Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute, Higher Education Project Courses. Emmitsburg, Maryland. http://www.fema.gov/emi/edu/aem_courses.htm Phone: (301) 447-1233 or email Barbara Johnson: barbara.l.Johnson@fema.gov [accessed June 15, 2001]
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute, National Emergency Training Center. Emmitsburg, Maryland. http://www.fema.gov/emi [accessed June 15, 2001] (301) 447-1035.
Disaster Child Care, Adventist Community Services
The Adventists and the Church of the Brethren have developed model programs for child care and donations management.
See http://www.nvoad.org/acs.htm [accessed August 3, 2001]
American Red Cross
Among the topics covered are "Dealing with the Elderly and Disasters and "Masters of Disasters Curriculum for Children."
See http://www.redcross/org [accessed August 3, 2001]
Center for Health, Environment and Justice
See http://www.chej.org [accessed August 3, 2001]
Center for Third World Organizing
See http://www.ctwo.org [accessed August 3, 2001]
Environmental Justice Resource Center, Clark Atlanta University
See http://www.ejrc.cau.edu [accessed August 3, 2001]
Federal Emergency Management Agency
"FEMA for Kids" has excellent resources in English and Spanish, with stories for all children, including Native Americans.
See http://www.fema.gov/kids/ [accessed August 3, 2001]
Gender and Disaster Network
Use this network to find experts on women's issues around the world.
See http://www.anglia.ac.uk/geography/gdn [accessed August 3, 2001]
Highlander Education and Research Center (HREC)
HREC specializes in participatory education and action research and involving stakeholders.
See http://www.hrec.org [accessed August 3, 2001]
League of United Latin American Citizens
Mountain Association for Community Economic development, 433 Chestnut Street, Berea, KY 40403; (606) 986-2373; fax 606-986-1299; email email@example.com
See http://www.lulac.org [accessed August 3, 2001]
Mennonite Disaster Services
The Mennonites will appear quietly in a community, assist the low-income, elderly and/or persons with disabilities with post-disaster cleanup and building repair, and then quietly leave.
Mid-Florida Area Agency on Aging Emergency Preparedness. http://www.mfaaa.org/emergency/plan/disaster/1.html [accessed August 3, 2001]
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
See http://www.naacp.org [accessed August 3, 2001]
National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster.
At http://www.nvoad.org/aboutnv.htm. you will find a network of voluntary organizations, many of them faith-based.
Pacific Institute. "Environmental Justice Resources on the Internet."
This page has extensive lists of resources at the local, national, and international level, including institutional sites, reports, and relevant legal texts.
See http://www.pacinst.org/ej.html [accessed August 3, 2001]
This site is an excellent source for information on vulnerable populations and disasters.
See http://www.preparenow.org [accessed August 3, 2001]
See http://www.sustainablemeasures.com [accessed August 3, 2001]
United Nations Development Programme, Gender in Development
See http://www.undp.org/gender/ [accessed August 3, 2001]
United Farm Workers of America, AFL-CIO
Use this site for connections and networks to local migrant and stationary farm workers and organizations.
See http://www.ufw.org [accessed August 3, 2001]
Mitigation Revitalizes a Floodplain Community: The Darlington Story. Madison, WI:Wisconsin
Department of Natural Resources. 1997.
This is a well-produced videotape about the efforts of a small rural Wisconsin community to reverse the effects of neglect and disinvestment in its historic downtown area caused by repeated flooding and economic change. Using a multi-objective planning and management strategy, officials and citizens, in partnership with government agencies and private entities, identified six goals: 1) preserve the historic character of the downtown; 2) restore community pride; 3) acquire and relocate commercial properties at risk; 4) elevate and flood proof commercial and residential structures; 5) stimulate investment downtown; and 6) pursue tourism as an economic strategy. The video follows the mitigation process from early meetings through floodproofing and relocation. Produced by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 27 minutes. 1997. Available free from Wisconsin DNR, P.O. Box 7921, Madison, WI 53707-7921; (608) 264-9200.
