Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute, National Emergency Training Center. Emmitsburg, MD. (301) 447-1035; http://www.fema.gov/emi [accessed June 15, 2001]
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute, National Emergency Training Center. Emmitsburg, Maryland. http://www.fema.gov/emi [accessed June 15, 2001] (301) 447-1035.
American Planning Association
The APA is a non-profit organization representing "30,000 practicing planners, officials, and citizens involved with urban and rural planning issues. Sixty-five percent of APA's members are employed by state and local government agencies." APA's mission is to "encourage planning that will contribute to public well-being by developing communities and environments that meet the needs of people and society more effectively." The website is an excellent source of books about community planning that incorporate the principles of sustainable development.
Through its Growing Smart Legislative Handbook: Model Statues for Planning and the
Management of Change, the APA promotes the solution to overcoming the barriers of successful
hazard mitigation and holistic disaster recovery. APA has developed a model "Natural Hazards
Element" for local comprehensive plans. The model incorporates practices taken from numerous
state statutes, combining them to create a mechanism whereby hazard mitigation, a stepping-stone for holistic disaster recovery, may be institutionalized.
See http://www.planning.org [accessed June 15, 2001]
Federal Emergency Management Agency
See "Response and Recovery" at http://www.fema.gov/r-n-r/ [accessed June 29, 2001] and
"After a Flood: The First Steps" at http://www.fema.gov/DIZAS/aftrfld.htm [accessed June 29, 2001]
Institute for Business and Home Safety. "Showcase Community Program."
The Institute for Business and Home Safety's Showcase Community Program has three objectives: 1) help a community help itself by reducing its vulnerability to hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, wildfires, floods or whatever natural disasters threaten it; 2) generate a "me too" attitude among other communities by showcasing the successful efforts of particular jurisdictions: and 3) learn what works and what does not work to reduce the emotional and financial devastation caused by natural disasters.
See http://www.ibhs.org/ibhs2/html/ibhs_projects/projects_showcase.htm [accessed September 21, 2001]
Rothstein Catalog on Disaster Recovery.
This is a catalog of books, software, videos, and research reports that date to 1989.
See http://www.rothstein.com/catalog.html [accessed June 29, 2001]
Arnold, Christopher. 1993. Reconstruction After Earthquakes: Issues, Urban Design, and Case
Studies. Palo Alto, CA: Building Systems Development, Inc. 170 pp.
After a major earthquake (1976) devastated the Chinese city of Tangshan, planners decided to build a new reinforced concrete city in a western style that was completely different from the masonry construction of the destroyed city. A visit to Tangshan five years after the quake provided an opportunity for the author to raise questions about the reconstruction process. What are the aspirations of those most closely connected to reconstruction planning? Can planners grasp and realize the opportunities for urban renewal presented by a seismic disaster? To what extent does the threat of future earthquakes dictate the urban design and construction of the new city? Why were cities in earthquake-prone areas so often repaired and rebuilt, when rational planning considerations might suggest that they be abandoned and rebuilt elsewhere? This study explores these questions and attempts to examine the reconstruction process from a qualitative rather than an administrative viewpoint. Most of the study is about city planning and urban design, utilizing five case studies to illustrate the author's perspective: Tokyo (1923 & 1945); Tangshan (1976); Spitak, Armenia (1988); and Santa Cruz, California (1989) .
Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM). 1996. Using Multi-Objective Management
to Reduce Flood Losses in Your Watershed. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain
Managers. 72 pp. Abstract available at http://www.floods.org/PDF%20files/PUBSLIST.pdf.
[accessed September 21, 2001]
This publication explores planning and implementation techniques for multi-objective watershed management. It provides a general introduction to multi-objective management and the planning process that helps a community select the flood-loss reduction measures most suitable to its situation. It explains how to define problems and goals, build partnerships, combine needs and solutions creatively, and begin formal implementation procedures. Both riverine and coastal flood watersheds are examined. Much of the document focuses on multi-objective management planning details, involving subjects such as fish and wildlife issues, water supply, housing improvement, transportation, and lifelines. Preparation of a multi-objective management plan involves problem definition, involvement of non-local groups, and public and official acceptance of the plan.
Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project. 1990. Putting the Pieces Together: The
Loma Prieta Earthquake One Year Later. Oakland, CA: Bay Area Regional Earthquake
Preparedness Project. 253 pp.
