher disapproval,
delinquent peers, and self-reported delinquency: a longitudinal
test of labeling theory. Urban Review 28:199-211.
Adams, M.S., Johnson, J.D., and Evans, T.D. (1998).
Racial differences in informal labeling effects. Deviant Behavior
Adams, M.S. (1996). Teacher disapproval, delinquent
peers, and self-reported delinquency: a longitudinal test of labeling
theory. Urban Review 28:199-211.
Agnew, R. (1991) A Longitudinal Test of Social
Control Theory and Delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and
Delinquency 28(2): 126-156.
Agnew, R. (1995). Determinism, indeterminism,
and crime: an empirical exploration. Criminology 33:83-109.
Agnew, R. (1991). The interactive effects of peer
variables on delinquency. Criminology 29:47-72.
Agnew, R. (1994) The Techniques of Neutralization
and Violence. Criminology 32:555-580.
Agnew, R. (1990) Adolescent Resources and Delinquency.
Criminology 28(4): 535-556.
Bartusch, D.J. and Matsueda, R.L. (1996). Gender,
reflected appraisals, and labeling: a cross-group test of an interactionist
theory of delinquency. Social Forces 75:145-176.
Blackwell, B.S. and Reed, M.D. (2003). Power-control
as a between- and within-family model: reconsidering the unit of
analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 32:385-399.
Bushway, S.D. (1998) The Impact of an Arrest on
the Job Stability of Young White American Men. Journal of Research
in Crime and Delinquency 34:454-479.
Covey, H. C., Menard, S. and Franzese, R. J. (1992;
Second edition 1997) Juvenile Gangs Springfield, IL: Charles C.
Demuth, S. (2004). Understanding the delinquency
and social relationships of
loners. Youth and Society 35:366-392.
Duncan, T.E., Alpert, A., and Duncan, S.C. (1998).
Multilevel covariance structure analysis of sibling antisocial behavior.
Structural Equation Modeling 5:211-228.
Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., and Strycker, L.A.
(2001). Qualitative and quantitative shifts in adolescent problem
behavior development: a cohort-sequential multivariate latent growth
modeling approach. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., and Strucker, L.A.
(2000). Risk and protective factors influencing adolescent problem
behavior: a multivariate latent growth curve analysis. Annals of
Behavioral Medicine 22:103-109.
Fagan, A. (2003). The short- and long-term effects
of adolescent violent victimization experienced within the family
and community. Violence and Victims 18:445-458.
Finkel, S. E. (1995) Causal Analysis with Panel
Data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hannon, L., DeFronzo, J. and Prochnow, J. (2001).
Moral commitment and the effects of social influences on violent
delinquency. Violence and Victims 16:427-439.
Hartjen, C.A. and Kethineni, S. (1993). Culture,
gender, and delinquency: a study of youths in the United States
and India. Women and Criminal Justice 5:27-69.
Hayes, H.D. (1997). Using integrated theory to
explain the movement into juvenile delinquency. Deviant Behavior
Heimer, K. and De Coster, S. (1999). The gendering
of violent delinquency. Criminology 37:275-312.
Heimer, K. (1997). Socioeconomic status, subcultural
definitions, and violent delinquency. Social Forces 75:799-833.
Heimer, K. (1996). Gender, interaction, and delinquency:
testing a theory of differential social control. Social Psychology
Hoffman, J.P. (1995). The effects of family structure
and family relations on adolescent marijuana use. International
Journal of the Addictions 30:1207-1241.
Hoffman, J.P. (1994). Investigating the age effects
of family structure on adolescent marijuana use. Journal of Youth
and Adolescence 23:215-235.
Jang, S.J. (1999). Age-varying effects of family,
school, and peers on delinquency: a multilevel modeling test of
interactional theory. Criminology 37:643-685.
Johnson, B.D. and Wish, E.D. (1991). Concentration
of delinquent offending: serious drug involvement and high delinquency
rates. Journal of Drug Issues 21:205-229.
