Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute, National Emergency Training Center. Emmitsburg, Maryland. (301) 447-1035; http://www.fema.gov/emi [accessed June 15, 2001]
Columbia University, Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN).
The findings at this site were jointly developed by CIESIN, the Yale University Center for Environmental Law and Policy, and the Global Leaders for Tomorrow Environment Task Force of the World Economic Forum. The Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) identifies 22 major factors such as urban air quality, overall public health, and environmental regulation, and measures these factors using 67 different variables, such as levels of sulfur dioxide in urban air, deaths from diseases associated with poor sanitation, and percentage of land protected from development.
See "Environmental Sustainability Index" at http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu [accessed August 3, 2001]
Environmental Finance Center, The University System of Maryland.
According to its mission and purpose statement, the Environmental Finance Center was created to assist local communities in finding creative ways to pay for environmental projects. The Center promotes alternative and innovative ways to manage the cost of environmental activities, provides training and development opportunities in environmental management, and works to increase the public and private sector's awareness of the benefits associated with sound environmental management policies.
See: http://www.mdsg.umd.edu/EFU/index.html; firstname.lastname@example.org; or (301) 314-6383.
Environmental Protection Agency.
Water: http://www.epa.gov/OWOW [accessed August 3, 2001]
"Green Communities:" http://www.epa.gov/greenkit/sitedex.htm [accessed August 3, 2001]
EPA Wetlands Information Hotline Publication List: e-mail: email@example.com
The Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance Program in the National Park Service.
The RTC has information on funding sources. Its website The site provides a list of organizations that offer financial support for locally lead conservation projects. You must contact each organization directly for more information.
Federal and state government agencies.
Up-to-date government information is available via the Internet at: http://www.searchgov.com.
The screen gives links to all the federal departments, independent agencies, and each state. Click on the agency or state and work through their website. Most materials can be ordered from the website with a credit card.
Natural Resources Conservation Service.
See: http://www.nhq.nrcs.usda.gov [accessed August 3, 2001]
Also check out NRCS's "Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program." at http://www.nhq.nrcs.usda.gov/PROGRAMS/wwd/whipindex.htm [accessed August 3, 2001]
New England Grassroots Environment Fund.
This organization provides grants to communities working on local environmental protection and restoration projects.
See: http://www.grassrootsfund.org/index.html [accessed August 3, 2001]
The Trust for Public Land.
This site has information on financing alternatives--state funding for parks and open space, conservation, the Trust for Public Land Public Finance Program, Public Finance Case Studies, and more. It also references materials on building green infrastructure, with examples. The Toolbox includes discussions on local park financing techniques, a matrix of financing options, examples of funding, and community profiles. The matrix for local finance is definitely worth studying.
See: http://www.tpl.org [accessed August 3, 2001]
This UN document, "Natural Resource Aspects of Sustainable Development in the United States of America" gives an overview of U.S. policy and law associated with environmental sustainability in the United States.
See: http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/usa/natur.htm [accessed June 15, 2001]
Association of State Floodplain Managers. 1996. Using Multi-Objective Management to Reduce
Flood Losses in Your Watershed. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers.
72 pp. Abstract available at http://www.floods.org/PDF%20files/PUBSLIST.pdf.
This publication documents the results of a multi-year project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and conducted by ASFPM, to explore planning and implementation techniques for multi-objective watershed management. It provides a general introduction to multi-objective management and the planning process that helps a community select the flood-loss reduction measures most suitable to its situation. It explains how to define problems and goals, build partnerships, combine needs and solutions creatively, and begin formal implementation procedures. Both riverine and coastal flood watersheds are examined. Much of the document focuses on multi-objective management planning details, involving subjects such as fish and wildlife issues, water supply, housing improvement, transportation and lifelines. Preparation of a M-O-M plan involves problem definition, involvement of non-local groups, and public and official acceptance of the plan.
Association of State Floodplain Managers, Inc. 2000. National Flood Programs in Review-2000.
Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers, Inc. 47 pp.
This conceptual paper explains how many environmental protection measures support flood mitigation and vice-versa.
Burban, Lisa L. and John W. Andresen. 1994. Storms Over the Urban Forest: Planning,
Responding, and Regreening-A Community Guide to Natural Disaster Relief. St. Paul, MN:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area. 154 pp.
