DISASTERS BY DESIGN:
A REASSESSMENT OF NATURAL HAZARDS
IN THE UNITED STATES

A BIBLIOGRAPHY

1999


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

I. HISTORY, REVIEWS, AND THEORY

II. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND MITIGATION

III. EVENTS, LOSSES, AND COSTS

IV. INTERACTIVE STRUCTURE OF HAZARD

V. ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MITIGATION

VI. TOOLS FOR MITIGATION

VII. DISASTERS

VIII. INNOVATIVE PATHS AND NEW DIRECTIONS


INTRODUCTION

This bibliography is a collection of citations to the academic literature supporting the summary volume of the Second National Assessment of Research on Natural Hazards. The Second Assessment was a multi-year project sponsored by the National Science Foundation with supporting contributions from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey. It began in 1994 with the formal mission of summarizing what is known in the various fields of science and engineering that is applicable to natural and related technological hazards in the United States, and making some research and policy recommendations for the future.

The results of that effort are compiled in a book published in 1999 by the Joseph Henry Press in Washington, D.C., entitled, Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States [ordering information is provided below]. The book summarizes the hazards research findings from the last two decades, synthesizes what has been learned, and outlines a proposed shift in direction in research and policy for natural and related technological hazards in the United States.

Disasters by Design wasintended for a general audience, including policymakers and practitioners; to help increase its clarity for the lay audience, the decision was made to omit the large number of citations to the literature that would be expected in such a scholarly work. Instead, a few key references were provided, and the full bibliography is presented here for those with an academic inclination.

This list of literature comprises all the citations provided by the numerous researchers and practitioners in support of their research and analysis, combined with additional references provided by the many reviewers and others who took it upon themselves to make a bibliographic contribution. This bibliography was first posted in 1991 and received corrections and additions for the next two years. However, as of May 2001 no additional changes are being made. Note that citations added to this bibliography after its initial publication are marked with a double asterisk (**).

The bibliography is arranged by broad topic, roughly paralleling the organization of the Disasters by Design volume it supports. There is some duplication of references from one topic to another, but no attempt was made to provide comprehensive citations for any one topic. Thus the reader in search of references on a particular subject should peruse two or three closely related sections, rather than focusing on a single one.

Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States by Dennis Mileti (1999, 376 pp.) costs $47.95, plus $4.50 shipping and handling and can be ordered from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; fax: (202) 334-2451; http://books.nap.edu/catalog/5782.html.


I. HISTORY, REVIEWS, AND THEORY

 

Alexander, D.E., 1993, Natural Disasters. London and New York: UCL Press and Chapman & Hall.

Alihan, M., 1938, Social Ecology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Babbie, E., 1992, The Practice of Social Research (6th edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.


Beck, U., 1992, The Risk Society: On the Way to an Alternative Modernity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Berke, P.R., J. Kartez and D. Wenger, 1993, "Recovery After Disaster: Achieving Sustainable Development, Mitigation and Equity." Disasters 17 (2): 93-109.


Burton, I., R.W. Kates, and G.F. White, 1993, The Environment as Hazard (2nd edition). New York: Oxford University Press.


Burton, I., R.W. Kates, and G.F. White, 1978, The Environment as Hazard. New York: Oxford University Press.


Burton, I., R.W. Kates, and G.F. White, 1981, "Reply to Hazards, Hazes, and Holes." The Canadian Geographer 30:2894,33289.


Carr, C., 1982, "The Political Economy of Hunger and Desertification in Pastoral Ethiopia and the Challenge of Future Development." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers, San Antonio, April 25-28.

Cutter, S.L., 1993, Living with Risk: The Geography of Technological Hazards. London: Edward Arnold.


Dewey, J., 1929, "The Quest for Certainty." In J. Boydston, ed., The Later Works: 1925-1953. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.


Dewey, J., 1929, "The School and Society." In J. Boydston, ed., The Middle Works: 1899-1924. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.


Drabek, T.E., 1969, "Social Processes in Disaster: Family Evacuation." Social Problems 16 (3): 336-349.


Duncan, O.D., 1964, "Social Organization and the Ecosystem. Pp. 37-82 in R.E.L. Faris, ed., Handbook of Modern Sociology. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.


Duncan, O.D., and L.F. Schore, 1959, "Cultural, Behavioral, and Ecological Perspectives for the Study of Social Organization." American Journal of Sociology 65: 132-146.


Dynes, R.R., 1970, Organized Behavior in Disaster. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.


Dynes, R.R., and T.E. Drabek, 1994, "The Structure of Disaster Research: Its Policy and Disciplinary Implications." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters12: 5-23.


Dynes, R.R., E.L. Quarantelli, and G.A. Kreps, 1985, A Perspective on Disaster. Planning Report Series No. 11. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center.


Freudenburg, W.R., 1988, "Perceived Risk, Real Risk: Social Science and the Art of Probabilistic Risk Assessment." Science 42: 44-49.


Fritz, C., 1968, "Disasters." Pp. 202-207 in The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York: The Macmillan Company.


Fritz, C., 1961, "Disaster." Pp. 651-694 in R.K. Merton and R.A. Nisbet, eds., Contemporary Social Problems. New York: Hardcourt Press.


Haas, Eugene, and T.E. Drabek, 1973, Complex Organizations: A Sociological Perspective. New York: Macmillan Company.


Hawley, A.H., 1986, Human Ecology: A Theoretical Essay. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Hawley, A., 1950, Human Ecology: A Theory of Community Structure. New York: The Ronald Press.


Hewitt, K., 1997, Regions of Risk: A Geographical Introduction to Disasters. Essex, U.K.: Longman, Ltd.


Horlick-Jones, T., 1995, "Modern Disasters as Outrage and Betrayal." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 13 (3): 305-315.


Kasperson, R.E., and K. Dow 1993, "Hazard Perception and Geography." Pp. 193-222 in T. Goring and R. Golledge, eds., Behavior and Environment: Psychological and Geographical Approaches. Amsterdam: North Holland Press.


Kates, R.W., 1997, "Human Adjustment." Pp. 87-107 in S. Hanson, ed., Ten Geographic Ideas that Changed the World. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.


Kates, R.W., 1971, "Natural Hazard in Human Ecological Perspective: Hypotheses and Models." Economic Geography 47 (3): 438-451.


Kates, R.W., 1962, Hazard and Choice Perception in Floodplain Management. Research Paper No. 78. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


Kirby, A., ed., 1990, Nothing to Fear: Risks and Hazards in American Society. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.


Kreps, G.A., 1995, "Disaster as Systematic Event and Social Catalyst: A Clarification of Subject Matter." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters13: 255-84.


Kreps, G.A., 1984, "Sociological Inquiry and Disaster Research." Annual Review of Sociology 10: 309-30.


Kutak, R., 1938, "The Sociology of Crisis: The Louisville Flood of 1937." Social Forces 17 (1): 66-72.


Luhmann, N., 1993, Risk: A Sociological Theory. New York: Walter de Gruyter.


MacIver, R.M., 1931, Society: Its Structure and Changes. New York: Long and Smith.


Mack, R.W., and G.W. Baker, 1961, The Occasion Instant. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.


Marston, S., 1982, A Political Economy Approach to Hazard: A Case Study of California Lenders and the Earthquake Threat. Natural Hazards Research Working Paper No. 49. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Micklin, M., 1973, Population, Environment, and Social Organization. Hinsdale, IL: Dryden Press.


Mileti, D.S., 1980, "Human Adjustment to the Risk of Environmental Extremes." Sociology and Social Research 64 (3): 327-347.


Mitchell, J.K., 1990, "Human Dimensions of Environmental Hazards: Complexity, Disparity, and Search for Guidance." Pp. 131-175 in A. Kirby, ed., Nothing to Fear: Risks and Hazards in American Society. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.


Mitchell, J.K., 1989, "Hazards Research." In G. Gaile and C. Willmott, eds., Geography in America. Columbus, OH: Merrill.


Mitchell, K., ed., 1998, Crucible of Hazard. Tokyo: UNU Press.


Mitchell, J.K., N. Devine, and K. Jagger, 1989, "A Contextual Model of Natural Hazard." Geographical Review79 (4): 391-409.


O'Keefe, P., K. Westgate, and B. Wisner, 1976, "Taking the Naturalness Out of Natural Disasters." Nature 260: 566-567.


Park, R.E., E.W. Burgess, and R.D. McKenzie, 1925, The City. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


Perry, R.W., 1982, The Social Psychology of Civil Defense. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.


Pielke Jr., R.A., 1997, "Reframing the U.S. Hurricane Problem." Society and Natural Resources 10 (5): 485-499.


Prince, S.H., 1920, "Catastrophe and Social Change: Based upon a Sociological Study of the Halifax Disaster." Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law 94: 1-152.


Quarantelli, E.L., 1998, What Is a Disaster? London: Routledge.


Quarantelli, E.L., 1954, "The Nature and Conditions of Panic." American Journal of Sociology 60: 267-275.


Reuss, M., 1993, Water Resources, People, and Issues: Interview with Gilbert White. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Office of History.


Stallings, R.A., 1997, Sociological Theories and Disaster Studies. Preliminary Paper No. 249. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center.


Torry, W.I., 1979, "Hazards, Hazes and Holes: A Critique of the Environment as Hazard and General Reflections on Disaster Research." The Canadian Geographer 23: 368-83.


Waddell, E., 1977, "The Hazards of Scientism." Human Ecology5: 69-76.


Walker, R., 1979, "Review of The Environment as Hazard." Geographical Review 69: 113-14.


Wallace, R., 1989, Feminism and Sociological Theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.


Wenger, D., 1985, "Collective Behavior and Disaster Research." Pp. 42 in E.L. Quarantelli, ed., Disasters: Theory and Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.


Wescoat, J.L., 1992, "Common Themes in the Work of Gilbert White and John Dewey: A Pragmatic Appraisal." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (4): 587-607.


White, G.F., 1978, "Reply to the 'Hazards of Scientism.'" Human Ecology 6:2294,33231.


White, G.F., 1974, "Natural Hazards Research: Concepts, Methods, and Policy Implications." Pp. 3-16 in G.F. White, ed., Natural Hazards: Local, National and Global. New York: Oxford University Press.


White, G.F., 1973, "Natural Hazards Research." Pp. 193-216 in R.J. Chorley, ed., Directions in Geography. London: Metheun & Company, Ltd.


White, G.F., 1942, Human Adjustment to Floods. Research Paper No. 29. Chicago: University of Chicago, Department of Geography.


White, G.F., ed., 1974, Natural Hazards: Local, National, Global. New York: Oxford University Press.


White, G.F., and J.E. Haas, 1975, Assessment of Research on Natural Hazards. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.


White, G.F., et al., 1997, "Commentary on Human Adjustment to Floods." Classics in Human Geography, Progress in Human Geography 21: 423-429.


Whyte, A., 1986, "From Hazards Perception to Human Ecology." Pp. 240-271 in R. Kates and Ian Burton, eds., Themes From the Work of G.F. White. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


Wisner, B., P. O'Keefe, and K. Westgate, 1976, "Poverty and Disaster." New Society 37: 546-548.


Wright, J.D., and P.H. Rossi, 1981, Social Science and Natural Hazards. Cambridge, MA: Abt Books.


Young, G.O., ed., 1983, Origins of Human Ecology. Stroudsburg, PA: Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company.


II. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND MITIGATION


Aberly, D., ed., 1994, Futures by Design: The Practice of Ecological Planning. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.


Anderson, M.B., 1990. "Analyzing the Costs and Benefits of Natural Disaster Responses in the Context of Development." Report prepared for the World Bank Policy Planning and Research Staff, Environment Department. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.


Bauman, C., and M. Greene, 1995, "Revision of the Community Safety Element: The San Francisco Experience." Paper presented to the 5th International Conference on Seismic Zonation, October 17-19, Nice, France.


Berke, P.R., 1995, Natural Hazard Reduction and Sustainable Development: A Global Assessment. Center for Urban and Regional Studies Working Paper S95-02. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.


Berke, P.R, 1995, "Natural Hazard Reduction and Sustainable Development: A Global Assessment." Journal of Planning Literature 9 (4): 370-382.


Berke, P.R., and T. Beatley, 1995, "After the Hurricane: Linking Recovery to Sustainable Development in the Caribbean." Unpublished manuscript. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of City and Regional Planning.


Billharz, S., and B. Moldan, eds., 1995, Scientific Workshop of Indicators of Sustainable Development. Prague, Czech Republic: Charles University, Environmental Center for the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.


Blaikie, P., 1985, The Political Economy of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries. London: Longman.


Blowers, A., ed., 1993, Planning for a Sustainable Environment. London, England: Earthscan Publications.


Brown, D.L., 1991, "Bridging Organizations and Sustainable Development." Human Relations 44 (8): 807-831.


Butzer, K.W., 1990, "The Realm of Cultural-human Ecology: Adaptation and Change in Historical Perspective." In B.L. Turner II et al., eds., The Earth as Transformed by Human Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Cannon, T. 1977, "'Natural' Disasters and the Third World." In N. Smith, M. Forbes and M. Kershaw, eds., Geography, Social Welfare and Underdevelopment. Geographers Special Publication No. 2. J. St. Andrews.


Carley, M., and I. Christie, 1993, Managing Sustainable Development.Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.


Clark, K., 1994, "Modelling Catastrophic Risk." Pp 16-18 in U.S. National Committee for the Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council, eds., Facing the Challenge: The U.S. National Report to the IDNDR World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Cuny, F., 1983, Disasters and Development. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.


Dalton, L.C., and R.J. Burby, 1994, "Mandates, Plans and Planners: Building Local Commitment to Development Management." Journal of the American Planning Association 60 (Autumn): 444-462.


Godschalk, D.R., D.W. Parham, D.R. Porter, W.R. Potapchuk, and S.W. Schukraft, 1994, Pulling Together: A Planning and Development Consensus-Building Manual. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute.


Groenwold, J., and E. Porter, eds., 1997, World in Crisis: The Politics of Survival at the End of the Twentieth Century. Prepared for Doctors Without Borders. London: Routledge.


Hewitt, K., 1976, "Earthquake Hazards in the Mountains." Natural History (May) 30-37.


Hewitt, K., ed., 1983, Interpretations of Calamity: From the Viewpoint of Human Ecology. London: Allen and Unwin, Inc.


Innes, J.E., 1992, "Group Processes and the Social Construction of Growth Management: Florida, Vermont, and New Jersey." Journal of the American Planning Association 58 (4): 440-453.


International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, 1997, "Draft Strategic Plan." Palisades, NY: International Research Institute.


Jeffery, S.E., 1981, Our Usual Landslide: Ubiquitous Hazard and Socioeconomic Causes of Natural Disaster in Indonesia. Natural Hazards Research Working Paper No. 40. Boulder: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Reseach and Applications Information Center.


John, D., 1994, Civic Environmentalism: Alternatives to Regulation in States and Communities. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press.


Liverman, D.M., 1994, "Vulnerability to Global Environmental Change." Pp. 326-342 in S. Cutter, ed., Environmental Risks and Hazards. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.


May, P.M., R.J. Burby, J. Dixon, N. Ericksen, J. Handmer, S. Michaels, and D.I. Smith, 1996, Environmental Management and Governance: Intergovernmental Approaches to Hazards and Sustainability. London and New York: Routledge Press.


McHarg, I.L., 1969, Design with Nature. Garden City, NY: The Natural History Press.


Meadows, D.H., D.L. Meadows, and J. Randers, 1992, Beyond the Limits. New York: Chelsea Green.


Mileti, D.S., J.D. Darlington, E. Passerini, B.C. Forrest, and M.F. Myers, 1995, "Toward an Integration of Natural Hazards and Sustainability." The Environmental Professional 17 (2): 117-126.


Mitchell, J.K., 1995, "Natural Hazards and Sustainable Development." Abstract prepared for the Natural Hazards Research and Applications Workshop, Boulder, Colorado.


