Holistic Disaster Recovery

Annotated Bibliography

TABLE OF CONTENTS:  Holistic Disaster Recovery
BIBLIOGRAPHY SECTIONS:  1. Introduction to Sustainability    2. The Disaster Recovery Process    3. Participatory Processes in Disaster Recovery    4. Using Disaster Recovery to Maintain and Enhance Quality of Life    5. Building Economic Vitality into Recovery    6. Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity during Disaster Recovery    7. Protecting Environmental Quality during Disaster Recovery    8. Incorporating Disaster Resilience into Disaster Recovery

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8. Incorporating Disaster Resilience Into Disaster Recovery

- Where To Find Information -

Training Courses and Workshops

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute, Higher Education Project Courses. Emmitsburg, MD. http://www.fema.gov/emi/edu/aem_courses.htm [accessed June 15, 2001] Contact: (301) 447-1233 or email Barbara Johnson: barbara.l.Johnson@fema.gov

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute, National Emergency Training Center. Emmitsburg, MD. http://www.fema.gov/emi [accessed June 15, 2001] (301) 447-1035.


Association of State Floodplain Managers.
The Association of State Floodplain Managers is an organization of professionals involved in floodplain management, flood hazard mitigation, the National Flood Insurance Program, and preparedness, warning and recovery. The ASFPM represents the flood hazard specialists of local, state, and federal government, the research community, the insurance industry, and the fields of engineering, hydrologic forecasting, emergency response, water resources, and others.
See http://www.floods.org [accessed July 23, 2001]

Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development.
The CESD website is a project of the Denver Regional Office of Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Since 1995, the CESD website has offered users access to comprehensive resources on community sustainability. It is an excellent source for resources on sustainable development.
See http://www.sustainable.doe.gov [accessed June 29, 2001]

Disaster Resistant Communities Association.
This web site includes recent news stories about communities that have implemented pre-disaster mitigation plans and Project Impact.
See http://www.hazmit.net/PIAssoc/PIHome.htm [accessed June 15, 2001]

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
FEMA is the federal agency responsible for preparing for and responding to disasters in the United States.
See http://www.fema.gov [accessed July 23, 2001]

Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy. Directory of Policy Journals in Transport, Urban Planning and Sustainability.
Over 50 journals are described to help academics, professionals, and students research many topics related to this field. Each journal is described including a link to the site where the journal may be found on the internet. Some journals have access to online articles.
See: http://wwwistp.murdoch.edu.au/research/journal/ [accessed July 13, 2001]

Network of State Hazard Mitigation Officers.
This web site is a link to state hazard mitigation officers and an online source of information for hazard mitigation officers.
See: http://www.hazmit.net/index.htm [accessed June 15, 2001]

Videos, CD-ROMs, and DVDs

Stand Up to the Flood: Get Your Home in Shape. Association of Bay Area Governments. 1999.
Contact the Association of Bay Area Governments at: P.O. Box 2050, Oakland, CA 94604-2050. Phone: (510) 464-7900; fax: (510) 464-7970; or see http://www.abag.ca.gov [accessed September 14, 2001]

Flood Mitigation Planning: The First Steps. Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM). 2000.
Contact ASFPM at asfpm@floods.org or see http://www.floods.org [accessed September 14, 2001]

Mitigation Revitalizes a Floodplain Community: The Darlington Story. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1997. Madison, WI.
This is a splendidly produced videotape about the efforts of a small rural Wisconsin community to reverse the effects of neglect and disinvestment in its historic downtown area caused by repeated flooding and economic change. Using a multi-objective planning and management strategy, officials and citizens, in partnership with government agencies and private entities, identified six goals: 1) preserve the historic character of the downtown; 2) restore community pride; 3) acquire and relocate commercial properties at risk; 4) elevate and flood proof commercial and residential structures; 5) stimulate investment downtown; and 6) pursue tourism as an economic strategy. The video follows the mitigation process from early meetings through floodproofing and relocation. Produced by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 27 minutes. 1997. Available free from Wisconsin DNR, P.O. Box 7921, Madison, WI 53707-7921; (608) 264-9200.