Johnson, B.R., Jang, S.J., Li, S.D., and Larson,
D. (2000). The ‘invisible institution’ and Black youth
crime: the church as an agency of local social control. Journal
of Youth and Adolescence 29:479-498.
Koita, K. and Triplett, R.A. (1998). An examination
of gender and race effects on the parental appraisal process: a
reanalysis of Matsueda’s model of the self. Criminal Justice
and Behavior 25:382-400.
Lackey, C. (2003). Violent family heritage, the
transition to adulthood, and later partner violence. Journal of
Family Issues 24:74-98.
Lauritsen, J. L., Sampson, R. J. and Laub, J. H.
(1991) The Link Between Offending and Victimization Among Adolescents.
Criminology 29(2): 265-292.
Lauritsen, J. L., Laub, J. H. and Sampson, R. J.
(1992) Conventional and Delinquent Activities and Implications for
the Prevention of Violent Victimization Among Adolescents. Violence
and Victims 7(2): 91-108.
Lauritsen, J. L., and Quinet, K.F.D. (1995) Repeat
Victimization Among Adolescents and Young Adults. Journal of Quantitative
Lauritsen, J. L. (1993) Sibling Resemblance in
Juvenile Delinquency: Findings from the National Youth Survey."
Lauritsen, J.L. (1994). Explaining race and gender
differences in adolescent sexual behavior. Social Forces 72:859-883.
Liu, X. (2000). The conditional effect of peer
groups on the relationship between parental labeling and youth delinquency.
Sociological Perspectives 43:499-514.
Marciniak, L.M. (1998). Adolescent attitudes toward
victim precipitation of rape. Violence and Victims 13:287-300.
Matsueda, R.L. and Anderson, K. (1998). The dynamics
of delinquent peers and delinquent behavior. Criminology 36:269-306.
Matsueda, R.L. (1992). Reflected appraisals, parental
labeling, and delinquency: specifying a symbolic interactionist
theory. American Journal of Sociology 97:1577-1611.
Mazerolle, P. (1998) Gender, Strain, and Delinquency:
An Empirical Examination. Justice Quarterly 15:65-91.
McDermott, S. and Nagin, D.S. (2001). Same or
different? Comparing offender groups and covariates over time. Sociological
Methods and Research 29:282-318.
Mears, D.P., Ploeger, M. and Warr, M. (1998).
Explaining the gender gap in delinquency: peer influence and moral
evaluations of behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency
Menard, S. (2000) Coefficients of Determination
for Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis. The American Statistician,
Menard, S. (1991; Second edition, 2002.)Longitudinal
Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Menard, S. (2002) Applied Logistic Regression Analysis.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995; Second Edition.
Miller, D. and Miller, T. (1997) The Relationship
Between Marijuana Use and Socioeconomic Status.” Addictive
Behaviors, 22, 479-489.
Miller, T. (1994) A Test of Alternative Explanations
for the Stage-Like Progression of Adolescent Substance Use in Four
National Samples. Addictive Behaviors 19(3): 287-293.
Miller, T. (1997) Statistical Methods for Describing
Temporal Order in Longitudinal Research. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology,
Miller, T. and Volk, R. (1996) The Relationship
Between Weekly Marijuana Use and Cocaine Use: A Discrete-Time Survival
Analysis. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 5(4),
Miyazaki, Y. and Raudenbush, S. (2000). Tests
for linkage of multiple cohorts in an accelerated longitudinal design.
Psychological Methods 5:44-63.
Nagin, D. S. and Smith, D. A. (1990) Participation
In and Frequency of Delinquent Behavior: A Test for Structural Differences.
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 6(4): 335-356.
Needle, R., Su, S., and Lavee, Y. (1990). A comparison
of the empirical utility of three composite measures of adolescent
overall drug involvement. Addictive Behaviors 14:429-441.
Ousey, G.C. and Maume, M.O. (1997). The grass
is always greener: explaining rural and urban differences in marijuana
use. Sociological Focus 30:295-305.
Paternoster, R. and Brame, R. (1997) Multiple Routes
to Delinquency: A Test of Developmental and General Theories of
Crime. Criminology 35:49-84.