Mittler, E., 1997, An Assessment of Floodplain Management in Georgia's Flint River Basin. Monograph No. 59. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Munasinghe, M., and C. Clarke, eds., 1995, Disaster Prevention for Sustainable Development: Economic and Policy Issues. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.


National Research Council, 1997, Preparing for the 21st Century: The Environment and the Human Future. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.


Nelessen, A.C., 1994, Visions for a New American Dream. Chicago: American Planning Association Planners Press.


Newman, P., 1996, "Greening the City." Alternatives Journal 22 (2): 10-16.


O'Keefe, P., and B. Wisner, 1976, "Underdevelopment in East Africa a Kenyan Case Study." Environment Africa 2: 1-2.


Otero, R.C., and R.Z. Marti, 1995, "The Impacts of Natural Disasters on Developing Economies: Implications for the International Development and Disaster Community." In M. Munasinghe and C. Clark, eds., Disaster Prevention for Sustainable Development: Economic and Policy Issues. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.


Platt, R.H., 1986, "Metropolitan Flood Loss Reduction Through Special Regional Districts." Journal of the American Planning Association52 (Autumn): 467-479.


Platt, R.H., ed., 1987, Regional Management of Metropolitan Floodplains, Experience in the United States and Abroad. Boulder, CO: Institute of Behavioral Science.


Rees, W.E., 1992, "Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: What Urban Economics Leaves Out." Environment and Urbanization4 (2): 121-30.


Rees, W.E., and M. Roseland, 1991, "Sustainable Communities: Planning for the 21st Century." Plan Canada31: 15-26.


Ronfeldt, D., and C. Thorup, 1995, North America in the Era of Citizen Networks: State, Society and Security. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.


Roseland, M., 1992, Toward Sustainable Communities. Ottawa, Canada: National Roundtable on Environment and Economy.


Susman, P., P. O'Keefe, and B. Wisner, 1983, "Global Disasters, A Radical Interpretation." Pp. 263-283 in K. Hewitt, ed., Interpretations of Calamity.Boston, MA: Allen and Unwin, Inc.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1996, "The National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance." National Register 61 (109): 28642-28664.


United Nations Environment Programme, 1992, Preparing for Drought: A Guidebook for Developing Countries. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.


Uphoff, N., 1993, "Grassroots Organizations and NGOs in Rural Development: Opportunities with Diminishing States and Expanding Markets." World Development 21 (4): 607-622.


Van der Ryn, S., and P. Calthorpe, 1991, Sustainable Communities. San Francisco: Sierra Club.


Varley, A., ed., 1994, Disasters, Development and Environment. New York: John Wiley & Sons.


Wackernagel, M., and W. Rees, 1996, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Impact on the Earth. Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada: New Society Publishers.


Watts, M.J., 1983, Silent Violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.


World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, Our Common Future. New York: Oxford University Press.


III. EVENTS, LOSSES, AND COSTS


Deaths, Injuries, and Dollar Losses

Anderson, L.R., J.R. Keaton, T. Saarinen, and W.G. Wells II, 1984, The Utah Landslides, Debris Flows, and Floods of May-June 1983. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Blaikie, P., T. Cannon, I. Davis, and B. Wisner, 1994, At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability, and Disasters. New York: Routledge.


Carter, A.O., M.E. Millson, and D.E. Allen, 1989, "Epidemiologic Study of Deaths and Injuries Due to Tornadoes." American Journal of Epidemiology 130 (6): 1209-1218.


Chowdhury, A., R. Mushtaque, A.U. Bhuyia, A.Y. Choudhury, and R. Sen, 1993, "The Bangladesh Cyclone of 1991: Why So Many People Died." Disasters: The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management 17 (4): 291-304).


Coates, L., R. Blong, and F. Siciliano, 1993, "Lightning Fatalities in Australia, 1824-1991." Natural Hazards 8 (3): 217-233.


Cutter, S.L., and M. Ji, 1997, "Trends in U.S. Hazardous Materials Transportation Spills." Professional Geographer 49 (3): 318-331.


Dash, N., 1996, A Comparison of Populations at Risk for Hurricanes and Earthquakes. Miami: International Hurricane Center, Florida International University.


Degg, M., 1992, "Natural Disasters: Recent Trends and Future Prospects." Geography 77 (336): 198-209.


Dunbar, P., P. Lockridge, and L.S. Whitewide, 1994, Catalog of Significant Earthquakes 2150 B.C.-1991 A.D. Report SE-49 (with Addendum through January 1994). NOAA E/GC1. Boulder, CO: National Geophysical Data Center.


Flynn, C.B., 1979, Three Mile Island Telephone Survey: Preliminary Report on Procedures and Findings. Tempe, AZ: Mountain West Research.


Glass, R.I., R.B. Craven, D.J. Bregman, B.J. Stoll, N. Horowitz, P. Kerndt, and J. Winkle, 1980. "Injuries from the Wichita Falls Tornado: Implications for Prevention." Science 207: 734-738.


Glickman, T.S., and D.Golding, 1992, "Recent Trends in Major Natural Disasters and Industrial Accidents." Resources for the Future Newsletter 108: 9-14.


Grazulis, T., 1993, Significant Tornadoes: 1680-1991. St. Johnsbury, VT: The Tornado Project of Environmental Films.


Hansen, G., and E. Condon, 1989, Denial of Disaster: The Untold Story and Photographs of the San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of 1906. San Francisco, CA: Cameron and Company.


Hebert, P.J., J.D. Jarrell, and M. Mayfield, 1996, The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Hurricanes of this Century (And Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts). NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS TPC-1. Miami: Tropical Prediction Center.


Hill, C., 1996, "Mayday!" Weatherwise49 (3): 25-28.


Hillaker, H.J., Jr., and P.J. Waite, 1985, "Crop-Hail Damage in the Midwest Corn Belt." Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology24: 3-15.


Hird, J.A., 1994, Superfund: The Political Economy of Environmental Risk. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.


International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 1994, World Disasters Report: 1994. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.


Kessler E., and G.F. White, 1983, "The Thunderstorm in Human Affairs." Pp. 3-18 in E. Kessler, ed., Thunderstorms: A Social, Scientific and Technological Documentary. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.


Lander, J.F., 1995, Tsunamis Affecting Alaska, 1737-1995. Boulder, CO: National Geophysical Data Center.


Lander, J.F., and P.A. Lockridge, 1989, United States Tsunamis (Including United States Possessions) 1690-1988. Boulder, CO: National Geophysical Data Center.

Lander, J.F., P. Lockridge, and M.J. Kozuch, 1993, Tsunamis Affecting the West Coast of the United States, 1806-1992. Boulder, CO: National Geophysical Data Center.


Lane, F.W., 1965, The Elements Rage. Philadelphia, PA: Chilton Books.


Maunder, W.J., 1986, The Human Impact of Climate Uncertainty: Weather Information, Economic Planning and Business Management. London: Routledge.


Miyano, M., L.H. Jian, and T. Mochizuki, 1991, "Human Casualty Due to the Nankai Earthquake Tsunami, 1946." Pp. 77-715 in Proceedings of the IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium.


Moore, H.E., 1958, Tornadoes over Texas. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.


Munich Reinsurance, 1995, Topics: Natural Catastrophes. Munich, Germany: Munich Reinsurance Company.


National Center for Atmospheric Research, Information and Outreach Program, 1993, Lightning. Boulder, CO: National Center for Atmospheric Research.


National Climatic Data Center, 1996, Lighning Statistics. From http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Hurricane Center, 1996, "The Costliest United States Hurricanes of this Century (unadjusted)." From http://www.nhc.noaa.gov.


National Research Council, 1991, Mitigating Losses from Land Subsidence in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, Committee on Ground Failure Hazards Mitigation Research.


National Research Council, 1990, Snow Avalanche Hazards and Mitigation in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, Committee on Ground Failure Hazards Mitigation Research.


National Weather Service, Office of Meteorology, 1995, A Summary of Natural Hazard Fatalities for 1994 in the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


Nuhfer, E.B., 1994, "What is a Geologic Hazard?" Geotimes 4.


Pielke, Jr., R.A., 1996, Midwest Flood of 1993: Weather, Climate, and Societal Impacts. Boulder, CO: National Center for Atmospheric Research.


Property Claim Services, 1996, American Insurance Services Group, Inc. News (January 14).


Rackers, D., 1996, Heat Surveillance Summary-1995. Jefferson City, MO: Missouri Department of Health, Office of Epidemiology.


** Rappaport, E.N., and Fernandez-Partagas, J.J., "History of the Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Since the Discovery of the New World." Pp. 93-108 in Diaz, H.F., and R.S. Pulwarty, eds., 1997, Hurricanes: Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Rosenfield, J., 1996, "Cars vs. the Weather." Weatherwise 49 (5): 14-21.


Rossi, P.H., J.D. Wright, E. Weber-Burdin, and J. Pereira, 1983, Victims of the Environment, Loss from Natural Hazards in the United States, 1970-1980. New York: Plenum Press.


Schmidlin, T.W., and P.S. King, 1994, "Risk Factors for Death in the 27 March 1994 Georgia and Alabama Tornadoes." Disasters 19 (2): 170-177.


Schuster, R.L., 1995, "Socioeconomic Significance of Landslides." Chapter 2 in A.K. Turner and R.L. Schuster, eds., Landslides, Investigation and Mitigation. Transportation Research Board Special Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council.


Schuster, R.L., and R.W. Fleming, 1986, "Economic Losses and Fatalities due to Landslides." Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists XXIII (1): 11-28.


Shah, H.C., 1995, "Scientific Profiles of the 'Big One'." Natural Hazards Observer XX (3) 1-3.


Showalter, P.S., and M.F. Myers, 1994, "Natural Disasters in the United States as Release Agents of Oil, Chemicals or Radiological Material Between 1980-1989: Analysis and Recommendations." Risk Analysis: An International Journal 14 (2): 169-182.


Showalter, P.S., W.E. Riebsame, and M.F. Myers, 1993, Natural Hazard Trends in the United States: A Preliminary Review for the 1990s. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Snethen, D.R., 1986, "Expansive Soils, Ground Failure." National Research Council on Ground Failure Hazards 3: 12-16.


Storm Prediction Center, 1996, Hail statistics. From http://www.nssl.uoknor.edu/~spc/


Tierney, K.J., 1985, Report on the Coalinga Earthquake of May 2, 1983. Sacramento, CA: California State Seismic Safety Commission.


Topp, F.M., and A.G. Sauve, 1988, Winds of Terror: Report on the Edmonton Tornado, 31 July 1987. Edmonton, Canada: Edmonton Police Department.


Trainer, P., and J. Hutton, 1972, "An Approach to the Differential Distribution of Deaths and Disaster." Paper presented at the meetings of the Midwest Council on Social Research in Aging, Kansas City, Kansas.


U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1995, Annual Flood Damage Report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994. Washington, D.C.: Corps of Engineers.


U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1994, Annual Flood Damage Report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1995, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1995. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1990. Environmental Data Report.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture.


U.S. National Committee for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, 1994, Facing The Challenge: U.S. National Report to the International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Wiggins, J., 1996, "Letter to the Editor." Natural Hazards Observer XX (4): 5.


Wilhite, D., 1996, "A Methodology for Drought Preparedness." Natural Hazards 13: 229-252.


Wright, S., and W. Pierson, 1992, Notable Eruptions of Volcanoes in the United States in the 20th Century. USGS Circular 1073. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Other Impacts

Dhesi, N., 1991, "The Social Impacts of the 1906 and 1989 Earthquakes." Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Department of History.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1992, Building Performance: Hurricane Andrew in Florida. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1991, "Principal Threats Facing Communities and Local Emergency Management Coordinators." A Report to the U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Flynn, C.B., and J.A. Chalmers, 1980, The Social and Economic Effects of the Accident at Three Mile Island. Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Regulatory Commission.


Garrison, J.L., 1985, "Mental Health Implications of Disaster Relocation in the United States: A Review of the Literature." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 3 (2): 49-65.


Garrison, C.Z., M.W. Weinrich, S.B. Hardin, S. Weinrich, and L. Wang, 1993, "Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Adolescents after a Hurricane." American Journal of Epidemiology 138 (7): 522-530.


Gleser, G.C., B. Green, and C. Winget, 1981, Prolonged Psychosocial Effects of Disaster: A Study of Buffalo Creek. New York: Academic Press.


Gordon, N.S., C.A. Maida, A. Steinberg, and G. Gordon, 1987, Psychosocial Impact of Disaster: The Baldwin Hills Fire. Quick Response Report No. 8. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Gould, P., 1991, Fire in the Rain: The Democratic Consequences of Chernobyl. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Green, B.L, 1993, Mental Health and Disaster: Research Review. Paper prepared for the National Institute of Mental Health, Violence and Traumatic Stress Research Branch. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.


Green, B.L., M. Korol, M.C. Grace, M.G. Vary, A.C. Leonard, G.C. Gleser, and S. Smitson-Cohen, 1991, "Children and Disaster: Age, Gender, and Parental Effects on PTSD Symptoms." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry30 (6): 945-951.


Hardin, S.B., M. Weinrich, S. Weinrich, T.L. Hardin, and C. Garrison, 1994, "Psychological Distress of Adolescents Exposed to Hurricane Hugo." Journal of Traumatic Stress 7 (3): 427-440.


Jones, R.T., R. Frary, P. Cunningham, and J.D. Weddle, 1993, Psychological Effects of Hurricane Andrew on an Elementary School Population. Quick Response Report No. 62. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Kapoor, R., 1992, "The Psychosocial Consequences of an Environmental Disaster: Selected Case Studies of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy." Population and Environment 13 (3): 209-215.


Krause, N., 1987, "Exploring the Impact of a Natural Disaster on the Health and Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults." Journal of Human Stress13: 61-69.


Leik, R.K., S.A. Leik, K. Ekker, and G.A. Gifford, 1982, Under the Threat of Mount St. Helens, A Study of Chronic Family Stress. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Family Study Center.


Logue, J.N., H. Hansen, and E. Struening, 1981. "Some Indications of the Long-Term Health Effects of a Natural Disaster." Public Health Reports 96 (1): 67-79.


Logue, J.N., H. Hansen, and E. Struening, 1979, "Emotional and Physical Distress Following Hurricane Agnes in Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania." Public Health Reports94 (6): 495-502.


Logue, J.N., M.E. Melick, and H. Hansen, 1981, "Research Issues and Directions in the Epidemiology of Health Effects of Disasters." Epidemiology Review 3: 140-162.


Logue, J.N., M.E. Melick, and E.L. Struening, 1981. "A Study of Health and Mental Health Status Following a Major Natural Disaster." Pp. 217-274 in R.G. Simmons, ed., Research in Community and Mental Health. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.


Lomnitz, C., 1970, "Casualties and Behavior of Populations During Earthquakes." Bulletin of Seismological Society of America 60: 1309-1313.


Lumsden, D., 1975, "Toward a Systems Model of Stress: Feedback from an Anthropological Study of the Impact of Ghana's Volta River Project." In G. Sarason and C. Spielberger, eds., Stress and Anxiety. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere.


Maida, C.A., et al, 1989, "Psychosocial Impact of Disasters: Victims of the Baldwin Hills Fire." Journal of Traumatic Stress 2 (1): 37-48.


Miami Herald, 1992, "Special Report: What Went Wrong." December 20.


Moore, H.E., and H.J. Friedsam, 1959, "Reported Emotional Stress Following a Disaster." Social Forces 38: 135-139.


Noji, E.K., ed., 1997, The Epidemiological Consequences of Disasters. New York: Oxford University Press.


Palinkas, L.A., M.A. Downs, J.S. Petterson, and J. Russel, 1993, "Social, Cultural, and Psychological Impacts of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill." Human Organization 52 (1): 1-13.


Parasuraman, S., 1995, "The Impact of the 1993 Latur-Osmanabad (Maharashtra) Earthquake on Lives, Livelihoods and Property." Disasters 19 (2): 156-169.


Phifer, J.F., 1990. "Psychological Distress and Somatic Symptoms After Natural Disaster: Differential Vulnerability Among Older Adults." Psychology and Aging 5 (3): 412-420.