Rhineland Relocation Project. Booneslick Regional Planning Commission. n.d. Produced by Video Production Company for the Booneslick Regional Planning Commission and others.
For availability, contact the Booneslick Regional Planning Commission at (314) 456-3473 or the Economic Development Administration in Jefferson City, Missouri at (314) 751-4146.

Quality Redevelopment of Eastern North Carolina. Horizon Video Productions. 2000. Durham, NC.
This 20-minute video was produced by the state in the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd to introduce and educate local and state officials about the "better ways" available to recover from the disaster and at the same time address other local concerns such as environmental quality, economic vitality, housing, sense of community, business and job opportunities, and disaster mitigation. It introduced a framework espoused by the state for sustainable community action and features the governor explaining the tenets of "quality redevelopment" and how it can--and did--benefit North Carolina communities and help ensure a better future for the state's citizens. Available from North Carolina Department of Emergency Management, 1830-B Tillery Place, Raleigh, NC 27699; (919) 751-8000; fax: (919) 715-9763.

Taking the Initiative. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute. 2000. Emmitsburg, MD.
This 20-minute video shows how a neighborhood, two small towns, and a business owner took responsibility for and got organized to adopt sustainability principles and techniques in coping with hazards. The three separate instances, all in California, illustrate participatory processes, taking initiative, looking at the economic benefits of hazard mitigation (in one case, elevating a restaurant), incorporating livability components into a flood protection measure, and protecting the local environment and habitat. This video is available from the Emergency Management Institute at 1-800-238-3358. Ask for the "Disaster-Resistant Jobs" video.

The Link Between Sustainability & Disaster Resistant Communities. Slide show produced by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/disaster/impact [accessed July 23, 2001]
This slide show explains the concept of sustainable redevelopment and gives examples of redevelopment in three communities: Soldiers Grove, Wisconsin; Valmeyer, Illinois; and Arkadelphia, Arkansas.

Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool. New Hanover County, North Carolina. NOAA Coastal Services Center.
Before communities can develop effective hazard mitigation strategies, they must first identify their hazard risks and assess their vulnerability to the impacts of those hazards. This CD-ROM includes a method for conducting a community-wide vulnerability assessment. A tutorial steps the user through a process of analyzing physical, social, economic, and environmental vulnerability at the community level. The foundation for the method was established by the Heinz Center Panel on Risk, Vulnerability, and the True Cost of Hazards.

Planning for Natural Hazards: Oregon Technical Resource Guide. Oregon Natural Hazards Workshop. 2000. University of Oregon: Oregon Natural Hazard Workshop.
The purpose of the guide is to help Oregon cities and counties plan for and limit the effects of threats posed by natural hazards." More information is available on-line at http://www.uoregon.edu/~onhw/text/projects/tfeatured.html [accessed June 22, 2001]

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Books, Articles, and Papers

Association of State Floodplain Managers. 1996. Using Multi-Objective Management to Reduce Flood Losses in Your Watershed. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers. 72 pp. Abstract available at http://www.floods.org/PDF%20files/PUBSLIST.pdf. [accessed September 21, 2001]
This publication documents the results of a multi-year project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and conducted by ASFPM, to explore planning and implementation techniques for multi-objective watershed management. It provides a general introduction to multi-objective management and the planning process that helps a community select the flood-loss reduction measures most suitable to its situation. It explains how to define problems and goals, build partnerships, combine needs and solutions creatively, and begin formal implementation procedures. Both riverine and coastal flood watersheds are examined. Much of the document focuses on multi-objective management planning details, involving subjects such as fish and wildlife issues, water supply, housing improvement, transportation and lifelines. Preparation of a M-O-M plan involves problem definition, involvement of non-local groups, and public and official acceptance of the plan.

Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project. 1990. Putting the Pieces Together: The Loma Prieta Earthquake One Year Later. Oakland, CA: Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project. 253 pp.
This report grew out of a conference held to determine the lessons learned from the Loma Prieta earthquake and its aftermath. The conference examined preparedness and mitigation efforts before the quake, political and management issues of disaster response, recovery and reconstruction programs, and mitigation activities since the event. Among the numerous topics addressed in the volume, separate chapters are given to seismological and geological considerations, geotechnical aspects, the performance of lifelines, buildings, and transportation systems and the implications for future design of these elements, effective emergency management, emotional and psychological aftereffects, economic impacts, emergency public information and the media, the restoration of lifelines, emergency medical services, business recovery, and housing reconstruction.