Quality Redevelopment of Eastern North Carolina. Horizon Video Productions. 2000. Durham,
This 20-minute video was produced by the state in the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd to introduce and educate local and state officials about the "better ways" available to recover from the disaster and at the same time address other local concerns such as environmental quality, economic vitality, housing, sense of community, business and job opportunities, and disaster mitigation. It introduced a framework espoused by the state for sustainable community action and features the governor explaining the tenets of "quality redevelopment" and how it can--and did--benefit North Carolina communities and help ensure a better future for the state's citizens. Available from North Carolina Department of Emergency Management, 1830-B Tillery Place, Raleigh, NC 27699; (919) 751-8000; fax: (919) 715-9763.
The Unexpected Catastrophe: 1989 Newcastle Earthquake Information Resources. Newcastle,
Australia: Newcastle Regional Library. 1999.
The Newcastle Earthquake Database is a multimedia CD-ROM database that contains a record of the events of, the response to, and the renewal since the 1989 Newcastle earthquake. Subjects covered in the database include: disaster management, earthquake engineering, economic impact, geological issues, health issues, heritage issues, insurance, lifeline services, psychological impact, recovery and renewal, seismology, and social and welfare services.
California Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Toward the 21st Century: Planning for the
Protection of California's Environment. Sacramento, CA: California Environmental
Protection Agency, California Comparative Risk Project, 642 pp.
California's unique blend of population density, government, economy, natural resources, beauty, industry, agriculture, and recreational potential, combined with its size, diversity, and social awareness makes the job of protecting public health and the environment particularly challenging. To help identify environmental priorities for the future, the California Comparative Risk Project was charged with identifying environmental threats of the greatest ecological, human health, and societal concern using the risk-ranking model. This report presents the findings of committees dealing with human health, ecological health, social welfare, environmental justice, education, and economic perspectives. Also in the document are an extensive summary report, an interagency management cooperative case study review, and four appendices which present summary sheets for human health, ecological health, social welfare, and education.
California Governor's Office of Emergency Services. 2000. Meeting the Needs of Vulnerable
People in Times of Disaster: A Guide for Emergency Managers. Sacramento, CA: California
Governor's Office of Emergency Services. 62 pp.
This handbook is a useful guide to the special situations faced by marginalized groups in the wake of hazardous events. Its premise is that a cooperative relationship between government and community-based organizations provides the best assurance that the needs of under-served people and the needs of the community for long-term recovery will be fully addressed. It then proceeds to outline steps for building that relationship, outlining the capabilities, strengths, and weaknesses of both community-based organizations and governments in handling a variety of situations. Extensive appendixes give sample memoranda of understanding, lists of community-based organizations, tips for getting started on a comprehensive approach, and sources of more information.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. n.d. Safeguarding Your Historic Site: Basic
Preparedness and Recovery Measures for Natural Disasters. Boston, MA: FEMA Region I.
Drawing upon experience gained through disasters in Nantucket, Massachusetts, and Montpelier, Vermont, this document helps stewards of historic sites-including historic buildings, landscapes, districts, and museums-prepare their sites to withstand and recover from a natural disaster. The handbook can also be used by public officials, planners, community development professionals, and emergency management professionals as a general step-by-step guide to emergency planning for such facilities. Before a disaster strikes, the handbook provides information about identifying and assessing the risks to a facility, describes preventive measures for historic sites, and presents emergency planning guidelines. During the disaster itself, the handbook describes what can be done in the time available. After the disaster, guidelines are given for stabilizing the situation and recovering from the impacts. Preventive measures and preservation considerations are provided for four disaster agents: wildfire, hurricanes, riverine floods, and earthquakes.
Jones, Barclay G. 1986. Protecting Historic Architecture and Museum Collections from Natural
Disasters. Stoneham, MA: Butterworths Publishers. 576 pp.