Phillips, B., and M. Ephraim, 1992, Living in the Aftermath: Blaming Processes in the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Working Paper #80. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Presidential Commission, 1979, The Need for Change: The Legacy of Three Mile Island. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Rogovin, M. et al., 1980, Three Mile Island: A Report to the Commissioners and to the Public. Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Regulatory Commission.


Rose, A., J. Benavides, S. Chang, P. Szczesniak, and D. Lim, 1997, "The Regional Economic Impact of an Earthquake: Direct and Indirect Effects of Electricity Lifeline Disruption." Journal of Regional Science 37 (3): 437-448.


Shannon, M., C.J. Lonigan, A.J. Finch, Jr., and C.M. Taylor, 1994, "Children Exposed to a Disaster: Epidemiology of Post-Traumatic Symptoms and Symptom Profiles." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 33 (1): 80-93.


Shaw, J.A., B. Applegate, S. Tanner, D. Perez, E. Rothe, A. Campo-Bowen, and B.B. Lahey, 1993, Study of Psychological Effects of Hurricane Andrew on an Elementary School Population. Quick Response Report No. 63. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Tierney, K.J., 1988, "The Whittier Narrows Earthquake of October 1, 1987: Social Aspects." Earthquake Spectra4 (1): 11-23.


United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, 1995, "Chernobyl: No Visible End to the Menace." DHA News (16): 2-27.


Yezer, A.M., and C.B. Rubin, 1987, The Local Economic Effects of Natural Disasters. Working Paper #61. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Assessing Losses, Costs, and Impacts

Burby, R.J., B. Cigler, S. French, E. Kaiser, D. Roenigk, D. West, and D. Whittington, 1991, Sharing Environmental Risks: How to Control Governments' Losses in Natural Disasters. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Cochrane, H.C., P. Laub, and J. Barth, 1992, "Banking and Financial Markets." Chapter 4 in Indirect Economic Consequences of a Catastrophic Earthquake. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Cochrane, H.C., M.J. Bowden, and R.W. Kates, 1974, Social Science Perspectives on the Coming San Francisco Earthquake: Economic Impacts, Prediction, and Reconstruction. Working Paper No. 25. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1997, Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation. FEMA 294, Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Foster, H.D., 1976, "Assessing Disaster Magnitude: A Social Science Approach." Professional Geographer 28 (3): 241-7.


Howe, C.W., and H.C. Cochrane, 1993, Guidelines for the Uniform Definition, Identification, and Measurement of Economic Damages from Natural Hazard Events. Special Publication No. 28. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Milliman, J.W., and J. Sanguinetty, eds., 1992, Indirect Economic Consequences of a Catastrophic Earthquake. Study conducted by Development Technologies, Inc. for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


National Institute for Building Sciences, 1997, HAZUS Technical Manual: Earthquake Loss Estimation Methodology. Prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. NIBS #5203. Washington, D.C.: National Institute for Building Sciences.


Tubbesing, S.K., ed., 1994, The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Loss Estimation Procedures. Professional Paper 1553A. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


IV. INTERACTIVE STRUCTURE OF HAZARD


Natural Systems

Agee, M., 1991, "Trends in Cyclone and Anticyclone Frequency and Comparison with Periods of Warming and Cooling over the Northern Hemisphere." Journal of Climate 4: 263-267.


Ahrens, D., 1993, Essentials of Meteorology. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.


Armstrong, B., and K. Williams, 1986, The Avalanche Book. Golden, CO: Fulcrum, Inc.


Balling, R.C., and Lawson, M.P., 1982, "Twentieth Century Changes in Winter Climatic Regions." Climatic Change 4: 57-69.


Barry, Roger G., 1992, Mountain Weather and Climate. New York: Routledge Press.


Beer, T., and A. Williams, 1995, "Estimating Australian Forest Fire Danger Under Conditions of Doubled Carbon Dioxide Concentrations." Climatic Change 29: 3 169-188.


Bolt, B., 1993, Earthquakes. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co.


Broccoli, A.J and S. Manabe, 1990. "Can Existing Climate Models be Used to Study Anthropogenic Changes in Tropical Cyclone Climate?" Geophysical Research Letters 17 (11): 1917-1920.


Chagnon, S.A., and J.M. Chagnon, 1992, "Temporal Fluctuations in Weather Disasters: 1950-1989." Climatic Change 22: 191-208.


Christopherson, R.W., 1997, Geosystems, An Introduction to Physical Geography. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.


Cruden, D., and D. Varnes, 1996, "Landslide Types and Processes." Chapter 3 in Landslides: Investigation and Mitigation. Special Report 247. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, Transportation Research Board.


Eagleman, J., 1990, Severe and Unusual Weather. Lenexa, KA: Trimedia Publishing Company.


Emmanuel, K.A., 1987, "The Dependence of Hurricane Intensity on Climate." Nature 326: 483-484.


Etkin, D.A., 1995, "Beyond the Year 2000, More Tornadoes in Western Canada? Implications from the Historical Record." Natural Hazards 12: 19-27.


Evans, J.L., 1993, "Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Intensity to Sea Surface Temperature." Journal of Climate 6: 1133-1140.


Folland, C.K., T.R. Karl, and K.Y. Vinnikov, 1990, "Observed Climate Variations and Change." In J.T. Houghton et al., eds., Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. London: Cambridge Press.


Gordon, H.B., Whetton, P.H., A.B. Piccock, A.M. Fowler, and M.R. Haylock, 1992, "Simulated Changes in Daily Rainfall Intensity Due to the Enhanced Greenhouse Effect: Implications for Extreme Rainfall Events." Climate Dynamics 8: 83-102.


Griffiths, D.J., J.R. Colquhoun, K.L. Batt, and T.R. Casinadar, 1993, "Severe Thunderstorms in New South Wales: Climatology and Means of Assessing the Impact of Climate Change." Climatic Change 25:3 369-388.


Grimm, M.M., E. Wohl, and R. Jarrett, 1995, "Coarse Sediment Distribution as Evidence of an Elevation Limit for Flash-Flooding, Bear Creek, Colorado." Geomorphology 14 (3): 199-210.


Groisman, P., and Easterling, D.R., 1994, "Variability and Trends of Precipitation and Snowfall over the United States and Canada." Journal of Climate 7: 184-205.


Haarsma, R.J., J.F.B. Mitchell, and C.A. Senior, 1993, "Tropical Disturbances in a GCM." Climate Dynamics 8: 247-257.


Hughes, M.K and P.M. Brown, 1992, "Drought Frequency in Central California since 101 B.C. Recorded in Giant Sequoia Tree Rings." Climate Dynamics 6: 161-167.


Idso, S.B., R.C. Balling, and R.S. Cerveny, 1990, "Carbon Dioxide and Hurricanes: Implications of Northern Hemispheric Warming for Atlantic/Caribbean Storms." Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 42: 259-263.


Jones, P.D. 1994, "Hemispheric Surface Air Temperature Variations: a Reanalysis and Update to 1993." Journal of Climate 7: 1794-1802.


Katz, R.W., and B.G. Brown, 1992, "Extreme Events in a Changing Climate: Variability is More Important than Averages." Climatic Change 21: 289-302.


Khandekar, M.L., and V.R. Swail, 1995, "Storm Waves in Canadian Waters: A Major Marine Hazard." Atmosphere--Ocean 33 (2): 303-328.


Lambert, S.J., 1995, "The Effect of Enhanced Greenhouse Warming on Winter Cyclone Frequencies and Strengths." Journal of Climate 8: 1447-1452.


Lawford, R.G., T.D. Prowse, W.D. Hogg, A.A. Warkentin, and P.J. Pilon, 1995, "Hydrometeorological Aspects of Flood Hazards in Canada." Atmosphere--Ocean 33 (2): 303-328.


Lighthill, J., G. Holland, W. Gray, C. Landsea, G. Craig, J. Evans, Y. Kurihara, and C. Guard, 1994, "Global Climate Change and Tropical Cyclones." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 75 (11): 2147-2157.


Lorenz, E.N. 1984, "Irregularity: a Fundamental Property of the Atmosphere." Tellus 36A: 98-110.


Lutgens, F.K., and E.J. Tarbuck, 1995, The Atmosphere(6th edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Simon & Schuster Co.


Maunder, W.J., 1992. The Uncertainty Business: Risks and Opportunities in Weather and Climate. London: Methuen.


Maunder, W.J., 1992, Dictionary of Global Climate Change. London: UCL Press.


Maybank, J., B. Bonsal, K. Jones, R. Lawford, E.G. O'Brian, E.A. Ripley, and E. Wheaton, 1995, "Drought as a Natural Disaster." Atmosphere--Ocean 33 (2): 195-222.


McBean, G.A., 1995, "Status of the "'Global Warming' Hypothesis." Paper presented at the 12th Congress of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.


McCall, G.J.H., D.J.C. Laming and S.C. Scott, eds., 1992, Geohazards: Natural and Man-Made. London: Chapman & Hall.


Mearns, L.O., F. Giorgi, L. McDaniel, and C. Shields, 1995, "Analysis of Variability and Diurnal Range of Daily Temperature in a Nested Regional Climate Model: Comparison with Observations and Doubled CO2 Results." Climate Dynamics11:3 193-209.


Mearns, L.O., R.W. Katz, and S.H. Schneider, 1984, "Extreme High-Temperature Events: Changes in their Probabilities with Changes in Mean Temperature." Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 23: 1601-1613.


Metz, B., 1994, "Why and How to Control Non-CO2 Gases?" In J. Van Ham et al., eds., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Oladipo, E.O., 1993, "Drought in Northern Nigeria: An Indication of Abrupt Climatic Change." Weather and Climate 13: 34-39.


Postell, S., 1994, "Carrying Capacity: Earth's Bottom Line." In L.R. Brown et al., State of the World 1994. Washington, D.C. and New York: Worldwatch Institute and W.W. Norton.


Price, C., and Rind, D., 1993, "Lightning Fires in a 2xCO2 World." Paper presented at the 12th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, October 26-28, Jekyll Island, Georgia.


Ryan, B.F., I.G. Watterson, and J.L. Evans, 1992, "Tropical Cyclone Frequencies Inferred from Gary's Yearly Genesis Parameter: Validation of GCM Tropical Climates." Geophysical Research Letters 19 (18): 1831-1834.


Schnaiberg, A. 1980. The Environment, From Surplus to Scarcity. New York: Oxford University Press.


Street, R.B., 1989, "Climate Change and Forest Fires in Ontario." Paper presented at the 10th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Ottawa, Ontario.


Trenberth, K.E., and C.J. Guillemot, 1996, "Physical Processes Involved in the 1988 Drought and 1993 Floods in North America." Journal of Climate 9: 1288-1298.


Wallace, R.E., J.F. Davis, and K.C. McNally, 1984, "Terms for Expressing Earthquake Potential, Prediction and Probability." Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 4 (5): 1819-1825.


Whetton, P.H.J., A.M. Fowler, M.R. Haylock, and A.B. Pittock, 1993, "Implications of Climate Change due to the Enhanced Greenhouse Effect on Floods and Droughts in Australia." Climatic Change25: 289-317.


Wigley, T.M.L., 1988, "The Effect of Changing Climate on the Frequency of Absolute Extreme Events." Climate Monitor 17: 44-55.


Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1995, "Seismic Hazards in Southern California: Probable Earthquakes, 1994-2024." Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 2 (85): 379-439.


Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1990. Probabilities of Large Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Region, California. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1053. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


World Resources Institute, 1992, World Resources 1992-93. N.Y.: Oxford University Press.


Human Systems

Adeola, F.O., 1994, "Environmental Hazards, Health, and Racial Inequity in Hazardous Waste Distribution." Environment and Behavior 26 (1): 99-26.


Austin, R., and M. Schill, 1994, "Black, Brown, Red, and Poisoned." Pp. 53-74 in Unequal Protection. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books.


Baird, A., P. O'Keefe, K. Westgate, and B. Wisner, 1975, Towards an Explanation and Reduction of Disaster Proneness. Disaster Research Unit Occasional Paper 1. London: Bradford University.


Bealer, R.C., F.K. Willits, and W.P. Kuvlesky, 1965, "The Meaning of 'Rurality' in American Society: Some Implications of Alternative Definitions. Rural Sociology 30 (3): 255-266.


Bedics, B., 1987, "The History and Context of Rural Poverty." Human Services in the Rural Environment. 10 (4), 11 (1): 12-14.


Butler, M.A., and C.L. Beale, 1993, Rural-urban Continuum Codes for Metro and Nonmetro Counties. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.


Campbell, P.R., 1994, Population Projections for States, by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1993-2020. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


Colquette, K.M., and E.A.H. Robertson, 1991, "Environmental Racism: The Causes, Consequences, and Commendations." Tulane Environmental Law Journal (5): 153-207.


Cook, P.J., and K.L. Mizer, 1994, The Revised ERS County Topology: an Overview. Rural Development Research Report 89. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture.


Cutter, S.L., 1995, "The Forgotten Casualties: Women, Children, and Environmental Change." Global Environmental Change 5 (3): 181-194.


Durkheim, E. 1893, 1933, Division of Labor in Society (translated by G. Simpson). Glencoe, IL: Free Press.


Fitchen, J., 1987, "When Rural Communities Collapse: Implications for Rural America." Human Services in the Rural Environment 10 (4), 11 (1): 48-57.


Fothergill, A., 1996, "Gender, Risk, and Disaster." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 14 (1): 33-56.


Ginsberg, L., 1993, "An Overview of Rural Social Work." Pp. 2-17 in L.H. Ginsberg, ed., Social Work in Rural Communities. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.


Haque, C.E., and D. Blair, 1992, "Vulnerability to Tropical Cyclones: Evidence from the April 1991 Cyclone in Coastal Bangladesh." Disasters 16 (3): 217-29.


Hawley, A.H., and S.M. Mazie, 1981, "An Overview." In A.H. Hawley and S.M. Mazie, eds., Nonmetropolitan America in Transition. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.


Hays, W.W., 1981, Facing Geologic and Hydrologic Hazards: Earth-Science Considerations. USGS Professional Paper 1340-B. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Hochschild, A., 1989, The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home. New York: Viking.


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1995, Second Assessment Report. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Jacobsen, G.M., and B. Sanderson, 1987, "Social and Economic Change in Rural Iowa: the Development of Rural Ghettos." Human Services in the Rural Environment 10 (4), 11 (1): 58-65.


Johansen, H.E., and G.U. Fuguitt, 1984, The Changing Village in America: Demographic and Economic Trends since 1950. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.


Kornblum, W., 1994, Sociology in a Changing World. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.


McNeil, J.M., 1993, Americans with Disabilities: 1991-92. U.S. Bureau of the Census Current Population Report P70-33. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


Mileti, D.S., T.E. Drabek, and J.E. Haas, 1975, Human Systems in Extreme Environments: A Sociological Perspective. Monograph #21. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Miller, J. Baker, 1995, "Domination and Subordination." Pp. 57-64 in P.S. Rothenberg, ed., Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. New York: St. Martin's Press.


Monmonier, M., 1995, Drawing the Line: Tales of Maps and Cartocontroversy. New York: Henry Holt and Company.


Nagi, S.Z., 1976, "An Epidemiology of Disability Among Adults in the United States." Millbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 54: 439-467.


National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, 1993, Disability Statistics, Vol. XIV, No. 8. ISSN: 0732-2623. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.


Nielsen, J.M., 1990. Sex and Gender in Society: Perspectives on Stratification. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.


Omi, M., and H. Winant, 1995, "Racial Formations." Pp. 13-22 in P.S. Rothenberg, ed., Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. New York: St. Martin's Press.


Payer, C., 1975, The Debt Trap. London: Penguin.


Peacock, W.G., 1991 "In Search of Social Structure." Sociological Inquiry 6 (3): 281-298.


Pearce, D., 1979, "Women, Work, and Welfare: The Feminization of Poverty." Pp. 103-124 in W.W. Feinstein, ed., Working Women and Families. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.