Beatley, Timothy and David Brower. 1997. Hazard Mitigation in Florida Following Hurricane Andrew. Natural Hazard Working Paper No. 13. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, Center for Urban and Regional Studies. 61 pp.
This case study examines the impacts, activities, and lessons learned from Hurricane Andrew. The report describes the extent and nature of the damage the storm caused, along with Florida's susceptibility to hurricanes. It describes the pre-storm status of the region's planning and mitigation framework, then documents the major recovery and reconstruction activities that have transpired since the storm, including the post-storm mitigation projects and expenditures, changes to building codes, and design charrettes that examined alternative rebuilding strategies. Among the major policy issues that emerged from the study are: the appropriate role of the state mitigation plan, the appropriateness of mitigation choices made following Andrew, the limited mitigation options in South Florida, and the benefits and limitations of Florida's system of comprehensive planning and growth management.

Berke, Philip R. and Timothy Beatley. 1992. Planning for Earthquakes: Risk, Politics, and Policy. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press. 228 pp.
The authors examine the experiences of 260 earthquake-prone communities across the U.S., paying particular attention to three areas of especially high risk: Palo Alto, California; Salt Lake City, Utah; and the lowlands of South Carolina, including Charleston. They address issues that include citizen safety, determining and maintaining the structural integrity of old and new buildings, mapping, and land use, and also discuss alternative seismic hazard reduction measures and local earthquake mitigation programs. They conclude with a set of recommended activities for implementing local programs and building public support while involving federal and state governments. It is recommended that major stakeholders in the development of mitigation strategies should be involved with the planning process from the beginning.

Berke, Philip R. and Jack Kartez. 1994. Sustainable Development as a Guide to Community Land Use Policy: A Conceptual Framework. HRRC Publication 37P. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, College of Architecture, Hazard Reduction & Recovery Center. 25 pp.
This paper provides a conceptual definition of "sustainable development," which many have argued is a vague phrase that threatens to become an unmanageable cliche. The authors explore how "sustainable development" can be used to describe the common good in land use and development and present a set of principles for land use policy formation. Principles for land use policy that the report identifies are: 1) include public participation in the decisionmaking process; 2) build consensus through conflict resolution mechanisms; 3) build local decisionmaking on a realistic capacity to carry out policies; 4) recognize local rights to devise rules for guiding human settlement patterns; 5) land use policy must work in harmony with nature and recognize the limits of ecosystems; 6) the built environment should be in harmony with people's needs and aspirations; 7) realistic land use policy must be able to alleviate local poverty and account for the least advantaged; 8) polluters, or culpable parties/corporations, must pay for the adverse affects they have imposed on ecosystems; and 9) responsible regional planning needs to be promoted.

Berke, Philip and David Godschalk. 1996. Hazard Mitigation in California following the Loma Prieta and Northridge Earthquakes. Natural Hazard Working Paper No. 14. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, Center for Urban and Regional Studies. 59 pp.
This report documents a case study conducted almost six years after the Loma Prieta quake and one and one-half years after Northridge. The strengths and weaknesses of the California 409 Plans are identified, state and federal mitigation planning and implementation processes are reviewed, and local mitigation examples are drawn from San Francisco, Berkeley, Watsonville, and Los Angeles and Ventura counties. One finding was that present mitigation systems (policies and institutions) will not be adequate to mitigate the impacts of a future major earthquake catastrophe. Two recommendations were that California should pursue a coordinated, interdisciplinary effort to further the understanding of earthquake prediction and of earthquake impacts and should reinvigorate efforts to mandate local multi-hazard mitigation planning before and after a disaster.

Burby, Raymond J., ed. 1998. Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land-Use9 Planning for Sustainable Communities. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press. 356 pp. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/5785.html.
This volume focuses on the breakdown in sustainability--the capacity of the planet to provide quality of life now and in the future--that is signaled by disaster. The book takes a historical approach to the explain why land use and sustainability have been ignored in devising public policies for natural hazards. The authors provide suggestions and a blueprint for the future.