When severe wind or ice storms strike a community, downed trees, power lines, and damaged property are major hindrances to response and recovery. Severely damaged trees often must be removed in a hurry to allow passage of emergency response vehicles, and sometimes only several weeks or months following a storm does the amount of damage and loss of trees become apparent. This is a guidebook for local governments in coping with such events. It discusses mitigation, preparing for and responding to natural disasters; cleaning up and "regreening a community; working with disaster relief organizations; and experiences of Midwest communities in recovering from tornado damage, community experiences with Hurricane Andrew, and technical resources and information. Additional resources are listed and numerous references accompany each chapter. The manual also contains reprints of relevant journal articles, educational blurbs from environmental organizations, and checklists.
Bush, David M.,Rodney Prado, Kathie Dixon, and Orrin H. Pilkey. 1991. Principles of Property
Damage Mitigation and the Impact of Hurricane Hugo. Durham, NC: Duke University,
Department of Geology, Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines. 167 pp.
Prepared as a field-trip guide for the study of damage caused by Hurricane Hugo along the Carolina coast, this report shows that simply cleaning up and rebuilding should make way for more active steps to enhance and preserve the protective capabilities of the natural setting. It also suggests principles of reducing hurricane-caused property damage given expected sea-level rise, barrier island migration, and increased storm severity, and encourages environmentally sensitive approaches to hurricane mitigation. The document contains an account of pertinent hazard mitigation legislation and hazards research, a matrix of mitigation options, a general description of the shoreline affected by Hugo, and detailed descriptions of various sites included in the field trip.
Clayton, Tonya D., Lewis A. Taylor, Jr.,William J. Cleary, Paul E. Hosier, Peter H.F. Graber,
William J.Neal, and Orrin H. Pilkey, Sr. Living with the Georgia Shore. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press. 200 pp.
This latest addition to Duke University's highly regarded "Living with the Shore" series, is a guide for residents, visitors, developers, planners, and others concerned with the condition and future of the Georgia coast. The authors recount both the human and natural history of the region's barrier islands, particularly examining coastal erosion and the implications of various human responses to this process. They also discuss the pressures created by rapid recreational and residential development. The book includes an introduction to each of the Georgia barrier isles, an overview of federal and state coastal land- use regulations, pointers on buying and building at the shore, a hurricane preparation checklist, a history of recent hurricanes in Georgia, an extensive annotated bibliography, and a guide to government agencies and private groups involved in issues concerning coastal development.
Department of Energy. 1994. Rebuilding Your Flooded Home: Guidelines for Incorporating
Energy Efficiency. DOE-EE-0019. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of
Building Technologies, 36 pp.
After disasters, the natural tendency is to return to one's home and restore it to the way one left it. Due largely to recent advances in building technologies, it is possible to rebuild a residence with a little extra care-and not much more time and cost-and have a home that is much more energy efficient than it was prior to the disaster. By doing this, family comfort will be improved, energy consumption and utility bills can be reduced, property value can be enhanced, and money and energy can be saved for years to come. Because many house components will have to be replaced, i.e., insulation, it makes sense to purchase the most energy-efficient equipment and materials available. Following sections about drying out a flooded house and on personal safety when cleaning up, the document explains how to analyze the property for building shell problems (air leakages, foundations, flooring, etc.), then considers building systems and equipment issues (electric motors, air conditioning, and appliances). Suggestions are presented and tips are provided for financing energy-efficient solutions, such as buying materials in bulk if many properties are affected.
Eleff, Bob. 1999. Minnesota's Flood Recovery Efforts: Good for the Environment? St. Paul,
MN: Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy. 41 pp.
In this report, the Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy (MCEA) examines the state's recovery efforts after the devastating floods of 1997. Figures that MCEA has collected from various sources indicate that at least $740 million was spent on emergency operations, rebuilding damaged infrastructure, and on preventive measures aimed at reducing the risks and potential damage from future flood events. This reports seeks to determine the extent to which Minnesota's decisionmaking process following the 1997 floods reflected this policy.
Federal Interagency Floodplain Management Task Force. 1992. Floodplain Management in the
United States: An Assessment Report. Volume 1: Summary. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards
Research and Applications Information Center. 69 pp.
This assessment of floodplain management in the United States was commissioned in 1987 by the Federal Interagency Floodplain Management Task Force. Its purpose was to provide an evaluation of floodplain management activities in order to report to the public and to the Congress on progress toward implementation of "A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management." Thus, it is a compilation of available information concerning the nation's floodplains, experience with tools and strategies to reduce loss of life, property, and environmental resources, and a perspective of what has been accomplished.