Rahnema, M., 1997, "Development and the People's Immune System." Pp. 111-131 in M. Rahnema and V. Bawtree, eds., The Post-Development Reader. London: Zed Press.


Scotch, R.L., 1990, "The Politics of Disability Statistics." Disability Studies Quarterly 10 (3).


Takahashi, S., 1998, "Social Geography and Disaster Vulnerability in Tokyo." Applied Geography 18 (1): 17-24.


Timmerman, P., 1981, Vulnerability, Resilience and the Collapse of Society. Environmental Monograph No. 1. Toronto: University of Toronto, Institute of Environmental Sciences.


Toennies, F., 1887, 1957, Community and Society (Gemeinschaft und gesellschaft)(translated and edited by C.P. Loomis). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.


Tucker, R.C. 1978, The Marx-Engels Reader (2nd edition). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.


U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1996, Census Bureau Predicts 65+ Population to Double in Eight States by 2020. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1996, Population Projections of the United States by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1995-2050. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1995, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1995. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1994, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1994. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1992, Current Population Reports. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1992, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1991-1992. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1992, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1992. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.


U.S. Bureau of Statistics, 1980, Census Data 1980. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accounting Office.


U.S. Bureau of Statistics, 1970, Census Data 1970. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accounting Office.


U.S. Bureau of Statistics, 1960, Census Data 1960. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accounting Office.


U.S. Bureau of Statistics, 1950, Census Data 1950. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accounting Office.


U.S. Census Bureau of Statistics, 1995, Census Data 1994 on CD-ROM. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Warren, R.L., 1978, The Community in America (3rd edition). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.


Westgate, K., and P. O'Keefe, 1976, "The Human and Social Implications of Earthquake Risk for Developing Countries." Journal of Administration Overseas 4.


White, G.F., M.S. Bronzini, E.W. Colglazier, B. Dohrenwend, K. Erikson, R. Hansen, A.V. Kneese, R. Moore, E.B. Page, and R.A. Rappaport, 1994, "Socioeconomic Studies of High-level Nuclear Waste Disposal." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences91: 10786-10789.


Wisner, B., 1998, "Marginality and Vulnerability: Why the Homeless in Tokyo Don't 'Count' in Earthquake Preparations." Applied Geography 18 (1): 25-33.


Wisner, B., 1993, "Disaster Vulnerability: Scale, Power and Daily Life." GeoJournal30 (2): 127-40.


The Built Environment

Alexander, D.E., 1991, "Applied Geomorphology and the Impact of Natural Hazards on the Built Environment." Natural Hazards 4 (1): 57-80.


Burby, R.J., and L.C. Dalton, 1994, "Plans Can Matter! The Role of Land Use Plans and State Planning Mandates in Limiting the Development of Hazardous Areas." Public Administration Review 54 (May/June): 229-238.


Burby, R.J., and S.P. French, 1981, "Coping with Floods: The Land Use Management Paradox." Journal of the American Planning Association 47 (3): 289-300.


Comerio, M.C., J.D. Landis, and Y. Rofe, 1994, Post-Disaster Residential Rebuilding. Working Paper 608. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Institute of Urban and Regional Development.


Getter, L., 1992, "Building Code Erosion Over Years: Watered-down Rules Meant Weaker Homes." The Miami Herald, October 11.


** Housner, G.W., L.A. Bergman, T.K. Caughey, A.G. Chassiakos, R.O. Claus, S.F. Masri, R.E. Skeleton,T.T. Soong, B.F. Spencer, J.T.P. Yao, 1997, "Structural Control: Past, Present and Future." Journal of Engineering Mechanics 123 (9): 897-971.


Insurance Institute for Property Loss Reduction, 1995, Opinions of Building Code Officials on Administrating and Enforcing Building Codes. Boston, MA: Insurance Institute for Property Loss Reduction.


May, P.M., and N. Stark, 1992, "Design Professions and Earthquake Policy." Earthquake Spectra 8 (February): 115-132.


Interactions of Systems

Aptekar, L., 1990. "A Comparison of the Bicoastal Disasters of 1989." Behavior Science Research 24 (1-4): 73-104.


Bogard, W.C., 1989, The Bhopal Tragedy: Language, Logic, and Politics in the Production of Hazard. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Bullard, R.D, 1990. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Churchill, W., 1993, Struggle for the Land. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.


Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 1992, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Crosby, B., 1993, "War in Our Forests." Sunset (July): 63-69.


** Diaz, H.F., and R.S. Pulwarty, eds., 1997, Hurricanes: Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Erickson, K., 1994, New Species of Trouble: Explorations in Disaster, Trauma, and Community. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.


Gray, L., 1993, "The Effect of Drought and Economic Decline on Rural Women in Western Sudan." Geoforum 24 (1): 89-98.


Grow, C., and R. Palm, 1980, Population and Housing in the Special Study Zones. Special Publication No. 1. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


** Gupta, H.K., 1992, "Reservoir-Induced Earthquakes." Developments in Geotechnical Engineering 64. Amsterdam: Elsevier.


Logan, J.R., and H.L. Molotch, 1987, Urban Fortunes: The Political Economy of Place. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Maskrey, A., ed., 1993, Los Desastres No Son Naturales. Bogata/Lima: Tercer Mundo Editores/La Red.


Medvedev, G., 1990, The Truth about Chernobyl. New York: Basic Books.


Meillasoux, C., 1973, Qui se nourrit de la famine en Afrique? Paris: Maspero.


Palm, R., and J. Corbridge, 1982, "The Unintended Impacts of Anti-Redlining Legislation." Journal of Environmental Systems 12 (4): 341-350.


Pelanda, C., 1989, Cognitive Neo-systemics: Theory of Artificial Observers. Athens, GA: INTERLAB, University of Georgia.


Perry, R.W., and M.K. Lindell, 1986, Twentieth Century Volcanicity at Mt. St. Helens: The Routinization of Life Near an Active Volcano. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.


Redclift, M., and T. Benton, eds., 1994, Social Theory and the Global Environment. New York: Routledge.


Riebsame, W., T. Moses, and M. Price, 1986, "The Social Burden of Weather and Climate Hazards." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 67 (11): 1378-1388.


Risk Management Solutions, Inc., 1995, What if the 1923 Earthquake Strikes Again? A Five-Prefecture Tokyo Region Scenario. Menlo Park, CA: Risk Management Solutions, Inc.


Rodrigue, C.M, 1993, "Home With a View: Chapparral Fire Hazard and the Social Geographies of Risk and Vulnerability." The California Geographer XXXIII. Also available online: http://www.jps.net/rodrigue/fire.html


Schroeder, R.A., 1987, Gender Vulnerability to Drought: A Case Study of the Hausa Social Environment. Working Paper No. 58. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Schuster, R.L., and R.J. Krizek, eds., 1978, Landslides: Analysis and Control. Special Report 176 of the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Smith, D.I., 1993, "Greenhouse Climatic Change and Flood Damages, The Implications." Climatic Change25: 319-333.


Stallings, R.A., 1995, Promoting Risk: Constructing the Earthquake Threat. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.


Tierney, K.L., W.J. Petak, and H. Hahn, 1988, Disabled Persons and Earthquake Hazards. Monograph No. 46. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Turner, A.K., and R.L. Schuster, eds., 1996, Landslides: Investigation and Mitigation. Special Report 247 of the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Turner, B.L. II, W.C. Clark, R.W. Kates, J.F. Richards, J.T. Mathews, and W.B. Meyer, eds., 1990, The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years. New York: Cambridge University Press.


U.S. Government Hearings. Housing Needs in Earthquake Disaster Areas, 1990. No. 101-115. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


U.S. House of Representatives, 1980. Federal Efforts to Aid Low-Income and Elderly Individuals affected by Life-threatening Heat Conditions. Washington D.C., U.S. House of Representatives, 96th Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office.


United Nations, 1992, Framework Convention on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Environment Programme/World Meteorological Organization Information Unit on Climate.


Wisner, B., 1979, "Flood Prevention and Mitigation in the People's Republic of Mozambique." Disasters 2.


Wisner, B., 1977, "Global Systems and Local Disasters." Disasters 1 (1): 47-57.


Zimmerman, R., 1993, "Social Equity and Environmental Risk." Journal of Risk Analysis 13 (6): 649-666.


Megacities

Fernandez, M., ed., 1996, Ciudades en Riesgo. Lima: La Red.


International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Secretariat, 1996, Cities At Risk: Making Cities Safer...Before Disaster Strikes. Geneva: International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Secretariat.


Parker, D., 1995, "Disaster Vulnerability of Megacities: An Expanding Problem that Requires Rethinking and Innovative Responses." GeoJournal 37 (3): 295-301.


Steedman, S., 1995, "Megacities: The Unacceptable Risk of Natural Disaster." Built Environment 21 (2/3): 89-83.


Uitto, J., 1998, "The Geography of Disaster Vulnerability in Megacities: A Theoretical Framework." Applied Geography 18 (1): 7-16.


V. ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MITIGATION


Socioeconomic, Cultural, Institutional, Legal, and Other Influences on Adoption and Implementation

Ajzen, I., 1987, "Attitudes, Traits, and Actions: Dispositional Prediction of Behavior in Personality and Social Psychology." In L. Berkowitz, ed., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press.


Anesaki, M., 1930, History of Japanese Religion: With Special Reference to the Social and Moral Life of the Nation. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co.


Asch, S., 1951, "Effects of Group Pressure Upon the Modification and Distortion of Judgements." Pp. 177-190 in H. Guetzkow, ed., Groups, Leadership and Men. Pittsburgh PA: Carnegie Press.


Barrick, M.R., and M.K. Mount, 1991, "The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis." Personnel Psychology 44: 1-26.


Baum, A., and I. Fleming, 1993, "Implications of Psychological Research on Stress and Technological Accidents." American Psychologist 48: 665-672.


Berke, P., T. Beatley, and S. Wilhite, 1989, "Influences on Local Adoption of Planning Measures for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 7: 33-56.


Bernstein, G.K., 1993, "Insurance Issues in Hazard Mitigation." Pp. 27-38 in Federal Emergency Management Agency. Improving Earthquake Mitigation: A Report to Congress on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Blanck, P.D., 1995, Disaster Mitigation for Persons with Disabilities: Fostering a New Dialogue. Washington, D.C.: Northwestern University, Annenberg Washington Program in Communications Policy Studies.


Blass, T., 1984, "Social Psychology and Personality: Toward a Convergence." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47: 1013-1027.


Bord, R.J., and R.E. O'Connor, 1990. "Risk Communication, Knowledge, and Attitudes: Explaining Reactions to a Technology Perceived." Risk Analysis 10 (4): 499-506.


Brown, P., and F.I.T. Ferguson, 1995, "'Making a Big Stink': Women's Work, Women's Relationships, and Toxic Waste Activism." Gender and Society 9 (2): 145-171.


Brun, W., 1992, "Cognitive Components in Risk Perception: Natural Versus Man-made Risks." Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 5: 117-132.


Cacioppo, J.T., R.E. Petty, C.F. Kao, and R. Rodriguez, 1986, "Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion: an Individual Difference Perspective." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51: 1032-1043.


Canon, L.K., 1964, "Self-Confidence and Selective Exposure to Information." Pp. 83-96 in L. Festinger, ed., Conflict, Decision and Dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.


Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering, 1994, Earthquake Risk Reduction in the United States: An Assessment of Selected User Needs and Recommendations for the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. A Report for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Oak Ridge, TN: Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering.


Chapman, L.J., and J.P. Chapman, 1969, "Illusory Correlation as an Obstacle to the Use of Valid Psychodiagnostic Signs." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 74: 271-280.


Cook, T.D., and D.T. Campbell, 1979, Quasi Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.


Cook, T.D., D.T. Campbell, and L. Peracchio, 1991, "Quasi Experimentation." Pp. 491-576 in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough, eds., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2nd edition). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.


Crocker, J., S.T. Fiske, and S.E. Taylor, 1984, "Schematic Bases of Belief Change." Pp. 197-226 in J.R. Eiser, ed., Attitudinal Judgment. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Cullen, J.M., 1980. "The Role of Mental Attitudes in Personal Hazard Awareness and Response to Earthquake Predictions." Pp. 289-306 in W.W. Hays, ed., Proceedings of Conference XII, Earthquake Prediction Information. Open File Report 80-843. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey.


Cutter, S.L., J. Tiefenbacher, and W.D. Solecki, 1992, "En-Gendered Fears: Femininity and Technological Risk Perception." Industrial Crisis Quarterly 6: 5-22.


Dacy, D.C., and H. Kunreuther, 1969, The Economics of Natural Disaster. New York: The Free Press.


Dawes, R.M., 1980. "Social Dilemmas." Annual Review of Psychology31: 169-193.


deMan, A., and P. Simpson-Housley, 1988, "Correlates of Responses to Two Potential Hazards." Journal of Social Psychology 128: 385-391.


deMan, A., and P. Simpson-Housley, 1987, "Factors in Perception of Earthquake Hazard." Perceptual and Motor Skills 64: 815-820.


deMan, A., and P. Simpson-Housley, 1987, "Factors in Perception of Tornado Hazard: An Exploratory Study." Social Behavior and Personality 15 (1): 13-19.


** Diaz, H.F., and R.S. Pulwarty, eds., 1997, Hurricanes: Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Dooley, D., R. Catalano, S. Mishra, and S. Serxner, 1992, "Earthquake Preparedness: Predictors in a Community Survey." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 22: 451-470.


Douglas, M., and A. Wildavsky, 1983, Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.


Duval, T.S., J-P. Mulilis, and N. Lalwani, 1995, Impact of the Magnitude 4.5 Aftershock of December 5, 1994, on San Fernando Residents' Levels of Earthquake Preparedness and Selected Psychosocial Variables. Quick Response Report No. 75. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Edwards, M.L., 1993, "Social Location and Self-Protective Behavior: Implications for Earthquake Preparedness." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 11: 293-304.


Fazio, R.H., 1985, "How do Attitudes Guide Behavior?" Pp. 204-243 in R.M. Sorrentino and E. Tory Higgins, eds., The Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior. New York: Guilford.


Fishbein, M., and I. Ajzen, 1975, Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.


Fishbein, M., and I. Ajzen, 1972, "Attitudes and Opinions." Annual Review of Psychology 23 (3): 487-544.


Flynn, J., P. Slovic and C.K. Mertz, 1994, "Gender, Race, and Perception of Environmental Health Risks." Risk Analysis 14 (6): 1101-1108.


French, J.R.P., and B.H. Raven, 1959, "The Bases of Social Power." Pp. 150-167 in D. Cartwright, ed., Studies in Social Power. Ann Arbor MI: Institute for Social Research.


Haider, R., A.A. Rahman, and S. Huq, eds., 1991, Cyclone '91: An Environmental and Perceptional Study. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies.


Hansson, R.O., D. Noulles, and S.J. Bellovich, 1982, "Knowledge, Warning, and Stress: A Study of Comparative Roles in an Urban Floodplain." Environment and Behavior 14: 171-185.


Hansson, R.O., D. Noulles, and S.J. Bellovich, 1982, "Social Comparison and Urban-environmental Stress." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 8: 68-73.


Hastie, R., and Carlston, D., 1980, "Theoretical Issues in Person Memory." Pp. 1-53 in R. Hastie, T.M. Ostrom, E.B. Ebbeson, R.S. Wyer, D.L. Hamilton, and D.E. Carlson, eds., Person Memory: The Cognitive Basis of Social Perception. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Haugtvedt, C., and R.E. Petty, 1992, "Personality and Persuasion: Need for Cognition Moderates the Persistence and Resistance of Attitude Changes." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63: 308-319.


Hewitt, K., 1994, "The Social Space of Terror: Towards a Civil Interpretation of Total War." Pp. 360-389 in S. Cutter, ed., Environmental Risks and Hazards. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Howe, H.L., 1990. "Public Concern About Chemicals in the Environment: Regional Differences Based on Threat Potential." Public Health Reports105 (2): 186-195.


Jarrell, J.D., P.J. Hebert, and M. Mayfield, 1992, Hurricane Experience Levels of Coastal County Populations from Texas to Maine. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-46. Silver Spring, MD: U.S. Department of Commerce.