Burby, Raymond J., Timothy Beatley, Philip R. Berke, Robert E. Deyle, Steven French, David R. Godschalk, Edward J. Kaiser, Jack D. Kartez, Peter J. May, Robert Olshansky, Robert G. Paterson, and Rutherford H. Platt. 1999. "Unleashing the Power of Planning to Create Disaster-Resistant Communities." Journal of the American Planning Association 65 (Summer).
Human suffering and losses of lives and property in natural disasters can be reduced with appropriate planning for hazardous areas. However, the authors of this paper assert that federal policies addressing these problems have yet to recognize the importance of planning as the cornerstone of effective local hazard mitigation. In fact, federal programs make planning more difficult, the authors suggest, because they encourage the intensive use of hazardous land and shield local governments and private decisionmakers from financial losses in the disasters that inevitably follow. To unleash the power of planning for hazard mitigation, federal policies must be revised so that they help build local understanding of risk, commitment to hazard mitigation, and support for planning.

Bush, David M., Rodney Priddy, Kathie Dixon, and Orrin H. Pilkey. 1991. Principles of Property Damage Mitigation and the Impact of Hurricane Hugo. Durham, NC: Duke University, Department of Geology, Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines. 167 pp.
Prepared as a field-trip guide for the study of damage caused by Hurricane Hugo along the Carolina coast, this report is designed to educate readers about the many effects of hurricanes on seashores and to encourage a new way of thinking about hurricane recovery. It tries to show that simply cleaning up and rebuilding should make way for more active steps to enhance and preserve the protective capabilities of the natural setting. It also suggests principles of reducing hurricane-caused property damage given expected sea-level rise, barrier island migration, and increased storm severity, and encourages environmentally sensitive approaches to hurricane mitigation. The document contains an account of pertinent hazard mitigation legislation and hazards research, a matrix of mitigation options, a general description of the shoreline affected by Hugo, and detailed descriptions of various sites included in the field trip.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1997. Project Impact Guidebook. Building a Disaster Resistant Community. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
This guidebook is designed to help communities protect residents, organizations, businesses, infrastructure, and stability and growth of the economy as much as possible against the impact of natural disasters before they happen.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1997. Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency. 52 pp.
A long-standing question for those who work to reduce the impacts of natural hazards is whether mitigation is worth the time and expense. Specifically, are the costs required to reduce or eliminate the impacts of natural hazards substantially less than the benefits they provide? This report reviews the benefits that can accrue to different segments of society from mitigative measures, the costs that can be incurred by undertaking mitigation activities, and the analyses needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these measures. The document has 16 case studies across the United States and demonstrates their efficiency against several types of natural hazards, as well as the effectiveness of other mitigation tools. The studies include seismic retrofitting of lifelines in Tennessee, reinforcement of highway bridges in California, historic preservation and community development in Wisconsin, mitigation in hospitals in California, reduction of business interruption costs in Iowa, seismic retrofitting in Los Angeles public schools, wind shutter protection in Florida, acquisition and relocation of floodplain structures in Missouri, regulation of unreinforced masonry buildings in Los Angeles, land-use and building regulation along the coasts of Florida, land-use and building requirements in floodplains, and seismic retrofitting to avoid business disruption. The cases include both public- and private-sector initiatives.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2000. Planning for a Sustainable Future: The Link Between Hazard Mitigation and Livability. FEMA Report 364. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency. 40 pp. Available at http://www.fema.gov/mit/planning_toc2.htm. [accessed September 21, 2001]
This booklet is about hazard mitigation, disaster resilience, sustainable development and livability, and describes the linkages among these concepts. It shows how communities that undertake hazard mitigation planning become more disaster resistant and reap further benefits. Hazard mitigation links disaster resilience to broad community objectives of economic health, social well-being, and environmental protection.

French, Steven P., Arthur C. Nelson, S. Muthukumar, and Maureen M. Holland. 1996. The Northridge Earthquake: Land Use Planning for Hazard Mitigation. NSF Grant Number CMS-9416458. Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology, College of Architecture, City Planning Program. 160 pp.
Land use planning for seismic safety has been mandated in California for more than 20 years. The 1994 Northridge earthquake, which significantly impacted 19 local jurisdictions, provided a unique opportunity to assess the effectiveness of this planning as a mitigation strategy. The authors found that planning had a small but measurable effect in reducing earthquake damage. In particular, the hazard delineation and public awareness components of the plans were the most strongly related to lower damage levels. Additionally, a disproportionate amount of damage occurred in areas that were previously identified as likely to experience liquefaction, and communities that had undertaken detailed mapping of these areas experienced less damage than those that did not. The report initially discusses the role of land use planning in natural hazard mitigation, then provides a setting for the Northridge quake. The pre-earthquake policy framework is reviewed, and local land use plans in effect are overviewed. The final chapter suggests ways to improve the effectiveness of land use planning for hazard mitigation.