This report grew out of a conference held to determine the lessons learned from the Loma Prieta earthquake and its aftermath. The conference examined preparedness and mitigation efforts before the quake, political and management issues of disaster response, recovery and reconstruction programs, and mitigation activities since the event. Among the numerous topics addressed in the volume, separate chapters are given to seismological and geological considerations, geotechnical aspects, the performance of lifelines, buildings, and transportation systems and the implications for future design of these elements, effective emergency management, emotional and psychological aftereffects, economic impacts, emergency public information and the media, the restoration of lifelines, emergency medical services, business recovery, and housing reconstruction.
Becker, William S. and Roberta F. Stauffer. 1994. Rebuilding the Future-A Guide to Sustainable
Redevelopment for Disaster-Affected Communities. Golden, CO: U.S. Department of Energy,
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Center of Excellence for Sustainable
Development. 18 pp.
This document summarizes why sustainability is important and gives an example of sustainable development in one community, Soldiers Grove, Wisconsin. The reader is walked step-by-step through the holistic recovery process. The last chapter discusses real-life problems that the planner may encounter. There is an appendix to the report with a comprehensive list of resources. This document is available online at http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/articles/RFTF1.shtml [accessed June 15, 2001]
Berke, Philip and David Godschalk. 1996. Hazard Mitigation in California following the Loma
Prieta and Northridge Earthquakes. Natural Hazard Working Paper No. 14. Chapel Hill, NC:
University of North Carolina, Center for Urban and Regional Studies. 59 pp.
This report documents a case study conducted almost six years after the Loma Prieta quake and one and one-half years after Northridge. The strengths and weaknesses of the California 409 Plans are identified, state and federal mitigation planning and implementation processes are reviewed, and local mitigation examples are drawn from San Francisco, Berkeley, Watsonville, and Los Angeles and Ventura counties. One finding was the present mitigation systems (policies and institutions) will not be adequate to mitigate the impacts of a future major earthquake catastrophe. Two recommendations were that California should pursue a coordinated, interdisciplinary effort to further the understanding of earthquake prediction and of earthquake impacts and should reinvigorate efforts to mandate local multi-hazard mitigation planning before and after a disaster.
Comerio, Mary C., John D. Landis, Catherine J. Firpo, and Juan Pablo Monzon. 1996."Residential Earthquake Recovery: Improving California's Post-Disaster Rebuilding Policies
and Programs." California Policy Seminar 8(7) 11 pp.
Between 1989 and 1994, California suffered 13 presidentially declared disasters, including the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes, leading to major concerns about the disaster recovery process. This report examines the current state of earthquake recovery practice in California, particularly as it relates to housing. The authors examine the complementary and overlapping roles of different federal, state, private, and nonprofit recovery and rebuilding institutions, as well as the distribution of post-Northridge rebuilding funds. They conclude that relatively little preparation has gone into coordinating and paying for postdisaster rebuilding, and that victims cannot expect private insurers or the federal government to compensate them at a level of assistance comparable to that following the Northridge quake. In particular, the authors conclude that linking earthquake mitigation, particularly residential retrofitting, to assistance holds significant potential for reducing rebuilding costs.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1997. Framework for Federal Action to Help Build a
Healthy Recovery and Safer Future in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.
This document identifies and explains the wide range of grants, loans, and technical assistance that the federal government can offer to ensure the recovery needs of people and communities. Although the document summarizes these programs for the states of Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, the descriptions are applicable to other areas recovering from flooding. Programs summarized include: comprehensive flood hazard mitigation; housing repairs, rehabilitation, reconstruction, and replacement financing; the National Flood Insurance Program; economic recovery programs; agriculture programs, infrastructure programs; health and mental health programs; and programs for special needs populations.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1999. Federal Response Plan. Washington, D.C.:
Federal Emergency Management Agency.
This document is the principal organizational guide for defining the roles and responsibilities of the 26 federal member agencies and the American Red Cross that are engaged to deliver a broad range of emergency aid during a major crisis.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2000. Rebuilding for a More Sustainable Future: An
Operational Framework. FEMA Report 365. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency
Management Agency. Available at http://www.fema.gov/mit/planning_toc2.htm. [accessed
September 21, 2001]
This document provides guidance to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Sustainability Planner in the post-disaster response and recovery process. State emergency management officials, local jurisdictions, and other FEMA staff may also use it as a reference during non-disaster time.