Kaniasty, K.Z., and F.H. Norris, 1993, "A Test of the Social Support Deterioration Model in the Context of Natural Disaster." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64: 395-408.


Kiecolt, K.J., and J.M. Nigg, 1982, "Mobility and Perceptions of a Hazardous Environment." Environment and Behavior 14: 131-154.


Kone, D., and E. Mullet, 1994, "Societal Risk Perception and Media Coverage." Risk Analysis14 (1): 21-24.


Kreps, G.A., 1989, Social Structure and Disaster. Newark DE: University of Delaware Press.


Kunreuther, H., N. Ericksen, and J. Handmer, 1993, Reducing Losses from Natural Disasters Through Insurance and Mitigation: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. Publication 93-10-01. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Risk Management and Decision Processes Center.


Larrain, P., and P. Simpson-Housley, 1990. "Geophysical Variables and Behavior: Lx. Lonquimay and Alhue, Chile: Tension from Volcanic and Earthquake Hazard." Perceptual and Motor Skills 70: 296-298.


Lazarus, R.S., 1991, Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.


Lazarus, R.S., 1966, Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Lindell, M.K., 1994, "Perceived Characteristics of Environmental Hazards." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 12: 303-326.


Lindell, M.K., and V.E. Barnes, 1986, "Protective Response to Technological Emergency: Risk Perception and Behavioral Intention." Nuclear Safety 27: 457-467.


Lindell, M.K., and R.W. Perry, 1992, Behavioral Foundations of Community Emergency Planning. Washington D.C.: Hemisphere Press.


Lindell, M.K., and R.W. Perry, 1990, "Effects of the Chernobyl Accident on Public Perceptions of Nuclear Plant Accident Risks." Risk Analysis 10: 393-399.


Lindell, M., R.W. Perry, and M.R. Greene, 1980, Race and Disaster Warning Response. Columbus, OH: Battelle Human Research Centers.


Maddux, J.E., and R.W. Rogers, 1983, "Protection Motivation and Self-Efficacy: A Revised Theory of Fear Appeals and Attitude Change." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 19: 469-479.


Mahoney, J., and C. Pechora, 1980. "Values and Volunteers: Axiology of Altruism in a Crisis Center." Psychological Reports 47: 1007-1012.


Markus, H.R., and S. Kitayama, 1991, "Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation." Psychological Review 98: 224-253.


Maryland Emergency Management Agency, 1996, Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers in Maryland Handbook. Annapolis, MD: Maryland Emergency Management Agency.


May, P.J., 1989, "Designing Risk Reduction Strategies: Federal Earthquake Policies." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Seattle, Washington.


McDaniels, T., L.J. Axelrod, and P. Slovic, 1995, "Characterizing Perceptions of Ecological Risk." Risk Analysis 15: 575-588.


McGuire, W.J., 1985, "Attitudes and Attitude Change." Pp. 233-346 in G. Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, eds., The Handbook of Social Psychology, 3rd edition. New York: Random House.


McGuire, W.J., 1969, "The Nature of Attitudes and Attitude Change." Pp. 233-346 in G. Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, eds., The Handbook of Social Psychology, 2nd edition. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.


Mejer, J.H. 1994, "Hazard Perception and Community Change: Cultural Factors in Puna, Hawaii." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 12 (2): 199-213.


Midden, C.J.H., and B. Verplanken, 1990. "The Stability of Nuclear Attitudes after Chernobyl." Journal of Environmental Psychology10: 111-119.


Mileti, D.S., 1980, "Human Adjustment to the Risk of Environmental Extremes." Sociology and Social Research 64: 327-347.


Mileti, D.S., and J.H. Sorensen, 1987, "Natural Hazards and Precautionary Behavior." In N. Weinstein, ed., Taking Care: Understanding and Encouraging Self-Protective Behavior. London: Cambridge University Press.


Moline, N.T., 1974, "Perception Research and Local Planning: Floods on the Rock River, Illinois." Pp. 52-59 in G.F. White, ed., Natural Hazards: Local, National and Global. New York: Oxford University Press.


Morrow, B.H., and E. Enarson, 1996, "Hurricane Andrew Through Women's Eyes: Issues and Recommendations." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 14 (1): 5-22.


Mulilis, J-P., 1991, "Negative Threat Appeals, Behavioral Change, and Coping with Earthquakes: a Person/event Approach Emphasizing the Relativity of Resources to Threat." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.


Mulilis, J-P., and K. Bovalino 1997, "Residence and Gender Issues in Tornado Preparedness Behavior." Paper presented at the 105th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, Illinois.


Mulilis, J-P., and J. Dewhirst 1997, "Masculine and Feminine Dimensions of Earthquake Preparedness." Paper presented at the 22nd Annual Hazards Research and Applications Workshop, Denver, Colorado.


Mulilis, J-P., and J. Dewhirst 1996, "Preparing for Tornados: Gender Issues." Paper presented at the 21st Annual Hazards Research and Applications Workshop, Denver, Colorado.


Mulilis, J-P., and T.S. Duval 1997, "The PrE Model of Coping and Tornado Preparedness: Moderating Effects of Responsibility." Journal of Applied Social Psychology27: 1750-1766.


Mulilis, J-P., and T.S. Duval, 1990, "The Effects of a Moderate, Local Earthquake on Earthquake Preparedness." Paper presented at the Fourth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Palm Springs, California.


Mulilis, J-P., and R.A. Lippa, 1990, "Behavioral Change in Earthquake Preparedness due to Negative Threat Appeals: A Test of Protection Motivation Theory." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 20: 619-638.


Mulilis, J-P., M. Boyde and J. Dewhirst 1996, "Gender Issues in Earthquake Preparedness Behavior." Paper presented at the 104th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.


Mulilis, J-P., T.S. Duval and R.A. Lippa, 1990, "The Effects of a Large, Destructive Local Earthquake on Earthquake Preparedness as Assessed by an Earthquake Preparedness Scale." Natural Hazards 3: 357-371.


Myers, D., 1993, Social Psychology, 4th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Nigg, J.M., 1993, "Social Response to Global Climate Change: Prospects for Natural Hazard Reduction." Pp. 289-294 in Rafael Bras, ed., Natural Hazards and Climate Change. New York: American Institute of Physics.


Palm, R., 1983, Home Mortgage Lenders, Real Property Appraisers and Earthquake Hazards. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Palm, R., 1981, Real Estate Agents and Special Studies Zones Disclosure: the Response of California Home Buyers to Earthquake Hazards Information. Boulder: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Palm, R., and M. Hodgson, 1992, After a California Earthquake: Attitude and Behavior Change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Palm, R., M. Hodgson, R.D. Blanchard, and D. Lyons, 1990, Earthquake Insurance in California. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Pearce, J., 1983, "Job Attitude and Motivation Differences Between Volunteers and Employees from Comparable Organizations." Journal of Applied Psychology 68: 646-652.


Perry, R.W., 1987, "A Review of Research on Minority Citizens in Disasters." Pp. 135-152 in R.R. Dynes, B. De Marchi, and C. Pelanda, eds., Sociology of Disasters: Contributions of Sociology to Disaster Research. Milano, Italy: Franco Angeli.


Perry, R.W., and M.K. Lindell, 1990, "Predicting Long Term Adjustment to Volcano Hazard." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 8: 117-136.


Petty, R.E., and J.T. Cacioppo, 1986, Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Pomerantz, E.M., S. Chaiken, and R.S. Tordesillas, 1995, "Attitude Strength and Resistance Processes." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69: 408-419.


Raven, B.H., 1993, "The Bases of Power: Origins and Recent Developments." Journal of Social Issues 49: 227-251.


Raven, B.H., 1965, "Social Influence and Power." Pp. 371-382 in I.D. Steiner and M. Fishbein, eds., Current Studies In Social Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


Robinson, S.S., Y.H. Franco, R.M. Castrejon, and H.R. Bernard, 1986, "It Shook Again." Pp. 81-122 in Natural Disasters and Cultural Responses. Studies in Third World Societies No. 36. Williamsburg, VA: College of William and Mary, Anthropology Department.


Rogers, R.W., 1983, "Cognitive and Physiological Processes in Fear Appeals and Attitude Change: A Revised Theory of Protection Motivation." In J. Cacioppo and R. Petty, eds., Social Psychophysiology. New York: Guilford Press.


Rogers, R.W. 1975, "A Protection Motivation Theory of Fear Appeals and Attitude Change." Journal of Psychology 91: 93-114.


Rogers, R.W., and C.R. Mewborn, 1976, "Fear Appeals and Attitude Change: Effect of a Threat's Noxiousness, Probability of Occurrence, and the Efficacy of Coping Response." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology34: 54-61.


Rohrmann, B., 1994, "Risk Perception of Different Societal Groups: Australian Findings and Cross-National Comparisons." Australian Journal of Psychology46: 150-163.


Rubonis, A.V., and L. Bickman, 1991, "A Test of the Consensus and Distinctiveness Attribution Principles in Victims of Disasters." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 21: 791-809.


Rubonis, A.V., and L. Bickman, 1991, "Psychological Impairment in the Wake of Disaster: the Disaster-psychopathology Relationship." Psychological Bulletin 109: 384-399.


Scanlon, J., 1997, "Gender and Disasters: A Second Look." Natural Hazards Observer 21: 1-2.


Shweder, R.A., 1991, Cultural Psychology: Thinking Through Cultures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Slovic, P., 1991, "Perception of Risk: Reflections on the Psychometric Paradigm." Pp. 117-152 in D. Golding and S. Krimsky, eds., Theories of Risk. London: Praeger.


Slovic, P., 1987, "Perception of Risk." Science 236: 280-285.


Sorensen, J.H., and G.F. White, 1987, "Natural Hazards: A Cross-Cultural Perspective." Pp. 279-318 in I. Altman, A. Rapaport, and J. Wohlwill, eds., Human Behavior and the Environment. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Sparks, P., and R. Shepherd, 1994, "Public Perceptions of the Potential Hazards Associated with Food Production and Food Consumption: An Empirical Study." Risk Analysis 14: 799-806.


Stacey, J., and B. Thorne, 1985, "The Missing Feminist Revolution in Sociology." Social Problems32: 301-316.


Stallings, R.A. 1986, "Reaching the Ethnic Minorities: Earthquake Public Education in the Aftermath of Foreign Disasters." Earthquake Spectra 2 (4): 695-702.


Stiglitz, J.E., 1993, Economics. New York: W.W. Norton.


Szalay, L.B., A. Inn, S.K. Vilov, and J.B. Strohl, 1986, Regional and Demographic Variations in Public Perceptions Related to Emergency Preparedness. Report to the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Bethesda, Maryland: Institute of Comparative Social and Cultural Studies, Inc.


Teigen, K.H., W. Brun and P. Slovic, 1988, "Societal Risks as Seen by a Norwegian Public." Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 1: 111-130.


Turner, J.C., 1991, Social Influence. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.


U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 1993, Federal Regulation of State and Local Governments: The Mixed Record of the 1980s. Washington, D.C.: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations.


U.S. Congress, General Accounting Office, 1995, EPA and the States: Environmental Challenges Require a Better Working Relationship. Report RCED-D95-D64. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office.


U.S. Congress, General Accounting Office, 1990, Federal-State-Local Relations: Trends of the Past Decade and Emerging Issues. Report HRD-D90-D34. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office.


Vitek, J.D., and S.M. Berta, 1982, "Improving Perception of and Response to Natural Hazards: the Need for Local Education." Journal of Geography (November-December): 225-228.


Ward, D.B., 1987, "Management of Earthquake Safety Programs by State and Local Governments." Pp. 32-39 in D.G. Barbee, ed., Earthquake Training and Education: A Collection of Issue Papers. FEMA 124. Emmitsburg, MD: National Emergency Training Center.


Webler, T., H. Rakel, O. Renn, and B. Johnson, 1995, Eliciting and Classifying Concerns: A Methodological Critique. Risk Analysis 15: 421-436.


Weinstein, N.D., 1989, "Effects of Personal Experience on Self-Protective Behavior." Psychological Bulletin 105: 31-50.


Wicker, A.W., 1969, "Attitudes Versus Actions: The Relationship of Verbal and Overt Behavioral Responses to Attitude Objects." Journal of Social Issues 25: 41-78.


Wildavsky, A., and K. Dake, 1990, "Theories of Risk Perception: Who Fears What and Why?" Daedalus119 (4): 41-60.


Zhang, J., 1994, "Environmental Hazards in the Chinese Public's Eyes." Risk Analysis 14: 163-167.


Zimmerman, M.A., and J. Rappaport, 1988, "Citizen Participation, Perceived Control, and Psychological Empowerment." American Journal of Community Psychology16: 725-750.


Individual and Collective Decisionmaking Processes

Abelson, R.P., and A. Levi, 1985, "Decisionmaking and Decision Theory." Pp. 231-309 in G. Lindzey and E. Aronson, eds., The Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: Random House.


Ajzen, I., 1991, "The Theory of Planned Behavior." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50: 179-211.


Ajzen, I., and M. Fishbein, 1980, Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Ajzen, I., and M. Fishbein, 1977, "Attitude-Behavior Relations: A Theoretical Analysis and Review of Empirical Research." Psychological Bulletin84: 888-918.


Ajzen, I., and T.J. Madden, 1986, "Prediction of Goal-Directed Behavior: Attitudes, Intentions, and Perceived Behavioral Control." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 22: 453-474.


Arkes, H.R., and K.R. Hammond, eds., Judgment and Decision Making.New York: Cambridge University Press.


Baron, R.S., N.L. Kerr and N. Miller, 1992, Group Process, Group Decision, Group Action. Pacific Grove CA: Brooks/Cole.


Beach, L.R., and T.R. Mitchell, 1987, "Image Theory: Principles, Goals and Plans in Decision Making." Acta Psychologica66: 201-220.


Becker, H.S., 1960, "Notes on the Concept of Commitment." American Journal of Sociology 66: 32-42.


Brass, D.J., 1984, "Being in the Right Place: A Structural Analysis of Individual Influence in an Organization." Administrative Science Quarterly 29: 518-539.


Brehm, J.W., and A.R. Cohen, 1962, Explorations in Cognitive Dissonance. New York: Wiley.


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Chaiken, S., and D. Maheswaran, 1994, "Heuristic Processing Can Bias Systematic Processing: Effects of Source Credibility, Argument Ambiguity, and Task Importance on Attitude Judgment." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66: 460-473.


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Davidson, A.R., and D.M. Morrison, 1982, "Social Psychological Models of Decision Making." Pp. 91-112 in L. McAlister, ed., Choice Models for Buyer Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.


** Davis, M., 1998, Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster. New York: Henry Holt (Metropolitan Books).


Edwards, W., 1955, "The Prediction of Decisions among Bets." Journal of Experimental Psychology50: 201-214.


Edwards, W., 1954, "The Theory of Decision Making." Psychological Bulletin 41: 380-417.


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Farley, J.E., H.D. Barlow, M.S. Finkelstein, and L. Riley, 1993, "Earthquake Hysteria, Before and After: A Survey and Follow-Up On Public Response To the Browning Forecast." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 11: 305-322.


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Fishbein, M., 1980, "A Theory of Reasoned Action: Some Applications and Implications." Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 27 (3): 65-116.


Fishbein, M., and I. Ajzen, 1981, "Acceptance, Yielding and Impact: Cognitive Processes in Persuasion." Pp. 339-359 in R.E. Petty, T.M. Ostrom, and T.C. Brock, eds., Cognitive Responses in Persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


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Frey, D., 1981, "Postdecisional Preferences for Decision-Relevant Information as a Function of the Competence of its Source and the Degree of Familiarity with this Information." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 17: 621-626.


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Goldstein, I.L., 1993, Training in Organizations (3rd edition). Pacific Grove CA: Brooks/Cole.


Hance, B.J., C. Chess, and P.M. Sandman, 1990, Industry Risk Communication Manual. Ann Arbor, MI: Lewis.