Geis. D.E. 2000. "By Design: The Disaster Resistant and Quality of Life Community." Natural Hazards Review 1(3):151-160.
According to Geis, the present approach to designing and building communities is inadequate and is inflicting great and growing harm-physically, environmentally, socially, economically, and emotionally-that we can no longer tolerate. The disaster resistant community concept, the first step toward creating quality-of-life communities, was created specifically to provide a new way of thinking. A number of basic questions need to be addressed. What are disaster-resistant communities? Why are they important? What are the benefits? What is the relationship between a disaster-resistant community and a sustainable quality-of-life community? And, most importantly, how do we go about creating them? This article provides the answers to these questions so that the concept can be better understood and used to its fullest potential.

Godschalk, David and Timothy Beatley. 1996. Hazard Mitigation in Iowa Following the Great Midwest Floods of 1993. Natural Hazard Working Paper No. 10. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Center for Urban and Regional Studies. 31 pp.
The report examines how the Stafford Act influenced recovery in eight localities in Iowa. Questions explored include: What constitutes mitigation? Who is in charge after a disaster occurs? What good is the 409 (Stafford) Plan? Who pays for disasters? Other topics considered include grant administration accountability, equity issues, the promotion of sustainable communities, and problems caused by confusing rules and guidance.

Godschalk, D.R., T. Beatley, P. Berke, D.J. Brower, and E.J. Kaiser. 1999. Natural Hazards Mitigation. Recasting Disaster Policy and Planning. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. 575 pp.
This book describes and analyzes the way that hazard mitigation has been carried out in the United States under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. The authors determine how the requirements of this law, establishing a national system for hazard mitigation, have worked in practice and how they might be made to work better.

Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W. 1999. "Flood Protection--Sustainability Issues." Hydrological Sciences-Journal-des Sciences Hydrologiques 44(4): 559-571.
Several types of technical infrastructure used globally for flood protection have been criticized in the context of sustainable development because they close off options for future generations and introduce unacceptable disturbances in ecosystems. Large structural flood defenses like dams, levees, storage reservoirs, and embankments are often listed in this category. This article examines the means of coping with floods in the sustainability context. The premise is that, although some flood protection is necessary to the present generation to attain a fair degree of freedom from disastrous events, it must be done in such a way that future generations are not adversely affected. Various measures, or tests, of the sustainability of structural and nonstructural flood mitigation approaches are reviewed. Among them are questions about the fairness, reversibility, potential for landscape rehabilitation, and risk of various approaches; the extent to which consensus and/or participatory decisionmaking was incorporated into the planning; the magnitude of the marginal environmental impact; and the efficiency of existing and proposed projects. The author concludes that a change in paradigm is needed because a flood protection system guaranteeing complete safety is an illusion; an attitude of "living with floods is more sustainable than a hopeless striving to combat floods.

Mileti, Dennis S. 1999. Disasters by Design. Washington, D.C.: The Joseph Henry Press. 351 pp. Available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog/5782.html. [accessed September 21, 2001]
This book is a summary volume of the Second National Assessment of Research on Natural Hazards with the formal mission of summarizing what is known in the various fields of science and engineering that is applicable to natural and related technological hazards in the United States, and making some research and policy recommendations for the future. It summarizes the hazards research findings from the last two decades, synthesizes what has been learned, and outlines a proposed shift in direction in research and policy for natural and related technological hazards in the United States. Disasters by Design is intended for a general audience, including policymakers and practitioners.

