The Florida Catastrophic Storm Risk Management Center
The Florida Catastrophic Storm Risk Management Center was created by the Florida legislature in 2007 to support the state's ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from catastrophic storms. Topics include: understanding insurance pricing, government-sponsored insurance, addressing property losses, land use planning, and predicting future losses.  This site also provides additional web links to other risk management organizations, news sources, relevant papers and reports, weather information, and more.

Institute for Business and Home Safety
The Institute for Business and Home Safety is a consortium of insurance and reinsurance institutions dedicated to making natural disaster safety a core value among homes and businesses. Visitors to the IBHS site will find information about ongoing IBHS projects and other insurance industry initiatives, as well as online copies of many IBHS publications and safety brochures.

Federal Alliance for Safe Homes-FLASH, Inc./Blueprint for Safety
The Federal Alliance for Safe Homes-FLASH, Inc. is a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting disaster safety and property loss mitigation. This public-private alliance of like-minded partners includes government agencies, construction and insurance industries as well as volunteer organizations. Blueprint for Safey is FLASH's education program on techniques in disaster-resistant construction.

Munich and Swiss Reinsurance Companies
The Munich and Swiss Reinsurance companies have both issued numerous publications documenting disasters around the globe (search on "disasters" or "catastrophes" on either site). Both publish annual reports that catalog such events and their consequences for the insurance industry. MunichRe's site includes an annual review of natural catastrophes and a world hazards map.

Societal Aspects of Weather - Insurance
The "Societal Aspects of Weather" Web site includes pages on such climate/weather phenomena as floods, El Nino, tornadoes, extreme temperature, lightning, hurricanes and tropical cyclones, and winter weather. Additionally, it offers this page of studies and analysis of the historical and predicted future impact of severe weather that are of interest to the insurance industry.

Availability and Affordability of Insurance under Climate Change: A Growing Challenge for the U.S. (2005)
This paper was authored by a scientist, an insurance actuary and former regulator, and an insurance veteran. It explores the insurability of risks related to extreme weather events and climate change and ways in which insurance affordability and availability could be adversely impacted in the United States in the coming years. It includes examples where affordability and availability of insurance are already at risk from rising weather-related losses and how future financial exposure for insurers, governments, businesses, and consumers could worsen if current climate and business trends continue. Available free online from Ceres.

The National Flood Insurance Program’s Market Penetration Rate: Estimates and Policy Implications
This report contributes develops more reliable estimates of the proportion of households that have flood insurance (the market penetration rate); identifying factors that determine the market penetration rate; and examining opportunities for, and the potential benefits of, increasing the market penetration rate. Among the findings: only about half of homeowners living in some of the most flood-prone areas of the United States buy federal flood insurance, leaving millions of families at risk for severe financial losses when floods strike. Available free online from the RAND Corporation; and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA);

Hurricane Katrina: Analysis of the Impact on the Insurance Industry
This white paper is a contribution to the discussion of the financial impact of Hurricane Katrina on insurers, as well as the deeper implications for the industry. The authors estimated that as of September 30, 2005, the insured losses from Katrina were between $40 and $55 billion (excluding losses insured under the National Flood Insurance Program). The analysis includes line-of-business loss estimates; how losses will be split among insurers, reinsurers, and capital markets; a look at hurricane frequency and severity; risk management implications; and some public policy issues. Available free online from Towers Perrin.

AIR Worldwide
AIR Worldwide Corporation is an international risk modeling and technology firm specializing in risks associated with natural and manmade catastrophes, weather, and climate. Several publications on risk and costs related to natural hazards are available at for free. To help insurers and reinsurers analyze and prepare for future multiple-catastrophe years, AIR released Analyzing and Preparing for Multiple Event Seasons (

Hazard & Risk Science Review 2004 and 2005
These publications provide a digest of scientific papers published during each of the years, 2004 and 2005, of relevance to the insurance market, focusing on the four major hazard areas: atmospheric, geological, hydrological, and climate change. Available free online from the Benfield Hazard Research Centre.