Harvey, R.J., 1991, "Job Analysis." Pp. 71-164 in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough, eds., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2nd edition). Palo Alto CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.


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Janis, I.L., and L. Mann, 1977, Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and Commitment. New York: Free Press.


Janis, I.L., and L. Mann, 1977. "Emergency Decisionmaking: a Theoretical Analysis of Responses to Disaster Warnings." Journal of Human Stress 3: 35-48.


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Johnson, B.T., and A.H. Eagly, 1989, "Effects of Involvement on Persuasion: A Meta-Analysis." Psychological Bulletin 106: 190-314.


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Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky, 1973, "On the Psychology of Prediction." Psychological Review 80: 237-251.


Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky, 1972, "Subjective Probability: A Judgment of Representativeness." Cognitive Psychology 3: 430-454.


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Meyer, A.D., and J.B. Goes, 1989, "Organizational Assimilation of Innovations: a Multilevel Contextual Analysis." Academy of Management Journal 31: 897-923.


Meyer, J.P., and N. Allen, 1991, "A Three Component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment." Human Resource Management Review1: 61-98.


Meyer, J.P., and N. Allen, 1984, "Testing the 'Side Bet Theory' of Organizational Commitment: Some Methodological Considerations." Journal of Applied Psychology 69: 372-378.


Meyer, J.P., N.J. Allen, and I.R. Gellatly, 1990, "Affective and Continuance Commitment to the Organization: Evaluation of Measures and Analysis of Concurrent and Time-lagged Relations. Journal of Applied Psychology 75: 710-720.


Meyer, J., S. Paunonen, I. Gellatly, R. Goffin, and D. Jackson, D., 1989, "Organizational Commitment and Job Performance: It's the Nature of the Commitment That Counts." Journal of Applied Psychology 74: 152-156.


Mileti, D.S., 1983, "Societal Comparisons of Organizational Response to Earthquake Predictions: Japan vs. the United States." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 1: 399-413.


Mitchell, T.R., and L.R. Beach, 1990, ". . Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count . . Toward An Understanding of Intuitive and Automatic Decision Making." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 47: 1-20.


Mulilis, J-P., and T.S. Duval 1996, "Tornado Preparedness Behavior: The PrE Model of Coping with Threat." Paper presented at the Pan Pacific Hazards '96 Conference, Vancouver, B.C., Canada.


Nigg, J.M., 1987, "Communication and Behavior: Organizational and Individual Response to Warnings." Pp. 103-117 in R.R. Dynes, B. De Marchi, and C. Pelanda, eds., Sociology of Disasters: Contributions of Sociology to Disaster Research. Milano, Italy: Franco Angeli.


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Nutt, P.C., 1984, "Types of Organizational Decision Processes." Administrative Science Quarterly 29: 414-450.


Parker, D., A.S.R. Manstead, S.B. Stradling, J.T. Reason, and J.S. Baxter, 1992, "Intention to Commit Driving Violations: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology77: 94-101.


Payne, J.W., J.R. Bettman, and E.J. Johnson, 1993, The Adaptive Decision Maker. New York: Cambridge University Press.


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Pennebaker, J.W., and K.D. Harber, 1993, "A Social Stage Model of Collective Coping: The Loma Prieta Earthquake and the Persian Gulf War." Journal of Social Issues 49: 125-145.


Perry, R.W., and M.K. Lindell, 1991, "The Effects of Ethnicity on Decision-making." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 9 (March): 47-68.


Petty, R.E., and J.T..Cacioppo, 1990, "Involvement and Persuasion: Tradition versus Integration." Psychological Bulletin 107: 367-374.


Petty, R.E., and J.T. Cacioppo, 1986, "The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion." Pp. 123-205 in L. Berkowitz, ed., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, volume 19. New York: Academic Press.


Petty, R.E., and J.T. Cacioppo, 1981, Attitudes and Persuasion: Classic and Contemporary Approaches. Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.


Petty, R.E., D.W. Schumann, S.A. Richman, and A.J. Strathman, 1993, "Positive Mood and Persuasion: Different Roles for Affect under High- and Low-elaboration Conditions." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology64: 5-20.


Pfeffer, J., 1981, Power in Organizations. Marshfield, MA: Pittman Publishing.


Rippetoe, P.A., and R.W. Rogers, 1987, "Effects of Components of Protection-Motivation Theory on Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping with a Threat." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52: 596-604.


** Rodrigue, C.M., and E. Rovai, with A. Henderson, S. Potter, and J. Hotchkiss, 1998, El Niņo and Perceptions of the Southern California Floods and Mudslides of 1998. Quick Response Report No. 107. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center. Available at: http://www.Colorado.EDU/hazards/qr/qr107.html.


Saarinen, T.F., and J.L. Sell, 1985, Warning and Response to the Mount St. Helen's Eruption. Albany, NY: State University of New York.


Schiff, M. 1977, "Hazard Adjustment, Locus of Control and Sensation Seeking: Some Null Findings." Environment and Behavior 9: 233-254.


Schmidt, F.N., and R. Gifford, 1989, "A Dispositional Approach to Hazard Perception: Preliminary Development of the Environmental Appraisal Inventory." Journal of Environmental Psychology 9: 57-67.


Sheppard, B., J. Hartwick and P.R. Warshaw, 1988, "The Theory of Reasoned Action: A Meta-Analysis of Past Research with Recommendations for Modifications and Future Research." Journal of Consumer Research 15: 325-343.


Sherman, S.J., and E. Corty, 1984, "Cognitive Heuristics." Pp. 189-286 in R.S. Wyer, Jr., and T.K. Srull, eds., Handbook of Social Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


Simon, H.A., 1959, "Theories of Decision Making in Economics and Behavioral Science." American Economic Review 49: 253-283.


Simon, H.A., 1957, Administrative Behavior (2nd edition). New York: MacMillan.


Slovic, P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein, 1988, "Decision Making." In R.C. Atkinson, R.J. Herrnstein, G. Lindzey and R.D. Luce, eds., Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. New York: Wiley Interscience.


Slovic, P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein, 1980, "Facts and Fears: Understanding Perceived Risk." Pp. 231-250 in R.C. Schwing and W.A. Albers, Jr., eds., Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe Is Safe Enough? New York: Plenum Press.


Slovic, P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein, 1978, "Accident Probabilities and Seat Belt Usage: A Psychological Perspective." Accident Analysis and Prevention 10: 281-285.


Slovic, P., B. Fischoff, S. Lichtenstein, B. Corrigan, and B. Combs, 1977, "Preference for Insuring Against Probable Small Losses: Insurance Implications." Journal of Risk and Insurance 44: 237-258.


Slovic, P., H. Kunreuther, and G.F. White, 1974, "Decision Processes, Rationality and Adjustments to Natural Hazards." Pp. 187-204 in G.F. White, ed., Natural Hazards: Local, National and Global. New York: Oxford University Press.


Sorensen, J.H., 1986, "Knowing How to Behave Under the Threat of Disaster: Can It Be Explained?" Environment and Behavior 15 (4): 438-457.


Stevenson, M.K., J.R. Busemeyer, and J.C. Naylor, 1990, "Judgment and Decision-Making." Pp. 283-374 in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough, eds., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.


Taylor, S.E., 1991, "Asymmetrical Effects of Positive and Negative Events: the Mobilization-Minimization Hypothesis." Psychological Bulletin 110: 67-85.


Taylor, S.E., 1983, "Adjustment to Threatening Events: a Theory of Cognitive Adaptation." American Psychologist 38: 1161-1173.


Taylor, S.E., and M. Lobel, 1989, "Social Comparison Activity under Threat: Downward Evaluation and Upward Contacts." Psychological Review 96: 569-575.


Taylor, S.E., B.P. Buunk, and L.G. Aspinwall, 1990. "Social Comparison, Stress, and Coping." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 16: 74-89.


Thompson, E.P., R.J. Roman, G.B. Moskowitz, S. Chaiken, and J.A. Bargh, 1994, "Accuracy Motivation Attenuates Covert Priming: the Systematic Reprocessing of Social Information." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66: 474-489.


Triandis, H.C., 1982, "A Model of Choice in Marketing." Pp. 147-162 in L. McAlister, ed., Choice Models for Buyer Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.


Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman, 1981, "The Framing of Decisions and the Rationality of Choice." Science 221: 453-458.


Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman, 1971, "Belief in the Law of Small Numbers." Psychological Bulletin 76: 105-110.


Wanous, J.P., T.L. Keon, and J.C. White, 1983, "Expectancy Theory and Occupational/Organizational Choices: A Review and Test." Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 32: 66-86.


Yates, J.F., 1990, Judgment and Decision Making. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Yates, S., 1992, "Lay Attributions about Distress after a Natural Disaster." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 18: 217-222.


Awareness Programs and Risk Communication

Aptekar, L., 1991, The Psychosocial Process of Adjusting to Natural Disasters. Working Paper No. 70. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Beady, C.H., Jr., and R.C. Bolin, 1986, The Role of the Black Media in Disaster Reporting to the Black Community. Working Paper No. 56. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Bolduc, J-P., 1987, "Natural Disasters in Developing Countries: Myths and the Role of the Media." Emergency Preparedness Digest 14: 12-14.


Browers, J., 1980, "Some Thoughts on Communication." Disasters 4: 22-26.


Carter, M.T., 1980, "Community Warning Systems: The Relationship among the Broadcast Media, Emergency Service Agencies and the National Weather Service." Pp. 214-228 in Disaster and the Mass Media. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Covello, V.T., D. von Winterfeldt, and P. Slovic, 1986, "Risk Communication: A Review of the Literature." Risk Communication 3: 171-182.


Dutton, J.E., and S.J. Ashford, 1993, "Selling Issues to Top Management." Academy of Management Review 18: 397-428.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1993, Improving Earthquake Mitigation: A Report to Congress on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1991, A Guide to Preparing Emergency Public Information Materials. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Holt, J., 1980, "Some Observations on Communication with Non-literate Communities." Disasters 4: 19-21.


Hovland, C., I. Janis, L. Irving L., and Kelley, Harold H., 1953, Communication and Persuasion. New Haven: Yale University Press.


Jackson, E.L., 1977, "Public Response to Earthquake Hazard." California Geology 30: 278-280.


Kasperson, R.E., and P.J.M. Stallen, 1991, Communicating Risks to the Public: International Perspectives. Technology, Risks, and Society Series Vol. 4. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Kinsman, R.W., 1987, "Earthquake Awareness and Education: A Perspective from a Local Emergency Services Office." Pp. 50-63 in D.G. Barbee, ed., Earthquake Training and Education: a Collection of Issue Papers. FEMA 124. Emmitsburg, MD: National Emergency Training Center.


Lasswell, H.D., 1948, "The Structure and Function of Communication in Society." In L. Bryson, ed., Communication of Ideas. New York: Harper.


Leventhal, H. 1970. "Findings and Theory in the Study of Fear Communications." In L. Berkowitz, ed., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press.


Lopes, R., 1992, Public Perceptions of Disaster Preparedness Presentations Using Disaster Damage Images. Working Paper #79. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


** Margolis, H., 1996, Dealing with Risk: Why the Public and the Experts Disagree on Environmental Issues. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.


** Mazur, A., 1998, A Hazardous Inquiry: The Rashomon Effect at Love Canal. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press.


McCombs, M.E., and D.L. Shaw, 1972, "The Agenda-Setting Function of the Mass Media." Public Opinion Quarterly 47: 176-187.


Mckay, J.M., 1984, "Community Response to Hazard Information." Disasters 8: 118-123.


Meltsner, A.J., 1979, "The Communication of Scientific Information to the Wider Public: The Case of Seismology in California." Minerva17: 331-354.


Mileti, D.S., and J.D. Darlington, 1997, "The Role of Searching in Shaping Reactions to Earthquake Risk Information." Social Problems 44: 89-103.


Mileti, D.S., and J.D. Darlington, 1995, "Societal Response to Revised Earthquake Probabilities in the San Francisco Bay Area." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 13: 119-145.


Mileti, D.S., and C. Fitzpatrick, 1993, The Great Earthquake Experiment: Risk Communication and Public Action. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Mileti, D.S., and C. Fitzpatrick, 1992, "The Causal Sequence of Risk Communication in the Parkfield Prediction Experiment." Risk Analysis12: 393-300.


Mileti, D.S., and P.W. O'Brien, 1992, "Warnings during Disaster: Normalizing Communicated Risk." Social Problems39: 40-57.


Mileti, D.S., and J.H. Sorensen, 1990, Communication of Emergency Public Warnings: A Social Science Perspective and State of the Art Assessment. ORNL-6609. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.


Mileti, D.S., C. Fitzpatrick and B.C. Farhar, 1990, Risk Communication and Public Response to the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment. Fort Collins: Colorado State University, Hazards Assessment Laboratory.


Morentz, J.W., 1980, "Communication in the Sahel Drought: Comparing the Mass Media with other Channels of International Communication." Pp. 158-183 in Disasters and the Mass Media. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.


Mulilis, J-P., and T.S. Duval, 1995, "Negative Threat Appeals and Earthquake Preparedness: A Person-Relative-to-Event (PrE) Model of Coping with Threat." Journal of Applied Social Psychology25: 1319-1339.


Mulilis, J-P., and R.A. Lippa, 1985, "Geopsychology: Fear Appeals and Earthquake Preparedness." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, California.


Needham, R.D., 1986, "The Cosmopolite-localite Model: Newspaper Types and Natural Hazard Information Potentials." Environmental Management 10: 271-284.


Needham, R.D., and J.G. Nelson, 1977, "Newspaper Response to Flood and Erosion Hazards on the North Lake Erie Shore." Environmental Management1: 521-540.


Nelson, L.S., and R.W. Perry, 1991, "Organizing Public Education for Technological Emergencies: Ethnic Diversity Implications." Disaster Management 4 (1): 21-26.


Nigg, J.M., 1982, "Awareness and Behavior: Public Response to Prediction Awareness." Pp. 71-96 in T.F. Saarinen, ed., Perspectives on Increasing Hazard Awareness. Monograph No. 35. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Nigg, J.M., 1982, "Communication Under Conditions of Uncertainty: Understanding Earthquake Forecasting." Journal of Communication 32: 27-36.


Nilson, D.C., 1984, "How to Gain Attention and Commitment of Political Officials: An Earthquake Politics Primer." Pp. 48-54 in P.L. Gori, ed., Primer on Improving the State of Earthquake Hazards Mitigation and Preparedness. Open File Report 84-772. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


O'Keefe, D.J., 1990, Persuasion: Theory and Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.


Olson, R.A., and S. Scott, 1990, Knowledge Transfer in Earthquake Engineering, Workshop Materials. Berkeley: Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California.


Palm, R., 1981, "Public Response to Earthquake Hazard Information." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 71: 389-399.


Perry, R.W., and M.K. Lindell, 1990, Living With Mount St. Helens: Human Adjustment to Volcano Hazards. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press.


Perry, R.W., and L.S. Nelson, 1991, "Ethnicity and Hazard Information Dissemination." Environmental Management 15: 581-587.


Perry, R.W., and J.M. Nigg, 1985, "Emergency Management Strategies for Communicating Hazard Information." Public Administration Review 45: 72-77.


** Place, S.E., and C.M. Rodrigue, 1995, "Media Construction of the 'Northridge' Earthquake in English and Spanish Print Media in Los Angeles." Proceedings of the International Geographical Union (CD-ROM). Also available at: http://www.csulb.edu/~rodrigue/igu1994.html.


Regulska, J., 1982, "Public Awareness Programs for Natural Hazards." In T.F. Saarinen, ed., Perspectives on Increasing Hazard Awareness. Monograph No. 35. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Ressler, E.M., 1979, "Observations on the Development of Educational Materials Following the Andhra Pradesh Cyclone, 1977." Disasters 3: 283-285.


Rogers, E.M., 1987, "The Diffusion of Innovations Perspective." In N.D. Weinstein, ed., Taking Care: Understanding and Encouraging Self-Protective Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Rogers, E.M., 1983, Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press.