Mittler, Elliott. 1997. An Assessment of Floodplain Management in Georgia's Flint River Basin. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center. 190 pp.
On July 3, 1994, Tropical Storm Alberto struck the Florida panhandle and proceeded northeast before stalling just south of Atlanta, Georgia, inflicting over $1 billion in damage. The flood provided an opportunity to identify and document the successes and failures of state and local floodplain management programs and activities. The author assessed the impact of federal, state, and local floodplain management activities on losses in the Flint River Basin, paying particular attention to the impact of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and local floodplain management efforts. He examines previous floodplain studies; evaluates the political situation affecting flood recovery in each community; examines federal, state, and local responses to the disaster, concentrating on recovery plans and the use of hazard mitigation programs to reduce future flood losses; analyzes the effectiveness of the NFIP; and offers a series of findings and recommendations based on the relatively successful recovery programs he found.

Nanita-Kennett, Milagros. 1994. Urban Redevelopment and Earthquake Safety. Tallahassee, FL: Florida A&M University, School of Architecture. 143 pp.
Urban renewal or redevelopment has been employed by federal, state, and local governments to promote the creation of public infrastructure and regulate the development process. However, earthquake safety programs have never been a part of this process, despite evidence that many cities are broadly vulnerable to the hazard. If these programs could be successfully integrated, seismic safety and protection could be greatly increased with reasonable effort and cost. The author examines this topic by addressing urban decay and earthquake risk; the redevelopment process; the urban environment, including building codes, land use, and infrastructure; federal earthquake programs; local government programs; and the integration of various aspects of redevelopment. In addition, she provides case studies of Charleston, South Carolina; Memphis, Tennessee; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz, California.

National Wildlife Federation. 1998. Higher Ground: A Report on Voluntary Property Buyouts in the Nation's Floodplains. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation.
The National Wildlife Federation is dedicated to restoring landscapes, including natural wetlands, floodplains, and habitat of species that thrive along rivers and streams. Higher Ground focuses onefforts to restore floodplains through voluntary property buyouts and relocations of homes and other structures from high-risk flood zones and presents a detailed analysis of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) data. It includes sections on the history of buyout programs in the U.S. and the 1993 Midwest floods, an analysis of repetitive losses in the NFIP, and conclusions and recommendations.

North Carolina Emergency Management Division and Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2000. Hazard Mitigation in North Carolina: Measuring Success. Raleigh, NC: DEM.
To accelerate the institutionalization of hazard mitigation in North Carolina, the North Carolina Emergency Management Division established the Hazard Mitigation Planning Initiative, a long-term program to build local capacity to implement mitigation policies and programs in communities across the state. Through a series of case studies, this study documents losses avoided as a result of the implementation of a wide range of mitigation measures, including elevations and the acquisition and relocation or demolition of floodprone properties.

Reddy, Swaroop. 1992. A Study of Long Term Recovery of Three Communities in the Aftermath of Hurricane Hugo. HRRC Monograph 9B. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, College of Architecture, Hazard Reduction Recovery Center. 171 pp.
The objectives of this report--a doctoral dissertation--included: 1) to determine the factors that explain the successful adoption of hazard mitigation measures during recovery, 2) to develop a conceptual understanding of the problems inherent in the adoption of mitigation during disaster recovery, and 3) to gain an understanding about the influence of pre-storm institutional regulations on mitigation during the recovery period. The major findings were: the stronger and greater the presence of eight implementation factors in a community, the greater the successful adoption of mitigation measures; local institutional involvement is essential in the successful adoption of mitigation; there is a strong link between development management and hazard mitigation; a strong link also exists between the protection of coastal resources and coastal hazard mitigation; and the existence of strong pre-storm institutional regulations help local jurisdictions promote the adoption of mitigation during recovery.

Schwab, Jim, Kenneth C. Topping, Charles C. Eadie, Robert E. Deyle, and Richard A. Smith. 1998. Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. PAS Report No. 483/484. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association. 346 pp. Abstract available at http://www.planning.org/apapubs/details.asp?Num=1178. [accessed September 21, 2001]
This document helps community leaders and planners educate their constituents on how informed decisions and choices can affect the rebuilding process and yield a safer, more sustainable community. This report introduces planners to their roles in post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, and provides guidance on how to plan for post-disaster reconstruction side by side with all other players involved. A key theme throughout this report is to rebuild to create a more disaster-resilient community. The report contains many references to technical resources.