French and Associates, Ltd. and The Mitigation Assistance Corporation. 1994. Post-Flood
Recovery Assistance Plan. A Plan to Help Residents Recover from a Flood and Protect
Themselves from Future Floods. Arvada, CO: City of Arvada, Colorado, Department of
Public Works, Engineering Division.
This plan was developed to guide the City of Arvada's actions to help residents after a flood, to assist them in both recovering from the damage and taking steps to protect themselves from future floods. It is based on successful strategies undertaken by other communities that have had similar flooding experiences.
Godschalk, David and Timothy Beatley. 1996. Hazard Mitigation in Iowa Following the Great
Midwest Floods of 1993. Natural Hazard Working Paper No. 10. Chapel Hill, NC: University
of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Center for Urban and Regional Studies. 31 pp.
The report examines how the Stafford Act influenced recovery in eight localities in Iowa. Questions explored include: What constitutes mitigation? Who is in charge after a disaster occurs? What good is the 409 (Stafford) Plan? Who pays for disasters? Other topics considered include grant administration accountability, equity issues, the promotion of sustainable communities, and problems caused by confusing rules and guidance.
Mileti, Dennis S. 1999. Disasters by Design. Washington, D.C.: The Joseph Henry Press. 351
pp. Available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog/5782.html. [accessed September 21, 2001]
This book is a summary volume of the Second National Assessment of Research on Natural Hazards with the formal mission of summarizing what is known in the various fields of science and engineering that is applicable to natural and related technological hazards in the United States, and making some research and policy recommendations for the future. It summarizes the hazards research findings from the last two decades, synthesizes what has been learned, and outlines a proposed shift in direction in research and policy for natural and related technological hazards in the United States. Disasters by Design is intended for a general audience, including policy makers and practitioners.
Minnesota Department of Public Safety. Recovery From Disaster Handbook. St. Paul, MN: State
of Minnesota. Available at
http://www.dem.state.mn.us/publications/Recovery_Handbook [accessed July 23,
This handbook provides local units of government with guidance in long-term recovery after a disaster. The restoration process places great demands on government and the private sector. This manual will lessen the stress by providing answers and advice to many questions that arise from those who have dealt with recovery from disasters. Tool kits at the end of each chapter provide additional information specific to individual topics, some forms, and information to hare with the victims of the disaster as they recover.
Mittler, Elliott. 1997. An Assessment of Floodplain Management in Georgia's Flint River Basin.
Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Natural Hazards
Research and Applications Information Center. 190 pp.
On July 3, 1994, Tropical Storm Alberto struck the Florida panhandle and proceeded northeast before stalling just south of Atlanta, Georgia, inflicting over $1 billion in damage. The flood provided an opportunity to identify and document the successes and failures of state and local floodplain management programs and activities. The author assessed the impact of federal, state, and local floodplain management activities on losses in the Flint River Basin, paying particular attention to the impact of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and local floodplain management efforts. He examines previous floodplain studies; evaluates the political situation affecting flood recovery in each community; examines federal, state, and local responses to the disaster, concentrating on recovery plans and the use of hazard mitigation programs to reduce future flood losses; analyzes the effectiveness of the NFIP; and offers a series of findings and recommendations based on the relatively successful recovery programs he found.
Reddy, Swaroop. 1992. A Study of Long Term Recovery of Three Communities in the Aftermath
of Hurricane Hugo. HRRC Monograph 9B. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University,
College of Architecture, Hazard Reduction Recovery Center. 171 pp.
The objectives of this report-a doctoral dissertation-included: 1) to determine the factors that explain the successful adoption of hazard mitigation measures during recovery, 2) to develop a conceptual understanding of the problems inherent in the adoption of mitigation during disaster recovery, and 3) to gain an understanding about the influence of pre-storm institutional regulations on mitigation during the recovery period. The major findings were: the stronger and greater the presence of eight implementation factors in a community, the greater the successful adoption of mitigation measures; local institutional involvement is essential in the successful adoption of mitigation; there is a strong linkage between development management and hazard mitigation; a strong linkage also exists between the protection of coastal resources and coastal hazard mitigation; and the existence of strong pre-storm institutional regulations help local jurisdictions promote the adoption of mitigation during recovery.
Rubin, Claire B. Martin D. Saperstein, and Daniel G. Barbee. 1985. Community Recovery from a
Major Natural Disaster. Monograph No. 41. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Research and
Applications Information Center. 295 pp.