Paternoster, R. and Maxerolle, P. (1994) General
Strain Theory and Delinquency: A Replication and Extension."
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 31(3): 235-263.
Piquero, A.R., MacIntosh, R., and Hickman, M.
(2002). The validity of a self-reported delinquency scale: comparisons
across gender, age, race, and place of residence. Sociological Methods
and Research 30:492-529.
Ploeger, M. (1997). Youth employment and delinquency:
reconsidering a problematic relationship. Criminology 35:659-675.
Raudenbush, S.W. (1993) Modeling Individual and
Community Effects on Deviance Over Time: Multi-Level Statistical
Models. Pp. 205-239 in Farrington, D.P., Sampson, R.J.and Wikström,
Per-Olof H. (eds.) Integrating Individual and Ecological Aspects
of Crime, Stockholm: National Council for Crime Prevention.
Raudenbush, S. W. and Chan, W. (1992) Growth Curve
Analysis in Accelerated Longitudinal Designs. Journal of Research
in Crime and Delinquency 29(4): 387-411.
Raudenbush, S.W. (1995) Hierarchial Linear Models
to Study the Effects of Social Context on Development. In Gottman,
J.M. (ed.) The Analysis of Change, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Reed, M.D. and Rose, D.R. (1998). Doing what Simple
Simon says? Estimating the underlying causal structures of delinquent
associations, attitudes, and serious theft. Criminal Justice and
Reed, M. D. and Rountree, P. W. (1997) Peer Pressure
and Adolescent Substance Use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,
Rowe, D. and Britt, C. III. (1991) Developmental
Explanations of Delinquent Behavior Among Siblings: Common Factor
vs. Transmission Mechanisms. Journal of Quantitative Criminology
Smith, D. A. and Brame, R. (1994) On the Initiation
and Continuation of Delinquency. Criminology 32(4): 607-629.
Smith, D. A., Visher, C. A. and Jarjoura, G. R.
(1991). Dimensions of delinquency: exploring the correlates of participation,
frequency and persistence of delinquent behavior. Journal of Research
in Crime and Delinquency 28:6-32.
Smith, D. A., Visher, C. A. and Jarjoura, G. R.(1991)
Diversions of Delinquency: Exploring the Correlates of Participation,
Frequency and Persistence of Delinquent Behavior. Journal of Research
in Crime and Delinquency 28(1): 6-32.
Tolan, P. H. and Thomas, P. (1995) The Implications
of Age of Onset for Delinquency Risk II. Longitudinal Data. Journal
of Abnormal Child Psychology 23(2):157-181.
Triplett, R. A. and Jarjoura, G. R. (1994) Theoretical
and Empirical Specification of a Model of Informal Labeling. Journal
of Quantitative Criminology 10:241-276.
Triplett, R. A. and Myers, L.B. (1996) Evaluating
Contextual Patterns of Delinquency: Gender-Based Differences. Justice
Warr, M. (1998). Life-course transitions and desistance
from crime. Criminology 36:183-216.
Wells, L.E. and Rankin, J.H. (1996). Juvenile
victimization: convergent validation of alternative measurements.
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 32:287-307.
Zhang, L. (1997). Informal reactions and delinquency.
Criminal Justice and Behavior 24:129-150.
Zhang, L. and Messner, S.F. (2000). The effects
of alternative measures of delinquent peers on self-reported delinquency.
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 37:324-337.
Calvert, Wilma J. (2002). Neighborhood Disorder, Individual, Family,
and Peer Behavior Protective Factors, and the Risk of Adolescent
Delinquent Behavior. University of Missouri, St. Louis.
Chien, Cynthia Y. (1994). Developmental Adaptation of Social Learning
Theory. Department of Sociology, University of Colorado.
Craven, Diane. (1987). Criminal Careers: The Role of the Adolescent
Peer Group. Department of Sociology, University of Colorado.
Esbensen, Finn-Aage. (1982). Measurement Error in Survey Research:
An Examination of Interviewer Effects Upon Adolescent Respondents
in a National Youth Survey. Department of Sociology, University
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