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior. 1996. Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review Implementation Action Plan Report-May 23, 1996. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 33 pp.
This report describes methods for implementing the recommendations contained in a prior report on federal wildland fire policy. It outlines specific actions to be enacted immediately, such as developing fire management plans for all areas subject to wildland fires, developing research programs, and requiring appropriate treatment of fuel hazards created by resource management and land use activities. The report also discusses items that require a long-term commitment, such as the use of a planning system that recognizes both fire use and fire protection as inherent parts of natural resource management, long-range management objectives, and standard criteria to assess suppression and support requirements.

Western Governors' Association. 1996. Wildland/Urban Interface Fire Policy Action Report. Denver, CO: Western Governors' Association, 1996. 9 pp.
Many state governors believe that a comprehensive revision of fire policy regarding the wildland/urban interface is critical to preventing future loss of life, property, and natural resources. Hence, the members of the Western Governors' Association offer a blueprint for improved management of the wildfire hazard that plagues western states. The governors recognize that, as western populations continue to move into wildland areas, the risk increases, and that, although low-intensity fires are often beneficial to the forest environment, intense fires are destructive to plant and soil systems.

Wilhite, Donald, Deborah A. Wood, and Kelly Helm Smith. n.d. Planning for a Sustainable Future: The Case of the North American Great Plains. IDIC Technical Report Series 95-1. Lincoln, Nebraska: International Drought Information Center.
The participants at this symposium addressed the complex economic, social, and environmental issues facing the Great Plains region in anticipation of climate change in the years to come. In addition to essays on sustainable development and global change policies, the volume contains four case studies that deal with sustainable land use, education and research agendas, the Groundwater Guardian Program, and the use of reverse engineering to enhance the lessons learned over the past eight decades. Also included are focus group reports on agricultural production, land and water resources, human and community resources, biological resources and biodiversity, and integrated resource management.

Wright, J.M. and J.L. Monday. 1996. Addressing Your Community's Flood Problems. A Guide for Elected Officials. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers, Inc. and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 38 pp.
This document was prepared to help elected officials plan and take action to prepare their communities for floods.

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Additional Reading

Beatley, Timothy. 1995. Promoting Sustainable Land Use: Mitigating Natural Hazards Through Land Use Planning. HRRC Publication No. 133A. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, College of Architecture, Hazards Reduction & Recovery Center. 6 pp.

Beatley, Timothy. 1996. National Trends and Future Directions in Hazard Mitigation Policy: The Elements of a New Paradigm. Natural Hazard Working Paper No. 6. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, Center for Urban and Regional Studies. 97 pp.

Faber, Scott. 1996. On Borrowed Land: Public Policies for Floodplains. Cambridge: MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1987. Reducing Losses in High Risk Areas: A Guidebook for Local Officials. FEMA 116. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1995. Mitigation. Cornerstone for Building Safer Communities. The Report of the Mitigation Directorate for Fiscal Year 1995. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 83 pp.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1997. Multi Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment. The Cornerstone of the National Mitigation Strategy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Godschalk, David R. and Edward J. Kaiser. 1996. Lessons from Six Mitigation Case Studies. Natural Hazard Working Paper No. 15. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, Center for Urban and Regional Studies. 10 pp.

Godschalk, David; Norton, Richard; Peterson, Junko; Richardson, Craig; and Salvesen, David. 1998. Coastal Hazards Mitigation: Public Notification, Expenditure Limitations, and Hazard Areas Acquisition. Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Urban and Regional Studies.

Johnston, Robert and Madison, Mary. 1997. "From Landmarks to Landscaped: A Review of Current Practices in the Transfer of Development Rights." Journal of the American Planning Association 63(3):369.

Missouri State Emergency Management Agency. 1995. Out of Harm's Way: the Missouri Buyout Program. Springfield, Missouri: Missouri State Emergency Management Agency.

National Park Service, 1996. Floods, Floodplains and Folks: A Casebook for Managing Rivers for Multiple Uses. Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Park Service.

Platt, Rutherford. 1996. Land Use and Society: Geography, Law, and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Porter, Douglas. 1997. Managing Growth in America's Communities. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Working Group on Natural Disaster Information Systems, 2000. Effective Disaster Warnings. Washington, D.C.: National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment and Natural Resources.

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