This handbook is a guide for professionals engaged in the preservation of valuable objects or structures. The book contains 27 papers, scores of illustrations and photographs, and an extensive list of useful references. The papers are grouped into six categories: a general overview of cultural loss caused by earthquakes and other natural disasters; a summary of policy issues for those involved with disaster preparedness; an assessment of hazards and structural vulnerability to them; a description of preventive measures to mitigate losses; listings of emergency and rescue measures for structures and artifacts; and discussions of public and private response measures.
Merritt, John F. 1990. History at Risk: Loma Prieta-Seismic Safety and Historic Buildings.
Oakland, CA: California Preservation Foundation. 100 pp.
This book was written to serve two functions: to tell others in California what the California Preservation Foundation learned in the aftermath of the Loma Prieta earthquake and to help local officials and state agencies reassess seismic mitigation policies and programs that directly affect the conservation of historic buildings. The book discusses the need to survey buildings at risk, the human and financial resources available to mitigate future losses, and the policies and laws in California that affect preservation before and after a disaster. It then describes how to develop a program to reduce future earthquake risks and lists the financial resources that will be available when an earthquake strikes. The document concludes with recommendations for changes in state policy that will support the preservation and protection of historic buildings from earthquakes. Appendices contain a study that compares different damage assessments of the same building in Santa Cruz, and reprinted ordinances from the town of Los Gatos dealing with the repair, restoration, and reconstruction of buildings damaged during the Loma Prieta quake.
Morris, Marya. 1992. Innovative Tools for Historic Preservation. Chicago, IL: American
Planning Association Planning Advisory Service. 40 pp.
This report describes the results of a survey of more than 300 planning directors and preservationists to identify innovative techniques that offer the greatest protection to historic resources. It shows how communities have used non-traditional techniques such as conservation districts, down-zoning, and tax and financial incentives to meet historic preservation objectives. The report includes case studies to illustrate each technique.
Nanita-Kennett, Milagros. 1994. Urban Redevelopment and Earthquake Safety. Tallahassee, FL:
Florida A&M University, School of Architecture. 143 pp.
Urban renewal or redevelopment has been employed by federal, state, and local governments to promote the creation of public infrastructure and regulate the development process. However, earthquake safety programs have never been a part of this process, despite evidence that many cities are broadly vulnerable to the hazard. If these programs could be successfully integrated, seismic safety and protection could be greatly increased with reasonable effort and cost. The author examines this topic by addressing urban decay and earthquake risk; the redevelopment process; the urban environment, including building codes, land use, and infrastructure; federal earthquake programs; local government programs; and the integration of various aspects of redevelopment. She provides case studies of Charleston, South Carolina; Memphis, Tennessee; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz, California.
Nelson, Carl L. 1991. Protecting the Past from Natural Disasters. Washington, D.C.: The
Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation. 192 pp.
This book issues a clear call to cultural preservation professionals, planners, and emergency management personnel to begin preparations for protecting America's cultural heritage from natural disasters. Following a photo essay on historic buildings damaged by Hurricane Hugo and the Loma Prieta earthquake, the manual lists lessons learned from both of these disasters, describes the types of damage caused by various disaster agents, and offers advice about how to plan protective measures for historic properties. Emergency postdisaster activities also are described, including stabilization of structures, artifact restoration, damage assessment, restoration standards, security, and other recovery and reconstruction actions. Legal precautions, landscape restoration, and insurance needs are a few of the topics about which information is presented. Numerous checklists, bibliographic references, and an extensive list of resource groups complete the volume.
O'Brien, Matthew Kendall. 1993. A Survey of Damage to Historic Buildings and an Evaluation
of Disaster Response Procedures Following the Cape Mendocino Earthquakes of April 1992.
Disasters and Cultural Property series. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Institute for Social
and Economic Research, Program in Urban and Regional Studies. 198 pp.