Federal Interagency Floodplain Management Task Force. 1994. A Unified National Program for
Floodplain Management. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency. 43
This version of A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management responds to the directive in Section 1302(c) of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 that the President transmit to Congress any further proposals needed for a unified national program. Prior reports in response to this directive were submitted in 1976, 1979, and 1986. This report: 1) takes account of changes in economic, environmental, and social trends; 2) responds to a number of concerns raised during the nationwide assessment of the status of floodplain management completed in 1992; and 3) addresses the criticism leveled at the Unified National Program by the National Review Committee. The conceptual framework of this report focuses on the need to 1) reduce the loss of life, disruption, and damage caused by floods; and 2) preserve and restore the natural resources and functions of floodplains.
Federal Interagency Floodplain Management Task Force. 1995. Protecting Floodplain
Resources. A Guidebook for Communities. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency
Management Agency. 41 pp.
This guidebook provides information for local officials, citizens, landowners, and groups interested in protecting and restoring the natural resources and functions of floodplains. The guidebook focuses on local "grassroots efforts needed to effectively manage and protect the resources of the floodplain environment including wetlands, riparian habitats, historic sites, and aesthetic amenities. The guidebook introduces a conceptual framework for floodplain management and provides a planning process that can be used in virtually any of the some 20,000 floodprone communities in the United States.
Flink, Charles A. and Robert M. Searns. 1993. Greenways: A Guide to Planning, Design, and
Development. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. 351 pp.
Within the developed landscape, greenways serve a dual function: they provide open space for human access and recreational use, and they serve to protect and enhance remaining natural and cultural resources. This manual provides interested organizations and concerned individuals with background information about planning a greenway project, how to enlist local assistance in organizing project support, funding the project, related water recreation, greenway safety and liability, management, and planning for the care of rivers, streams, and wetlands. Information is provided on preserving stream and river functions, the impacts of urbanization on riparian regimes, and the establishment of organizational partnerships to plan, realize, and preserve greenway arrangements.
Godschalk, D.R., T. Beatley, P. Berke, D.J. Brower, and E.J. Kaiser. 1999. Natural Hazards
Mitigation. Recasting Disaster Policy and Planning. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. 575 pp.
This book describes and analyzes the way that hazard mitigation has been carried out in the United States under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. The authors determine how the requirements of this law, establishing a national system for hazard mitigation, have worked in practice and how they might be made to work better.
Kline, Elizabeth. 1997. Sustainable Community: Topics and Indicators. Available online at
http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/modules/modinstruct.html [accessed June 22, 2001]
These narratives about sustainable community indicators were developed under a contract with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The primary audiences are community practitioners and technical resource people.
May, Peter J., Raymond J. Burby, Neil J. Ericksen, John W. Handmer, Jennifer E. Dixon, Sarah
Michaels, and D. Ingle Smith. Environmental Management and Governance:
Intergovernmental Approaches to Hazards and Sustainability. New York, Routledge. 254 pp.
The book addresses aspects of environmental management that raise fundamental questions about human actions and government roles. The authors examine "cooperative" and "coercive" governments by comparing polices in New Zealand and Australia with the more coercive and prescriptive approaches used in the U.S. They also focus on how the different regimes influence choices by local governments about land use and development in areas subject to natural hazards. Separate chapters are devoted to growth management in Florida, resource management in New Zealand, and flood management in New South Wales. Other chapters describe how policy design is implemented, the role of regional governments, policy compliance and innovation at the local planning level, strategies for sustainable development, and examine the outcomes of cooperative policies.
Mazmanian, Daniel A. and Michael E. Kraft, eds. 1999. Toward Sustainable Communities:
Transition and Transformations in Environmental Policy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
This book reviews and assesses environmental policy over the past three decades, primarily in the United States but with implications for other nations. The editors place U.S. environmental policy within the framework of the transition from 1970s-era policies that emphasized federally controlled regulation, through a period of criticism and efficiency-based reform efforts, to an emerging era of sustainability in which decisionmaking takes place increasingly at the local and regional levels. The book looks at what does and does not work and how social, economic, and environmental goals can be integrated through policy strategies ground in the concept of sustainability.
Philippi, Nancy S. 1996. Floodplain Management: Ecologic and Economic Perspectives. San
Diego, CA: Academic Press. 225 pp.
When economic and ecological concerns conflict, effective floodplain management often suffers. The author examines the reasons behind these conflicts and points to solutions. She discusses the challenge of managing floodplains, the need for floodplain management, the public interest and how to define it, governments and their roles, harmful effects of floodplain management, case studies of the Mississippi and American Rivers, and scenarios for effective management. Appendices reprint several important documents useful for the understanding of floodplain management in the United States.
Schwab, Jim, Kenneth C. Topping, Charles C. Eadie, Robert E. Deyle, and Richard A. Smith.