Rogers, G.O., 1992, "Aspects of Risk Communication in Two Cultures." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters10 (3): 437-464.


Ross, K.E.K., ed. 1992, Issues in Earthquake Education. Technical Report NCEER-92-0003. Buffalo, NY: State University of New York at Buffalo, National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.


Saarinen, T.F., ed., 1982, Perspectives on Increasing Hazard Awareness. Monograph No. 35. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Sanders, J., 1985, An Analysis of the North Carolina Coastal Weather Awareness Program. Prepared for Severe Weather Branch, National Weather Service. Marina, CA: Sanders Scientific Enterprises.


Scanlon, J., 1980, "The Media and the 1978 Terrace Floods: An Initial Test of a Hypothesis." In Disasters and the Mass Media. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Schulz, P., 1993, "Education, Awareness, and Information Transfer Issues." Pp. 159-175 in Federal Emergency Management Agency, Improving Earthquake Mitigation; A Report to Congress on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Showalter, P.S, 1993, "Prognostication of Doom: An Earthquake Prediction's Effect on Four Small Communities." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 11: 279-292.


Sims, J.H., and D.D. Baumann, 1983, "Educational Programs and Human Response to Natural Hazards." Environment and Behavior 15: 165-189.


** Smith, Conrad, 1992, Media and Apocalypse: News Coverage of the Yellowstone Forest Fires, Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, and Loma Prieta Earthquake. Westport, CN, and London: Greenwood Press.


Sorensen, J.H., and D.S. Mileti, 1987, "Programs That Encourage the Adoption of Precautions Against Natural Hazards: Review and Evaluation." Pp. 208-230 in N. Weinstein, ed., Taking Care: Why People Take Precautions. New York: Cambridge University Press.


** Walters, L.M., L. Wilkins, and T. Walters (eds.), 1989, Bad Tidings: Communication and Catastrophe. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Wenger, D., T. James, and C. Faupel, 1980, "A Few Empirical Observations Concerning the Relationship Between the Mass Media and Disaster Knowledge: a Research Report." Pp. 241-253 in Disasters and the Mass Media. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Wilkins, L., 1985, "Television and Newspaper Coverage of a Blizzard: Is the Message Helplessness?" Newspaper Research Journal 6: 51-65.


VI. TOOLS FOR MITIGATION


Mitigation and Mitigation Planning

Ambrose, J., 1988, Record of Decision: Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Department of the Army. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, Office of the Under Secretary.


Bauman, C., and M. Greene, 1995, "Revision of the Community Safety Element: The San Francisco Experience." Paper presented at The Fifth International Conference on Seismic Zonation, Nice, France.


Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project, 1992, "Land Use Control Adoption and Implementation: A Survey of Practices." Draft Report. Oakland, CA: California Office of Emergency Services.


Berke, P.R., and T. Beatley, 1992, Planning for Earthquakes: Risk, Politics and Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Bolton, P.A., and C.E. Orians, 1992, Earthquake Mitigation to the Bay Area: Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Seattle, WA: Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers.


Bowonder, B., J.X. Kasperson, and R.E. Kasperson, 1985, Avoiding Future Bhopals. Reprint No. 47. Worcester, Massachusetts: Clark University, Center for Technology, Environment and Development.


Burby, R.J., 1994, Land Use Planning and Development Management for Hazard Mitigation: Summary of Research Findings and Use. New Orleans, LA: University of New Orleans, College of Urban and Public Affairs.


California Seismic Safety Commission, 1994, Research and Implementation Plan for Earthquake Risk Reduction in California, 1995-2000. Report SSC 94-10. Sacramento, CA: California Seismic Safety Commission.


California Seismic Safety Commission, 1991, California at Risk: Reducing Earthquake Hazards 1992-1996. Sacramento CA: California Seismic Safety Commission.


** Jamieson, G., and C. Drury, "Hurricane Mitigation Efforts at the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency." Pp. 251-260 in Diaz, H.F., and R.S. Pulwarty, eds., 1997, Hurricanes: Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Drabek, T.E., A.H. Mushkatel, and T.S. Kilijanek, 1983, Earthquake Mitigation Policy: the Experience of Two States. Monograph No. 37. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Ender, R.L., and J.K. Kim with L.L. Selkregg and S.F. Johnson, 1988, "The Design and Implementation of Disaster Mitigation Policy." Pp. 67-85 in L.K. Comfort, ed., Managing Disaster, Strategies and Policy Perspectives. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.


Expert Review Committee, 1987, The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program: Commentary and Recommendations. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1995, National Mitigation Strategy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Godschalk, D.R., T. Beatley, P. Berke, D. Brower, and E. Kaiser, 1998, Making Mitigation Work: Recasting Natural Hazard Planning and Implementation. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.


Godschalk, D.R., D.J. Brower, and T. Beatley, 1989, Catastrophic Coastal Storms: Hazard Mitigation and Development Management. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.


Hodge, D., V. Sharp, and M. Marts, 1981, "Contemporary Responses to Volcanism: Case Studies From the Cascades and Hawaii." In P.D. Sheets and D.K. Grayson, eds., Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology. New York: Academic Press.


Interagency Floodplain Management Review Committee, 1994, Sharing the Challenge: Floodplain Management into the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Kartez, J., and C. Faupel, 1995, "Factors Promoting Comprehensive Local Government Hazards Management." Pp. 65-79 in From the Mountains to the Sea--Developing Local Capabilities: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Association of State Floodplain Managers. Special Publication 31. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Kelley, J.T., A.R. Kelley, O.H. Pilkey, Sr., and A.A. Clark, 1984, Living with the Louisiana Shore. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.


Kunster, J.H., 1993, The Geography of Nowhere. New York: Touchstone.


Kusler, J.A., and L. Larson, 1993, "Beyond the Ark: A New Approach to U.S. Floodplain Management." Environment35 (June): 7-34.


Lambright, W.H., 1984, Role of States in Earthquake and Natural Hazard Innovation at the Local Level: A Decision-Making Study. Washington, D.C.: National Technical Information Service.


Langdon, P., 1994, A Better Place to Live. New York: Harper Press.


Lecomte, E.L., 1992, "Professional Organizations in Hazards Mitigation and Management: How Effective?" Paper presented at the 17th Annual Hazards Research and Applications Workshop, Boulder, Colorado.


May, P.J., 1991, "Addressing Public Risks: Federal Earthquake Policy Design." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management10: 263-285.


May, P.J., and P.A. Bolton, 1986, "Reassessing Earthquake Hazard Reduction Measures." American Planning Association Journal52: 443-451.


May, P.M. 1996, "Addressing Natural Hazards: Challenges and Lessons for Public Policy." Australian Journal of Emergency Management 11 (4): 30-37.


Mitchell, J.K., 1985, "Prospects for Improved Hurricane Protection on Oceanic Islands: Hawaii after Hurricane Iwa." Disasters: The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management 9 (4): 286-294.


National Research Council, 1991, A Safer Future--Reducing the Impacts of Natural Disasters. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States, 1995, Reducing Earthquake Losses. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Olshansky, R.B., 1994, Seismic Hazard in the Central United States: The Role of the States. Professional Paper 1538-G. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Peterson, D.W., 1996, "Mitigation Measures and Preparedness Plans for Volcanic Eruptions." Pp. 701-718 in Roberto Scarpa and R.I. Tilling, eds., Monitoring and Mitigation of Volcanic Hazards. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Riebsame, W.E., S.A. Changnon, Jr., and T.R. Karl, 1993, Drought and Natural Resources Management in the United States. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Rossi, P.H., J.D. Wright, and E. Weber-Burdin, 1982, Natural Hazards and Public Choice: the State and Local Politics of Hazard Mitigation. New York: Academic Press.


Russell, L.A., J.D. Goltz, and L.B. Bourque, 1995, "Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation Actions Before and After Two Earthquakes." Environment and Behavior 27: 744-770.


Selkregg, L., R.L. Ender, S.F. Johnson, J.K. Kim, S.E. Gorski, J. Preuss, and D. Kelso, 1984, Earthquake Hazard Mitigation: Planning and Policy Implementation, the Alaska Case. Anchorage, AK: University of Alaska Press.


Setterberg, F., and L. Shavelson, 1993, Toxic Nation: The Fight to Save Our Communities from Chemical Contamination. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Smith, K., 1992, Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. New York: Routledge.


Smith, R.A., and R.E. Deyle, 1994, Development of a Risk-Based Mechanism for Funding Local Government Coastal Storm Hazard Management Services. Tallahassee, FL: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Florida State University.


So, F.S., and J. Getzels, 1988, The Practice of Local Government Planning (2nd edition). Washington, D.C.: International City Managers Association.


Sullivan, R., D.A. Mustart, and J.S. Galehouse, 1977, "Living in Earthquake Country." California Geology 30: 3-8.


Tengs, T.O. et al., 1995, "Five-Hundred Life-Saving Interventions and Their Cost-Effectiveness." Risk Analysis 15: 3.


Tierney, K.J., 1993, "Socio-Economic Aspects of Hazard Mitigation." Preliminary Paper #190. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center.


Tobin, L.T., 1994, "Legacy of the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Challenges to Other Communities." In Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Topping, K.C., 1997. "Lessons from the Oakland Hills."In J. Schwab et al., Pre-Event Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association.


U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 1993, Federal Regulation of State and Local Governments: The Mixed Record of the 1980s.Washington, D.C.: The Advisory Commission.


U.S. General Accounting Office, 1995, EPA and the States: Environmental Challenges Require a Better Working Relationship. Report RCED-95-64. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office.


U.S. General Accounting Office, 1990, Federal-state-local Relations, Trends of the past Decade and Emerging Issues. Report HRD-90-34. Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office.


U.S. Geological Survey, 1997, U.S. Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Program Five-Year Plan 1998-2002. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Wyner, A.J., and D.E. Mann, 1986, Preparing for California's Earthquakes: Local Government and Seismic Safety. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Institute for Governmental Studies.


Land Use Management

Alesch, D.J., and W.J. Petak, 1986, The Politics and Economics of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation. Monograph No. 43. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Baker, E.J., and J. McPhee, 1975, Land Use Regulations in Hazardous Areas: A Research Assessment. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Beatley, T., and D.J. Brower, 1985, Constraints on the Use of Development Management to Reduce Coastal Storm Hazards. Report No. 85-05, Hazard Mitigation Research Program. Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of North Carolina.


Beatley, T., D.J. Brower, and A.K. Schwab, 1994, An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.


Bell, W.G., 1920. The Great Fire of London in 1666. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


Berke, P.R., 1989, "Hurricane Vertical Shelter Policy: The Experience of Two States." Coastal Management (17): 193-217.


Berke, P.R., and T. Beatley, 1992. "A National Assessment of Local Earthquake Mitigation: Implications for Planning and Public Policy." Earthquake Spectra 8 (1): 1-15.


Berke, P.R., and T. Beatley, 1992. Planning for Earthquakes: Risk, Politics and Policy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Bolan, R.S., and R.L. Nuttall, 1975, Urban Planning and Politics. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.


Bolton, P., S. Heikkala, M.M. Greene, and P. May, 1986, Land Use Planning for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation: A Handbook for Planners. Special Publication No. 14, Boulder CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Bronson, W., 1986, The Earth Shook; The Sky Burned. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.


Burby, R.J., and S.P. French with B.A. Cigler, E.J. Kaiser, D.H. Moreau, and B. Stiftel, 1985, Flood Plain Land Use Management: a National Assessment. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Burby, R.J., and P.M. May, 1997, Making Governments Plan: State Experiments in Managing Land Use. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Burby, R.J., and R.G. Paterson, 1993, "Improving Compliance with State Environmental Regulations." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management12 (Fall): 753-772.


Calthorpe, P., 1993, The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community and the American Dream. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press.


Erley, D., and W. Kockelman, 1981, Reducing Landslide Hazards: A Guide for Planners. PAS Report 359. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association.


Federal Interagency Task Force on Floodplain Management, 1992, Floodplain Management in the United States: An Assessment Report, Vol. 1, Summary. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Federal Interagency Task Force on Floodplain Management, 1986, A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Godschalk, D.R., 1992, "Implementing Coastal Zone Management 1972-1990." Coastal Management 20 (3): 93-116.


Hoyt, W.G., and W.B. Langbein, 1955, Floods. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Hutton, J.R., D.S. Mileti, W.B. Lord, J.H. Sorensen, and M. Waterstone, 1979, Analysis of Adoption and Implementation of Community Land-Use Regulations for Floodplains. San Francisco, CA: Woodward-Clyde Consultants.


Jaffe, M., J. Butler and C. Thurow, 1981, Reducing Earthquake Risks: A Planner's Guide. PAS Report 364. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association.


Louisiana Coastal Wetlands Conservation and Restoration Task Force, 1993, Louisiana Coastal Wetlands Restoration Plan: Main Report and Environmental Impact Statement. Baton Rouge, LA: The Task Force.


May, P.J., 1994, "Analyzing Mandate Design: State Mandates Governing Hazard-Prone Areas." Publius, the Journal of Federalism 24 (Spring): 1-16.


May, P.J., 1993, "Mandate Design and State Implementation: Enhancing Implementation Efforts and Shaping Regulatory Styles." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12 (Fall): 634-663.


May, P.J., and T. Birkland, 1994, "Earthquake Risk Reduction: An Examination of Local Regulatory Efforts." Environmental Management 18 (6): 923-937.


Propst, C.L., 1985, Examination of Constitutional and Statutory Constraints on the Use of Development Management to Reduce Hurricane and Coastal Storm. Report No. 85-08, Hazard Mitigation Research Program. Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of North Carolina.


White, G.F., W. Calef, J. Hudson, H. Mayer, J. Sheaffer, and D. Volk, 1958, Changes in Urban Occupancy of Flood Plains in the United States. Department of Geography Research Paper #57. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


Engineering, Building Codes, Standards, Practice, and Regulations

Abrams, D.P. et al., 1995, Assessment of Earthquake Engineering Research and Testing Capabilities in the United States. Publication No. WP-01A. Oakland, CA: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.


All-Industry Research Advisory Council, 1989, Surviving the Storm: Building Codes, Compliance and the Mitigation of Hurricane Damage. Chicago, IL: All-Industry Research Advisory Council.


American Society of Civil Engineers, 1995, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-1995. New York: ASCE.


Anderson, H., 1982, Aids to Determining Fuel Models for Estimating Fire Behavior. General Technical Report INT-122. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.


Ang, A.H.-S, and W.H. Tang, 1975, Probability Concepts in Engineering Planning and Design. New York: John Wiley.


Applied Technology Council, 1992, Dynamic Vulnerability and Impact of Disruption of Lifelines in the Conterminous United States. ATC-25, Redwood City, CA: Applied Technology Council.


Applied Technology Council, 1985, Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data for California. ATC-13, Redwood City, CA: Applied Technology Council.


Bowles, D.S., 1996, Reservoir Safety: a Risk Management Approach. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Utah Water Research Laboratory.


Brumbaugh, R., W. Werick, W. Teitz, and J. Lund, 1994, Lessons Learned from the California Drought (1987-1992). IWR Report 94-NDS-6. Fort Belvoir, VA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Institute for Water Resources.


California Seismic Safety Commission, 1994, Research and Implementation Plan for Earthquake Risk Reduction in California 1995-2000. Sacramento, CA: Seismic Safety Commission.


Committee on Experimental Research, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 1995, Assessment of Earthquake Engineering Research and Testing Capabilities in the United States. Oakland, CA: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.


Cook, R.A., and M. Soltani, eds., 1994, Hurricanes of 1992. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.


Davies, T. ed., 1996, Comparing Environmental Risks. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, Inc.


Dziegielewski, B. et al., 1991, National Study of Water Management During Drought: A Research Assessment. IWR Report 91-NDS-3. Fort Belvoir, VA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Institute of Water Resources.


Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California at Berkeley, 1996, Performance Based Seismic Design of Buildings: An Action Plan for Future Studies. Issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 1996, Public Policy and Building Safety. Oakland, CA: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.