This case study investigates the impact on historic structures of the Cape Mendocino, California, earthquakes of April 1992 and how the disaster recovery process that followed affected historic architecture in the area.The estimated damage rate attributed to the earthquakes (1.5 to 2.5% of the building stock) is not only high compared to other recent earthquakes but also demonstrates the susceptibility of older construction to seismic damage. Separate chapters deal with seismic retrofitting for historic residential buildings; the disaster recovery process in Humboldt County; the role of federal agencies in disaster response and the role of the State of California in disaster response. Topics addressed in the thesis include preservation legislation, California's policy toward historic properties, and the role of the insurance industry in encouraging the preservation of older residential structures.
Phillips, Brenda D. and Mindy Ephraim. 1992. Living in the Aftermath: Blaming Processes in the
Loma Prieta Earthquake. Working Paper No. 80. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Research
and Applications Information Center. 15 pp.
This report examines group behavior and attitudes in the aftermath of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Following the quake, widespread and diverse sheltering needs arose because of the mixed Bay Area population. The groups involved included non-English speakers, physically and mentally disabled individuals, "pre-quake" homeless, and others. Long accustomed to responding to sheltering, the American Red Cross stepped in to help; yet in some locales, complaints were lodged against Red Cross sheltering efforts (or lack thereof) as well as against local government efforts. Shelter problems in Watsonville, California, received heavy media attention when allegations of cultural insensitivity and discrimination against the community's large Latino population arose. This paper examines the evolution of these problems and offers suggestions for avoiding such difficulties in the future.
Picou, J. Steven. 2000. "The 'Talking Circle' as Sociological Practice: Cultural Transformation
of Chronic Disaster Impacts." Sociological Practice: A Journal of Clinical and Applied
This article presents a description of a culturally sensitive mitigation strategy, the "Talking Circle," and its application to Alaska Natives negatively impacted by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Talking Circles are a traditional social activity for Alaska Natives and this activity was organized and implemented by members of the Village of Eyak in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The two-day event resulted in many testimonies about personal experiences with the oil spill. Post-Talking Circle activities by Eyak Village members indicate increased cultural awareness and political mobilization. These findings suggest that this mitigation strategy promoted cultural consciousness among victims experiencing chronic disaster impacts and resulting in a "transforming activity" for the Native Village of Eyak.
Simile, Catherine M. 1995. Disaster Settings and Mobilization for Contentious Collective
Action: Case Studies of Hurricane Hugo and the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Newark, DE:
University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center. 238 pp.
In 1989 two large-scale natural disasters affected two communities in the U.S. Hurricane Hugo affected the Sea Islands of South Carolina and the Loma Prieta earthquake, Watsonville, California. In both cases, pre-existing social organizations mobilized their resources to address disaster impacts experienced by marginalized populations, specifically, damage to housing. In the Sea Islands of South Carolina, white church groups addressed the housing problems of the rural black poor as ones of misfortune and provided charity to those people. In Watsonville, on the other hand, Latinos mounted contentious collective campaigns against what they claimed to be unjust actions on the part of the local white power structure. The differences in the actions undertaken by the two groups can be explained by the differential access each had to the features necessary for contentious collective action: political opportunity, resources, pre-existing social organization, and frames of injustice. The study concludes that, although disaster settings heighten the potential for contentious collective action, only groups who engaged in such behavior in pre-disaster settings are likely to engage in such action in post-disaster settings.
Thiel, Charles C., Jr., E. Leroy Tolles, Edna E. Kimbro, Fredrick A. Webster, and William
S.Ginell. Guidelines for Seismic Strengthening of Adobe Project-Report of first year
activities. Getty Conservation Institute. 250 pp.