The publication describes what was learned by a team that spent four years observing how 14 communities coped with the deleterious effects of disasters. The focus of the research was on the ways in which the local government's activities, as well as its interactions with other levels of government, affected the speed and/or efficiency of recovery. The role of community officials in recovery and post-disaster mitigation, the kind of disaster agent involved, the level of emergency planning and preparedness, the community's sense of itself and its future are all analyzed. Part I of the monograph discusses previous research, describes the design of the study, presents a framework for thinking about recovery, and explains how various elements of that framework affected the actual recovery processes of the communities studied. Part II of the monograph presents case studies.
Schwab, Jim, Kenneth C. Topping, Charles C. Eadie, Robert E. Deyle, and Richard A. Smith.
1998. Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. PAS Report No. 483/484.
Chicago, IL: American Planning Association. 346 pp. Abstract available at
http://www.planning.org/apapubs/details.asp?Num=1178. [accessed September 21, 2001]
This document helps community leaders and planners educate their constituents on how informed decisions and choices can affect the rebuilding process and yield a safer, more sustainable community. This report introduces planners to their roles in post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, and provides guidance on how to plan for post-disaster reconstruction side by side with all other players involved. A key theme throughout this report is to rebuild to create a more disaster-resilient community. The report contains many references to technical resources.
Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project. 1991. Earthquake Recovery and
Reconstruction Planning Guidelines for Local Governments. Sacramento, CA: Southern
California Earthquake Preparedness Project (SCEPP) and California Governor's Office of
Emergency Preparedness. 75 pp.
This document recommends that local governments adopt a planning team approach to anticipate problems associated with community recovery from an earthquake. Following an introductory discussion of earthquake recovery concepts, the guidelines present separate sections dealing with the planning process, rehabilitation and rebuilding, local business recovery, housing displaced persons and families, the restoration of public facilities and services, and financing the recovery process. Recommended actions for local governments are provided for preparedness and mitigation, emergency relief, short-term recovery, and long-term reconstruction phases. Appendices list a set of lessons learned from previous earthquake recovery efforts and reprint California's Disaster Recovery Reconstruction Act of 1986.
Wetmore, French and Gil Jamieson.. 1999. "Flood Mitigation Planning: The CRS Approach."
Natural Hazards Informer 1 (July). Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Research and Applications
Information Center. Available at http://www.colorado/edu/hazards/informer/index.htm.
[accessed September 21, 2001]
Under the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System, flood insurance premiums are reduced based on a community's floodplain management activities. This issue of Natural Hazards Informer reviews the CRS planning criteria and offers some suggestions for implementing a plan locally. It is based on the authors' 40 years of combined experience in flood mitigation planning and the lessons learned by others who have helped refine the CRS criteria.
American Planning Association, 1994. Growing Smart Legislative Handbook: Model Statues for Planning and the Management of Change. Chicago, IL: APA.
Berke, Philip R. Timothy Beatley, and Clarence Feagin. 1993. Hurricane Gilbert Strikes Jamaica: Linking Disaster Recovery to Development. HRRC Article 89A. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, College of Architecture, Hazard Reduction and Recovery Center. 23 pp.
Berke, Philip R. Jack D. Kartez, and Dennis E. Wenger. 1993. "Recovery after Disaster: Achieving Sustainable Development, Mitigation and Equity." Disasters 17(2):93-109.
Eadie, Charles. 1991. Phases of Earthquake Response and Recovery Planning. Santa Cruz: CA: Santa Cruz Redevelopment Agency.
Emmer, R. E. 1994. Flood Damage Reduction and Wetland Conservation. Three Successful Projects in Louisiana have Common Characteristics. Topical Paper #6. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers, Inc. (September.) 23 pp.
Executive Office of the President. 1998. Federal Programs Offering Non-Structural Flood Recovery and Floodplain Management Alternatives. A Federal Interagency Publication. Washington, D.C. 90 pp.
National Academy of Sciences. 1990. Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Nigg, Joanne M. 1995. Disaster Recovery as a Social Process. Article No. 284. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center. 13 pp.
Plafker, George and John P. Galloway, eds. 1989. Lessons Learned from the Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey.
Spangle, William & Associates, Inc. 1991. Rebuilding After Earthquakes: Lessons from Planners. Portola Valley, California: William Spangle & Associates, Inc.
Spangle, William E., ed. 1987. Pre-Earthquake Planning for Post-Earthquake Rebuilding (PEPPER). Los Angeles, California: Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project.
Wilson, Richard C. 1991. The Loma Prieta Quake: What One City Learned. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association.