Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute, National Emergency Training Center. Emmitsburg, Maryland. http://www.fema.gov/emi [accessed June 15, 2001] (301) 447-1035.
University of Vermont, Applied Curriculum for Community Economic Sustainability (ACCESS). Burlington, Vermont. http://www.uvm.edu/~jkolodin/access/ [accessed August 3, 2001]
The ACCESS program has three specific objectives: 1) to introduce "real" problems of rural enterprise/local government into three capstone courses; 2) to develop case studies and integrate them into the required introductory course for all majors; and 3) to give students the experience to utilize knowledge gained in the classroom, using Vermont as their laboratory, through internship opportunities across the state.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. "Assessment of the Economic Impact of Hurricane
Floyd on North Carolina Communities." FEMA Virtual Library and Reading Room.
This contains a "Resource Guide for Business Recovery."
See http://www.fema.gov/library/a_dr1292nc.htm [accessed August 3, 2001]
Minnesota Sustainable Communities Network (MnSCN).
MnSCN is sponsored by the Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance. The goal of MnSCN is to "encourage networking, information exchange, and better access to assistance." The network contains over1500 individuals, businesses, local governments, educational institutions, and organizations who are interested in promoting sustainability in Minnesota.
See http://www.nextstep.state.mn.us/index.cfm [accessed June 22, 2001]
W.K. Kellogg Collection of Rural Community Development Resources.
This collection, housed in Lincoln, Nebraska, contains community development materials funded by the Kellogg Foundation and other selected sponsors of recognized rural programs. Guidebooks, manuals, workshop materials, reports, books, and videos are included. The collection is searchable via the internet, although the collection itself is non-circulating.
See http://www.unl.edu/kellogg/main.html [accessed June 15, 2001]
Taking the Initiative. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management
Institute. 2000. Emmitsburg, MD.
This 20-minute video shows how a neighborhood, two small towns, and a business owner took responsibility for and got organized to adopt sustainability principles and techniques in coping with hazards. The three separate instances, all in California, illustrate participatory processes, taking initiative, looking at the economic benefits of hazard mitigation (in one case, elevating a restaurant), incorporating livability components into a flood protection measure, and protecting the local environment and habitat. The video is available from the Emergency Management Institute at 1-800-238-3358. Ask for the "Disaster-Resistant Jobs" video.
Quality Redevelopment of Eastern North Carolina. Horizon Video Productions. 2000.Durham,
This 20-minute video was produced by the state in the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd to introduce and educate local and state officials about the "better ways" available to recover from the disaster and at the same time address other local concerns such as environmental quality, economic vitality, housing, sense of community, business and job opportunities, and disaster mitigation. It introduced a framework espoused by the state for sustainable community action and features the governor explaining the tenets of "quality redevelopment" and how it can--and did--benefit North Carolina communities and help ensure a better future for the state's citizens. Available from North Carolina Department of Emergency Management, 1830-B Tillery Place, Raleigh, NC 27699; (919) 751-8000; fax: (919) 715-9763.
Mitigation Revitalizes a Floodplain Community: The Darlington Story. Wisconsin Department
of Natural Resources. 1997. Madison, WI.
This is a splendidly produced videotape about the efforts of a small rural Wisconsin community to reverse the effects of neglect and disinvestment in its historic downtown area caused by repeated flooding and economic change. Using a multi-objective planning and management strategy, officials and citizens, in partnership with government agencies and private entities, identified six goals: 1) preserve the historic character of the downtown; 2) restore community pride; 3) acquire and relocate commercial properties at risk; 4) elevate and flood proof commercial and residential structures; 5) stimulate investment downtown; and 6) pursue tourism as an economic strategy. The video follows the mitigation process from early meetings through floodproofing and relocation. Produced by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 27 minutes. 1997. Available free from Wisconsin DNR, P.O. Box 7921, Madison, WI 53707-7921; (608) 264-9200.
Aguirre International. 1996. EDA's Post-Disaster Assistance Program After Hurricane Andrew:
Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Technical Assistance and
Research Division, Economic Development Administration. 128 pp.
After Hurricane Andrew in south Florida in 1992, the Economic Development Administration (EDA) helped communities and organizations by providing over $50 million in planning grants and revolving loans; infrastructure projects and building renovations and improvements; and training and technical assistance programs. This report evaluates the effectiveness of these programs, asking: Can appropriate economic assistance help communities regain their former condition and even enhance their quality of life? and, Does such assistance have implications beyond the immediate disaster area? Researchers examined the effectiveness of projects in attaining specified goals, the appropriateness of each project to the needs created by the disaster, the economic impacts of the projects, and the social impacts on and benefits to target populations. They discovered that EDA projects have a regional impact, projects do stimulate economic growth, and EDA was generally effective in maintaining an ongoing relationship with local officials and potential grantees.