1998. Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. PAS Report No. 483/484.
Chicago, IL: American Planning Association. 346 pp. Abstract available at
This document helps community leaders and planners educate their constituents on how informed decisions and choices can affect the rebuilding process and yield a safer, more sustainable community. This report introduces planners to their roles in post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, and provides guidance on how to plan for post-disaster reconstruction side by side with all other players involved. A key theme throughout this report is to rebuild to create a more disaster-resistant community. The report contains many references to technical resources.
U.S. National Science and Technology Council. 1994. Technology for a Sustainable Future: A
Framework for Action. Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Science and Technology Council.
This report summarizes the Clinton White House's plan for developing a comprehensive environmental technology strategy. It examines the use of environmental technologies to facilitate long-term environmental, energy, and economic goals and asks for suggestions for improving federal policies related to advancing environmental technologies. It includes a section on technology needs for natural disaster reduction. The document also provides examples of avoidance, monitoring and assessment, and remediation and restoration. Appendices contain lists of federal sources for agency offices (names, contact information) and online data resources.
U.S. President's Council on Sustainable Development. 1997. Sustainable Communities Task
Force Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 186 pp.
This report and its companion volume, Sustainable America: A New Consensus for Prosperity, Opportunity, and a Healthy Environment for the Future, published in 1996, lay out a set of policy recommendations for planning for sustainable communities. One of the recommendations is to "shift the focus of the federal disaster relief system from cure to prevention." The appendix contains case studies of communities that have set forth sustainability principles, profiles of communities in the 50 states, state-led sustainability initiatives and organizations, and a list of resources for sustainable communities.
World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our Common Future. Oxford, UK:
Oxford University Press. Abstract available at http://www.oup.co.uk/isbn/0-19-282080-X. [accessed September 21, 2001]
In 1983, the World Commission on Environment and Development was asked by the United Nations General Assembly to formulate "a global agenda for change." This document, also known as the Brundtland Report, is the report of the Committee chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland. The Committee undertook to: 1) propose long-term environmental strategies for achieving sustainable development by the year 2000 and beyond; 2) recommend ways concern for the environment may be translated into greater cooperation among developing countries and between countries at different stages of economic and social development and lead to the achievement of common and mutually supportive objectives that take account of the interrelationships between people, resources, environment, and development; 3) consider ways and means by which the international community can deal more effectively with environmental concerns; and 4) help define shared perceptions of long-term environmental issues and the appropriate efforts needed to deal successfully with the problems of protecting and enhancing the environment, a long-term agenda for action during the coming decades, and aspirational goals for the world community.
Akridge, A., J.D. Eigel, and J.G. Athanasakes. 1999. "Stream Restoration and Soil Engineering." Public Works 130(3):48-51.
American Water Resources Association. 1999. Special Issue: Human Dimensions of Watershed Management. JAWRA 35(3)(June).
American Society of Civil Engineers. 2000. "Texas City Relies on Tree Canopy to Reduce Runoff." Civil Engineering 70(10):18.
Barrette, M. 2000. "Anyone Searching for Examples of Innovative Land Planning Wouldn't Necessarily Look to Water and Stormwater Projects. But That Could Be a Mistake." Planning 66(8):14-17.
Davis, P. and B. Hitchings. 2000. "Protecting Stored Water with Riparian Buffers." Public Works 131(3):30-32.
de Jong, Pieter and Dale Lehman. 1995. "Hazard Mitigation Lessons from the 1993 Midwest Flood: Environmental Compliance Issues." Pp. 179-183 in From the Mountains to the Sea-Developing Local Capability: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Association of State Floodplain Managers. Special Publication 31. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.
Devils Lake Basin Interagency Task Force. 1995. Report of the Devils Lake Basin Interagency Task Force. Denver: Federal Emergency Management Agency, Region VIII. 93 pp.
Emmer, R.E. 1998. "Floodplain Management." In Peaks to Prairies. A Conference on Watershed Stewardship. Rapid City, SD: Thorne Ecological Institute. (September.)
Emmer, R. E. 1994. Flood Damage Reduction and Wetland Conservation. Three Successful Projects in Louisiana have Common Characteristics. Topical Paper #6. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers, Inc. (September.) 23 pp.
Emmer, R.E. 1991. "Wetlands Conservation through Local Community Programs." Unpublished report prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C.: EPA.
Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. Protecting Natural Wetlands. A Guide to Stormwater Best Management Practices. EPA-843-B-96-001. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water.
Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. Why Watersheds? EPA800-F-96-001. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water.