The Getty Conservation Institute's interest in the areas of seismic damage mitigation studies and the stabilization of deteriorating adobe structures led to the establishment in November 1990 of the Guidelines for Seismic Strengthening of Adobe Project (GSAP). The goal of GSAP was to develop technical procedures for improving the seismic performance of existing monumental adobe structures consistent with maintaining architectural, historic, and cultural conservation values. California's seismic vulnerability is particularly hazardous to the state's Spanish Colonial adobe architectural heritage, which includes missions, presidios, and residences. Also included in the report is a glossary of Spanish Colonial architectural terminology, 451 general references plus chapter references, and a census of historic adobe buildings in California. The report is generously supplied with floor-plans, detail drawings, and photographs.
Tolles, E. Leroy, Edna E. Kimbro, Charles C.Thiel, Frederick A.Webster, and William S. Ginell.
1993. Guidelines for the Seismic Retrofitting of Adobe Project-report of second year
activities. Getty Conservation Institute. 166 pp.
This second report of the Guidelines for Seismic Strengthening of Adobe Project activities offers: 1) a planning guide that provides information and advice about seismic cultural preservation goals, objectives, conservation principles, essential information required, and practical application of the information; and 2) a description of a seismic testing program, which contains information about test procedures, material and wall tests, and the results of the testing program on building models. Other features of the report include sources of information and assistance available from agencies and non-profit organizations, and a reprint of "Working with Architects and Other Consultants," a chapter appearing in the Historic Property Owner's Handbook (1977), which was prepared for the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
U.S. National Task Force on Emergency Response. 1997. Emergency Response and Salvage
Wheel. Washington, D.C.: National Task Force on Emergency Response. 4 pp.
Much of America's cultural heritage is in the care of museums, libraries, art institutions, and other organizations, and protecting these valuable resources can be difficult under the best of conditions. In a disaster, collections that have been carefully built over many years can be damaged, endangering national treasures. The National Task Force on Emergency Response recently created a useful tool to guide caretakers in protecting and salvaging their collections-the Emergency Response and Salvage Wheel-which outlines steps to take in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from disasters. It discusses creating disaster plans, working with emergency management agencies in the community, and obtaining assistance from national conservation organizations. The wheel also provides information on responding to a disaster warning; taking protective action during a disaster; initiating recovery activities away from the site; stabilizing a building and its environment; handling documentation; retrieving and protecting artifacts; assessing damage; prioritizing salvage activities; revitalizing historic buildings; and restoring photographs, books and papers, electronic records, textiles, furniture, ceramic, stone, metal organic materials, natural history specimens, and framed artwork.
U.S. National Trust for Historic Preservation. 1990. An Assessment of Damage Caused to
Historic Resources by the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Publication No. NT-RS-10570-90.
Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation. 114 pp.
This report assesses the damage and impacts to historic buildings caused by the Loma Prieta quake, analyzes the financial needs and funding available for restoring the buildings, and recommends actions to be taken by both federal and state governments. At the federal level, the report recommends that legislative procedures should be instituted immediately to retrofit historic buildings. The California State Office of Historic Preservation performed very well in dealing with the quake's aftermath. Small scale methods for seismically upgrading buildings are known; what is needed is implementation, not necessarily more research. The report offers numerous suggestions, recommends implementation strategies, lists many California resources, and outlines state legislation aimed at retrofitting historical structures.
U.S. National Trust for Historic Preservation. 1993. Treatment of Flood-Damaged Older and
Historic Buildings. Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation (NTHP). 12
Prompted by the massive flooding in the Midwest, the NTHP has prepared an informative booklet to assist building owners in minimizing structural and cosmetic damage caused by riverine flood waters. Construction detail drawings and checklists provide guidelines for dealing with problems caused by hydrostatic pressure (basement slab heaving, foundation collapse, loss of mortar); erosion (foundation erosion, soil erosion, sidewalk and slab heaving); saturated insulation; wood rot; masonry and concrete (soluble salt damage, freezing and thawing damage); exposed and imbedded metals; exterior paint; and interior finishes (drywall, wood floors and trim, paint, wallpaper, and floor coverings). The publication also suggests safety precautions for workers to take during the restoration process. In addition to providing advice on specific restoration details, these offices administer the historic rehabilitation tax credit program for owners of income-producing properties certified as historic rehabilitation projects.