Arnold, Matthew B. and Robert M.Day. 1998. The Next Bottom Line: Making Sustainable
Development Tangible. Washington, D.C.: WRI Publications. 64 pp.
This report tries to bring sustainable development down to earth for a business audience. Its authors break down the abstract ideals of sustainable development into ideas small enough to grasp and powerful enough to lead to new business opportunities. The authors offer a road map for businesses to find financial success in the solutions to environmental and social challenges.
Becker, William S. and Roberta F. Stauffer. 1994. Rebuilding the Future-A Guide to Sustainable
Redevelopment for Disaster-Affected Communities. Golden, CO: U.S. Department of Energy,
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Center of Excellence for Sustainable
Development. 18 pp.
This document summarizes why sustainability is important and gives an example of sustainable development in one community, Soldiers Grove, Wisconsin. The reader is walked step-by-stepthrough the holistic recovery process. The last chapter discusses real-life problems that the planner may encounter. There is an appendix to the report with a comprehensive list of resources.
This document is available online at http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/articles/RFTF1.shtml [accessed June 15, 2001]
Berry, Wendell. 2000. "A Return to the Local: You Stay Home Too." Worldwatch
Berry argues that the basis of a sustainable economy is vitality of local economies, which are fundamentally different from the global system.
Casey-Lefkowitz. 1999. Smart Growth in the Southeast: New Approaches for Guiding
Development. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Law Institute Research Publications.
The southeastern United States has been trying to find ways to continue to reap the benefits of the region's bustling economy without the mounting fiscal, health, and environmental costs of poorly planned development. This report provides an overview of land use and transportation trends in seven states--Alabama, Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia--and shows how these states are beginning to shape the pace and location of development by promoting community revitalization, conservation, and transportation alternatives.
Childers, Cheryl and Brenda Phillips. 1998. Sustainable Development or Transformative
Development? Arkadelphia, Arkansas After the Tornado. Quick Response Research Report
#109. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center. 12 pp.
The authors visited the small town of Arkadelphia, Arkansas after an F-4 tornado had destroyed much of its downtown and three residential neighborhoods. Leaders of this town characterized the rebuilding effort as "sustainable." The researchers interviewed 31 individuals representing organizations from the national level to the local level and ranging from paid staff to volunteers. They determined, as an initial finding, that residents of impacted communities apply "sustainable development" as it fits their understanding, needs, and interests. Also, the term began to mean different things to different people as recovery ensued.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1997. Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard
Mitigation. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency. 52 pp.
Are the costs to reduce or eliminate the impacts of natural hazards substantially less than the benefits they provide? This report reviews the benefits that can accrue to different segments of society from mitigation, the costs that can be incurred by undertaking mitigation, and the analyses needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the measures. It has 16 case studies across the United States and demonstrates their efficiency against several types of natural hazards, as well as the effectiveness of other mitigation tools. The studies include seismic retrofitting of lifelines in Tennessee, reinforcement of highway bridges in California, historic preservation and community development in Wisconsin, mitigation in hospitals in California, reduction of business interruption costs in Iowa, seismic retrofitting in Los Angeles public schools, wind shutter protection in Florida, acquisition and relocation of floodplain structures in Missouri, regulation of unreinforced masonry buildings in Los Angeles, land use and building regulation along the coasts of Florida, land-use and building requirements in floodplains, and seismic retrofitting to avoid business disruption. The cases include both public- and private-sector initiatives.
Institute for Business and Home Safety (IBHS). 1999. Open for Business: A Disaster Planning
Tool Kit for the Small Business Owner. Institute for Business and Home Safety.
This tool-kit is designed to help small business owners identify the hazards they may face, plan for and reduce the impact of disasters, keep their business open when disaster hits, and advise on insurance, disaster supplies, and other things the business owner can do to make his/her business more disaster resistant.
Kline, Elizabeth. 1997. Sustainable Community: Topics and Indicators. Available online at
http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/modules/modinstruct.html [accessed June 22, 2001]
These narratives about sustainable community indicators were developed under a contract with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The primary audiences are community practitioners and technical resource people.
Louisiana Governor's Office of Rural Development. n.d. Louisiana Small Towns Program.
Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana Governor's Office of Rural Development.
The Louisiana Governor's Office of Rural Development, under a grant from the U.S. Economic Development Administration, conducted the Louisiana Small Towns Program to help communities plan for a successful future. This is a grant report with findings from the program.
Minnesota Department of Public Safety. Recovery From Disaster Handbook. St. Paul, MN: State
of Minnesota. Available at
http://www.dem.state.mn.us/publications/Recovery_Handbook/index.html [accessed July 23,
This handbook provides local units of government with guidance in long-term recovery after a disaster. The restoration process places great demands on government and the private sector. This manual will lessen the stress by providing answers and advice to many questions that arise from those who have dealt with recovery from disasters. Tool kits give information specific to each topic, some forms, and information to share with the victims of the disaster as they recover.
Philippi, Nancy S. 1996. Floodplain Management: Ecologic and Economic Perspectives. San
Diego, CA: Academic Press. 225 pp.
When economic and ecological concerns conflict, effective floodplain management often suffers. The author examines the reasons behind these conflicts and points to solutions. She discusses the challenge of managing floodplains, the need for floodplain management, the public interest and how to define it, governments and their roles, harmful effects of floodplain management, case studies of the Mississippi and American Rivers, and scenarios for effective management. Appendices reprint several important documents useful for the understanding of floodplain management in the United States.
Public Works and Economic Development Association. 1999. Economic Development Directory.
Prepared for the Economic Development Administration , U.S. Department of Commerce.
Washington, D.C.: Public Works and Economic Development Association. 153 pp.
This directory is a convenient and functional information tool to facilitate communication between the various elements of EDA's program components. It is meant to serve economic development practitioners, EDA grantees, associations, and others who are seeking information on EDA's economic development activities in all 50 states and territories.
San Francisco City Planning Department. 1987. Earthquake Hazards and Housing-Summary
Report. San Francisco, CA: San Francisco City Planning Dept. 26 pp.
With a vacancy rate of less than 1%, San Francisco has virtually no low-rent replacement housing. A large portion of the existing low-rent housing stock is located in areas built of unreinforced brick-a structure type particularly vulnerable to earthquakes. To help maintain a safe low-income housing stock in the vulnerable unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings, this study was commissioned to examine the range of seismic retrofitting measures available for prototypical residential buildings in the city, and the financial profiles of owners and tenants in URM buildings. Using the experiences of other cities that have adopted retroactive URM building codes, the researchers applied the specifications of their seismic strengthening requirements to the masonry building stock in San Francisco.
Tierney, Kathleen J. 1995. Impacts of Recent U.S. Disasters on Businesses: The 1993 Midwest
Floods and the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. Preliminary Paper No. 230. Newark, DE:
University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center. 53 pp.
This report utilizes a methodological approach first applied to the Des Moines area to try to ascertain how the 1994 Northridge earthquake affected businesses in Los Angeles and Santa Monica. Both studies survey both large and small enterprises and a range of business types. Topics discussed in the paper include physical damage to business properties; lifeline service interruption; rates of and reasons for business closure and relocation; use of insurance, Small Business Administration loans, and other sources of recovery assistance; and proprietor's assessments of business recovery and well-being at the time the surveys were conducted.
Alesch, Daniel J., James N. Holly, Elliott Mittler, and Robert Nagy. 2001. Organizations at Risk: What Happens when Small Businesses and Not-for-Profits Encounter Natural Disasters. First Year Technical Report of the Small Organizations Natural Hazards Project, Center for Organizational Studies, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. Fairfax, VA: Public Entity Risk Institute. Available at http://www.riskinstitute.org/ptrdocs/OrganizationsatRisk.pdf.
Chang, Stephanie. 1997. "Reconstruction and Recovery in Urban Earthquake Disasters." Proceedings of the 5th US/Japan Workshop on Urban Earthquake Hazard Reduction. Oakland, CA: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
Department of Commerce. 2000. Out of Harm's Way. (Pamphlet.) Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1998. Protecting Business Operations: Second Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency. 41 pp.
International Red River Basin Task Force, 1999. An Assessment of Recovery Assistance provided after the 1997 Floods in the Red River Basin: Impacts on Basin-wide Resilience. Report prepared by the Natural Hazards Center, University of Colorado and the Disaster Research Institute, University of Manitoba for the International Joint Commission's Red River Basin Task Force. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: International Joint Commission. Available at http://www.ijc.org/boards/rrb/Recovery%20Assistance.pdf. [accessed September 21, 2001]