Environmental Protection Agency. 1997. Community-Based Environmental Protection: A Resource Book for Protecting Ecosystems and Communities. EPA230-B-96-003. Washington, D.C.: Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation. (September).
Environmental Protection Agency. 1997. People, Places, and Partnerships. Progress Report on Community-Based Environmental Protection. EPA-100-R-97-003. Washington, D.C.: EPA.
Environmental Protection Agency. 1999. Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection. Second Edition. EPA841-B-99-003. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water.
Erwin, K.L. 1996. A Bibliography of Wetland Creation and Restoration Literature. Berne, NY: The Association of State Floodplain Managers, Inc. 99 pp.
Office of Management and Budget. 1998. Federal Programs Offering Non-Structural Flood Recovery and Floodplain Management Alternatives. A Federal Interagency Publication. Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President. 90 pp. Available at http://www.fema.gov/MIT/TSD/DL_nsfr.htm [accessed September 21, 2001]
Faber, S. 1996. On Borrowed Land: Public Policies for Floodplains. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. 32 pp.
Gilmer, M. 1995. Living on Flood Plains and Wetlands. A Homeowner's High-water Handbook. Dallas, TX: Taylor Publishing Company. 175 pp.
Harker, Donald F. and Elizabeth Ungar Natter. 1995. Where We Live: A Citizen's Guide to Conducting a Community Environmental Inventory. Covelo, CA: Island Press. 319 pp.
Hoffman, R. 1999. "The New York City Watershed Agreement." Water Resources IMPACT 1(5):2-4.
Hulsey, B. and G. Tichenor. 2000. "A Call for Flood Security Through Wetland Protection." National Wetlands Newsletter 22(3)(May/June):3-4.
Inyang, Hilary I. 2000. "The Coalescence of Environmental and Natural Disaster Impacts." Journal of Environmental Engineering (June):461.
Izaak Walton League of America. 1999. Save Our Streams Program Catalog. Gaithersburg, MD: Izaak Walton League of America.
Land Trust of the Saratagoa Region, Inc. 1998. Saratagoa County Wetlands Guidebook. Clifton Park, NY: Land Trust of the Saratagoa Region, Inc. 59 pp.
Margoluis, R. and N.N. Salafsky. 1998. Measures of Success: Designing, Managing, and Monitoring Conservation and Development Projects. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
The National Arbor Day Foundation. 2000. "How to Manage Community Natural Areas." Land and Water 44(1):49-52.
National Association of Counties. 1999. Leadership in Watershed Management: The County Role. Washington, D.C.: National Association of Counties.
National Association of Counties. 1999. Restoring Community Wetlands & Watersheds. Erie County's (NY) Innovative Partnership to Teach Environmental Stewardship Through the JTPA Summer Youth Employment Program. Washington, D.C.: National Association of Counties.
North Carolina Division of Water Quality. 1998. Basinwide Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Plan for the Watauga River Basin. North Carolina Wetlands Restoration Program. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
Northeast Midwest Institute and Marine Studies Consortium. 2000. The Nonpoint Finance Project. Final Report. Washington, D.C. and Needham, MA: Northeast Midwest Institute and Marine Studies Consortium, respectively. http://www.nemw.org [accessed August 3, 2001]
Platt, K. 2000. "Going Green. Tips on Creating Urban Greenways." Planning 66(8):18-21.
President's Long-Term Recovery Task Force. 1997. Final Report. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency. 13 pp.
Qui, Z. and T. Prato.1998. "Economic Evaluation of Riparian Buffers in an Agricultural Watershed." JAWRA 34(4):877-890.
Restore America's Estuaries. 1998. Funding for Habitat Restoration Projects. A Compendium of Current Federal Programs with Fiscal Year 1996-1998 Funding Levels. A Citizen's Guide. Washington, D.C..: Restore America's Estuaries. 42 pp.
Terrene Institute. 1993. Clean Water in Your Watershed: A Citizen's Guide to Watershed Protection. Washington, D.C.: Terrene Institute. Prepared in cooperation with Environmental Protection Agency Region VI, Dallas, TX. 89 pp.
vonFeck, S. 2000. "Protecting Wetlands with Clean Water State Revolving Funds." National Wetlands Newsletter 22(4):3-4.
Wallace, S.D. 1998. "Putting Wetlands to Work." Civil Engineering 68(7):57-59.
White, K.D. and A.L. Meyers. 1997. "Above Par Storm-Water Management." Civil Engineering 67(7):50-51.
Wilding, D.A., R.P. Clarke and R. Ballantine. 1999. "Stormwater Management: Shifting the Present Paradigm." Public Works 130(8):54-56.