Aguirre International. 1996. EDA's Post-Disaster Assistance Program After Hurricane Andrew: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Technical Assistance and Research Division, Economic Development Administration. 128 pp.
Bailey, Conner, Kelly D.Alley, Charles E. Faupel, and Cathy Solheim. 1993. Environmental Justice and the Professional. HRRC Publication No.125A. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, College of Architecture, Hazard Reduction & Recovery Center.10 pp.
Bailey, Conner, Charles E. Faupel, and Kelly D. Alley. 1994. Environmental Justice: Mobilization of a Grassroots Social Movement. HRRC Publication 126A. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, College of Architecture, Hazard Reduction & Recovery Center. 21 pp.
Berke, Philip R.,Jack D. Kartez, and Dennis E. Wenger. 1993. "Recovery after Disaster: Achieving Sustainable Development, Mitigation and Equity." Disasters 17(2):93-109.
Bolin, Robert and Lois Stanford. "Constructing Vulnerability in the First World: the Northridge Earthquake in Southern California, 1994." In Oliver-Smith, Anthony and Hoffman, Susanna M., eds. The Angry Earth. New York: Routledge: 89-112.
Boyce, James K. 2000. "Let Them Eat Risk? Wealth, Rights and Disaster Vulnerability." Disasters 24(3):254-261.
Buckle, Philip, et al. 2000. "New Approaches to Assessing Vulnerability and Resilience." Australian Journal of Emergency Management 15(2):8-14.
Cuny, Fred. 1983. Disasters and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cutter, Susan L. 1995. "The Forgotten Casualties: Women, Children and Environmental Change." Global Environmental Change 5(1):181-194.
Enarson, Elaine. 1999. "Violence Against Women in Disasters." Violence against Women 5(7): 742-768.
Fothergill, Alice, Enrique G.M.Maestas, and JoAnne Darlington DeRouen. 1999. "Race, Ethnicity and Disasters in the United States: a Review of the Literature." Disasters 23(2):156-173.
Harker, Donald F. and Elizabeth Ungar Natter. 1995. Where We Live: A Citizen's Guide to Conducting a Community Environmental Inventory. Covelo, CA: Island Press. 319 pp.
Henderson, H. 1996. Building a Win-win World: Life Beyond Global Economic Warfare. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Krajeski, Richard L. and Kristina J. Peterson. 1999. "'But She Is a Woman and This Is a Man's Job': Lessons for Participatory Research and Participatory Recovery." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 17(1): 123-130.
Martin, Christopher T. 1995. "Historic Resources Compliance and Mitigation in Missouri's Floodplains." Pp. 169-173 in From the Mountains to the Sea--Developing Local Capability: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Association of State Floodplain Managers.Special Publication 31. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.
McDonnell, Sharon et al. 1995. "Evaluation of Long-term Community Recovery from Hurricane Andrew: Sources of Assistance Received by Population Sub-groups." Disasters 19(4): 338-347.
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Phillips, Brenda D. 2000 "Environmental Hazards, Sustainability and Social Justice: Making a Difference." In Dunn, Dana and Waller, David V., eds. Analyzing Social Problems: essays and exercises, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rogers, George O. 1995. Environmental Racism or Inequity: Comparative Study of Four Ethnic Groups. HRRC Publication 131A. College Station, TX: University of Texas, College of Architecture, Hazard Reduction & Recovery Center.18 pp.
Roseland, Mark. 1998. Toward Sustainable Communities: Resources for Citizens and Their Governments. Stony Creek, CT: New Society Publishers.
Weaver, James H., Michael T. Rock, and Kenneth Kusterer. 1997. Achieving Broad-Based Sustainable Development: Governance, Environment, and Growth with Equity. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.