Ellingwood, B., and R. Redfield, 1983, "Ground Snow Loads for Structural Design." Journal of Structural Engineering109 (4): 950-964.


Elsayed, E.A., 1996, Reliability Engineering. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.


Engineering News Record, 1993, "Pushing for a National Standard." (November 8): 8.


Englehardt, J.D., and C. Peng, 1996, "Bayesian Benefit-Risk Model Applied to the South Florida Building Code." Risk Analysis 16 (1): 81-91.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1997, Multihazard Identification and Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1995, A Nontechnical Explanation of the 1994 NEHRP Recommended Provisions. FEMA 99. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1994, Southern California Firestorms. FEMA-1005-DR-CA. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1991, Reducing Losses of Life and Property Through Model Codes. FEMA-209. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Finkl, J.W. Jr., ed., 1994, "Coastal Hazards: Perception, Susceptibility and Mitigation." Journal of Coastal Research (Special Issue No. 12).


Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, S. Lichtenstein, S. Read, and B. Combs, 1978, "How Safe is Safe Enough? A Psychometric Study of Attitudes Towards Technological Risks and Benefits." Policy Sciences 9: 127-152.


Florman, S.C., 1987, The Civilized Engineer. New York: St. Martin's Press.


Galloway, G.E., 1995, "New Directions in Floodplain Management." Water Resources Bulletin 31 (3): 351-357.


Greeley-Polhemus Group, Inc., 1992, Guidelines for Risk and Uncertainty Analysis in Water Resources Planning. Volumes I and II, IWR Reports 92-R-1 and 92-R-2. Fort Belvoir, VA: Institute for Water Resources, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.


Haimes, Y.Y., and L.R. Quarles, eds., 1990. Drought Research into the 3rd Millenium: Assessment of Scientific Knowledge, Monitoring, and Forecasting. Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, D.C.: The National Science Foundation.


Haimes, Y.Y., D.A. Moser, and E.Z. Stakhiv, eds., 1996, Risk-based Decision Making in Water Resources VII. New York: ASCE.


Harberg, R. et al., 1997, Reliability of Urban Water Systems. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.


Harr, M.E., 1987, Reliability-Based Design in Civil Engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Heinrichs, P., and R. Fell, eds., 1995, Acceptable Risks for Major Infrastructure. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.


International Fire Code Institute, 1996, Urban-Wildland Interface Code. Whittier, CA: International Fire Code Institute.


Kareem, A. ed., 1985, Hurricane Alicia: One Year Later. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.


Kennedy, D., M. Isyumov, and M. Mikitiuk, 1992, "The Effectiveness of Code Provisions for Snow Accumulations on Stepped Roofs." Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Snow Engineering, Santa Barbara, California.


King, P.B., and H.M. Beikman, 1973, "Expansive Soils--The Hidden Disaster." Civil Engineering 43 (8): 49-51.


La Grega, M.D., P.L. Buckingham, J.C. Evans, and the Environmental Resources Management Group, 1994, Hazardous Waste Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Lewis, G., 1995, "Management of Flood Damages to Railroads." In M.F. Domenica, Integrated Water Resources Planning for the 21st Century. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.


Lind, N.C., 1995, "Policy Goals for Health and Safety." Risk Analysis 15: 1.


Mackinlay, I., 1988, "Architectural Design in Regions of Snow and Ice." Paper presented at the First International Conference on Snow Engineering, Santa Barbara, California.


Magnell, C.O., 1993, Federal Public Works Infrastructure R&D: A New Perspective. Final Report for the Federal Infrastructure Strategy Program. Ft. Belvoir, VA: Institute for Water Resources, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.


Mahin, Stephen, Tsuneo Okada, Masanobu Shinozuke, and Kenzo Toki, 1997, U.S.-Japan Workshop on Cooperative Research for Mitigation of Urban Earthquake Disasters: Learning from Kobe and Northridge - Recommendations and Resolutions. Berkeley, CA: Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.


Mays, L.W., and Y. Tung, 1992, Hydrosystems Engineering and Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.


McDonald, J.R., 1993, Damage Mitigation and Occupant Protection. Pp. 523-528 in C. Church, ed., The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction and Hazards. Geophysical Monograph 79. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.


Mehta, K.C., 1984, "Wind Induced Damage Observations and their Implications for Design Practice." Engineered Structures 6 (October): 242-247.


Mills, A.S., S.A. Davis, and W.J.Hansen, 1991, National Economic Development Procedures Manual: Urban Flood Damage. IWR Report 91-R-10. Fort Belvoir, VA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Institute for Water Resources.


National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards, Inc., 1994, Introduction to Building Codes. Herndon, VA: National Conference of States.


National Council on Public Works Improvement, 1988, Fragile Foundations: A Report on America's Public Works. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Public Works Improvement.


National Fire Academy, 1988, Wildland/Urban Interface Fire Protection: A National Problem with Local Solutions. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


National Fire Protection Institute, 1991, Protection of Life and Property from Wildfire. ANSI/NFPA Standard 299. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Institute.


National Flood Proofing Committee, 1996, Flood Proofing Techniques, Programs, and References. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.


National Research Council, 1996, Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Research Council, 1995, Flood Risk Management and the American River Basin. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Research Council, 1995, Measuring and Improving Infrastructure Performance. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Research Council, 1994, Toward Infrastructure Improvement--An Agenda for Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Research Council, 1993, Wind and the Built Environment: U.S. Needs in Wind Engineering and Hazard Mitigation. Panel on the Assessment of Wind Engineering Issues in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Research Council, 1991, Managing Coastal Erosion. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Research Council, 1991, Uses of Risk Analyses to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Research Council, 1985, Engineering in Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Research Council, 1985, Reducing Losses from Landsliding in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Safety Council, 1995, Accident Facts--1995 Edition. Itasca, IL: National Safety Council.


National Safety Council, 1993, Accident Facts--1993 Edition. Itasca, IL: National Safety Council.


National Science Foundation, 1993, Civil Infrastructure Systems Research: Strategic Issues. Washington, D.C.: The National Science Foundation.


Nordenson, G.J.P., 1993, "Seismic Codes." Pp. 89-114 Mitigation of Damage to the Built Environment. Monograph 2. Memphis TN: Central United States Earthquake Consortium.


ORourke, M., P. Koch, R. Redfield, 1983, Analysis of Roof Snow Load Case Studies: Uniform Loads. CRREL Report 83-1. Hanover, NH: U.S. Department of the Army, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.


ORourke, M., R. Speck, and U. Stiefel, 1985, "Drift Loads on Multilevel Roofs. Journal of Structural Engineering 111 (2): 290-306.


O'Rourke M., W. Tobiasson, and E. Wood, 1986, "Proposed Code Revisions for Drifted Snow Loads. Journal of Structural Engineering 112 (9): 2080-2092.


O'Rourke, M.J., ed., 1995, Lifeline Earthquake Engineering. TCLEE Monograph No. 6. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.


Perry, D.C., 1992, Hurricane Andrew: Preliminary Observations of Wind Engineering Research Council Post-disaster Team. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University.


Peter, B.G.W., and W.A. Balgliesh, 1963, "Variations of Snow Loads on Roofs. Transactions of the Engineering Institute of Canada 6: (A-1).


Petroski, H., 1984, To Engineer is Human. New York: St. Martin's Press.


Risk Management Solutions, 1995. Development of a Standardized Earthquake Loss Estimation Methodology. Topical Issues Series. Palo Alto, CA: Risk Management Solutions, Inc.


Risk Management Solutions, 1995, What if a Major Earthquake Strikes the Los Angeles Area? Topical Issues Series. Palo Alto, CA: Risk Management Solutions, Inc.


Robertson, J.A.L., 1995, "Policy Goals for Health and Safety: Another View." Risk Analysis 15: 3.


Sack, R., D. Arnholtz, and J.Haldeman, 1987, "Sloped Roof Snow Loads using Simulation." Journal of Structural Engineering 113 (8): 1829-1833.


Sangrey, D.A. et al., 1985, U.S Geological Survey Landslide Research Program's Report of the Committee for Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Ground Failure and Construction Hazards Program. Administrative Report. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Schiff, A.J., ed., 1995, Northridge Earthquake--Lifeline Performance and Post-Earthquake Response. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.


Schiff, A.J., and I.G. Buckle, eds., 1995, Critical Issues and State-of-the Art in Lifeline Earthquake Engineering. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.


Shortreed, J., K. Dinnie, and D. Belgue, 1995, "Risk Criteria for Public Policy." Pp. 131-158 in Proceedings of the First Biennial Conference on Process Safety and Loss Management in Canada.Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo, Institute for Risk Research.


Sill, B.L., and P.R. Sparks, eds., 1991, Hurricane Hugo--One Year Later. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.


Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation, 1995, Review of Headworks, Final Report. Report to the Office of Water Reform. Water Victoria, Victoria, Australia: Department of Natural Resources and Environment.


Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 1992, Coastal Building Department Survey. Chicago: Natural Disaster Loss Reduction Committee, National Committee on Property Insurance.


Tobiasson, W., 1988, "Roof Design in Cold Regions." Paper presented at the First International Conference on Snow Engineering, Santa Barbara, California.


U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1995, Floodplain Management Assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and Lower Missouri Rivers and Tributaries. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993, A Guidebook to Comparing Risks and Setting Environmental Priorities. EPA 230-B-93-003. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency.


West, C.T., and D.G. Lenze, 1994, "Modeling the Regional Impact of Natural Disaster and Recovery: A General Framework and Application to Hurricane Andrew." International Regional Science Review 17 (2): 121-150.


Whitman, R.V., 1984, "Evaluating Calculated Risk in Geotechnical Engineering." Journal of Geotechnical Engineers 110: 2.


Wilhite, D.A., ed., 1993, Drought Assessment, Management and Planning: Theory and Case Studies. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Prediction, Forecasts, and Warnings

Aguirre, B.E., 1988, "The Lack of Warnings Before the Saragosa Tornado." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 6 (1): 65-74.


Aguirre, B.E., W.A. Anderson, S. Balandran, B.E. Peters and H.M. White, 1991, Saragosa, Texas, Tornado, May 22,1987: An Evaluation of the Warning System. Natural Disaster Studies No. 3. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Albini, F.A., 1976, Estimating Wildfire Behavior and Effects. Forest Service General Technical Report INT-30. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture.


Anderson, P. 1996, Proceedings of the 1996 Pan Pacific Hazards Conference. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Pan Pacific Hazards Conference.


Anderson, W., 1969, "Disaster Warning and Communication Processes in Two Communities." The Journal of Communication 19 (June): 92-104.


Andrews, P.M., 1988, "The National Fire Danger Rating System as an Indicator of Fire Business." Pp. 49-56 in Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, San Diego, California. Boston, MA: American Meteorological Society.


Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, 1986, In the matter of Carolina Power and Light Company, NRC Docket No. 50-400-0L. 23 NRC 294.


Bakun W.H., and A.G. Lindh, 1985, "The Parkfield California, Earthquake Prediction Experiment." Science 229: 619-624.


Bakun, W.H., et al., 1986, "Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Scenarios and Response Plans." Menlo Park, CA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Blackford, M., and H. Kanamori, 1995, Tsunami Warning System Workshop Report. Seattle, WA: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory.


Braatz, D.T., 1994, "Hydrological Forecasting for the Great Flood of 1993." Water International 19: 190-198.


Bradshaw, L.E., J.E. Deeming, R.E. Burgan, and J.D. Cohen, 1983, The 1978 National Fire Danger Rating System Technical Documentation. General Technical Report UT-169. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.


Burpee, R.W., J.L. Franklin, S.J. Lord, R.E. Tuleya, and S.D. Aberson, 1996, "The Impact of Omega Dropwindsondes on Operational Hurricane Track Forecast Models." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77 (5): 925-933.


Chemical Manufacturers Association, 1987, Emergency Warning Systems. Washington, D.C.: Chemical Manufacturers Association.


Deeming, J.E., R.E. Burgan, and J.D. Cohen, 1977, The National Fire Danger Rating System. General Technical Report INT-39. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.


Deeming, J.E., J.W. Lancaster, M.A. Fosberg, R.W. Furman, and M.J. Schroeder, 1972, The National Fire Danger Rating System. Research Paper RM-84. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.


Drabek, T.E., D.Q. Brodie, J. Edgerton, and P. Munson, 1979, The Flood Breakers. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Dvorak, V.F., 1984, Tropical Cyclone Intensity Analysis Using Satellite Data. Technical Report NESDIS 11. Washington, D.C.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


Dvorak, V.F., 1972, A Technique for the Analysis and Forecasting of Tropical Cyclone Intensities from Satellite Pictures. Technical Memorandum NES 36. Washington, D.C.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


Ellsworth, W.L., and G.C. Beroza, 1995, "Seismic Evidence for an Earthquake Nucleation Phase." Science 268: 851.


Farley, J.E., ed., 1993, "The Iben Browning Earthquake Prediction." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 11 (3): 271-468.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1985, Guide for the Evaluation of Alert and Notification Systems for Nuclear Power Plants. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1981, Principles of Warning and Criteria Governing Eligibility of National Warning Systems (NAWAS) Terminals. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Fritsch, J.M., G. Byran, B. Cash, T. Faber, P. Markowski, S. Michelson, M. Pontrelli, J. Rozbicki, P. Shafran, D. Thomas, M. Pearce, and S. Hoffert, 1996, "The Madison County Virginia Flood of 1995: An Appalachian Version of the Rapid City and Big Thompson Floods." Paper presented at the Symposium on What We Have Learned Since the Big Thompson Flood, Twenty Years Later, Fort Collins, Colorado.


Gori, P.L., and W.W. Hays, 1987, The U.S. Geological Survey's Role in Hazards Warnings: Proceedings of a Workshop. Open File Report #87-269. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Gruntfest, E., 1977, What People Did During the Big Thompson Flood. Working Paper No. 32. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Boulder, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Gruntfest, E., and C. Huber, 1989, "Status Report on Flood Warning Systems in the United States." Environmental Management 13 (3): 279-286.


Jarrell, J.D., 1996, "Forecast Uncertainty." Paper presented at the 18th Annual National Hurricane Conference, Orlando, Florida.


Jarvinen, B.R., and M.B. Lawrence, 1985, "An Evaluation of the SLOSH Storm-Surge Model." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 66 (11): 1408-1411.


Johnson, C., and C.L. Mader, 1994, "Modeling the 105 Ka Lanai Tsunami." Science of Tsunami Hazards 12: 133-38.


** Kanamori, H., E. Hauksson, and T. Heaton, 1997, "Real-time Seismology and Earthquake Hazard Mitigation." Nature 390: 461-464.


Kaplan, J., and M. DeMaria, 1995, "A Simple Empirical Model for Predicting the Decay of Tropical Cyclone Winds after Landfall." Journal of Applied Meteorology34 (11): 2499-2512.


Krzysztofowicz, R.K., 1994, "Reliability of Flood Warning Systems." Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 120 (6): 906.


Lander, J.F., 1995, "Alaskan Tsunamis Revisited." Pp. 159-172 in Y. Tsuchiya and N. Shuto, eds., Tsunami: Progress in Prediction, Disaster Prevention, and Warning. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Lander, J.F., and H. Yeh, 1995, Report of the International Tsunami Measurements Workshop. Boulder, CO. University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences.


Larson, L.W., 1997, "National Weather Service Advanced Capabilities in Flash Flood Forecasting." Pp. 83-80 in Proceedings of Twenty Years Later: What We Have Learned Since the Big Thompson Flood. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Mayfield, B.M., C.J. McAdie, and A.C. Pike, An Evaluation of the Dispersion of Tropical Cyclone Position and Intensity Estimates Determined from Satellite Imagery. Washington, D.C.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


McAdie, C.J., 1996, "Operational Trends in Hurricane Forecasting." Paper presented at the 18th Annual National Hurricane Conference, Orlando, Florida.


McAdie, C.J., and M.B. Lawrence, 1993, "Long-Term Trends in National Hurricane Center Track Forecast Errors in the Atlantic Basin." Pp. 281-284 in Preprints of the 20th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, San Antonio, Texas. New York: American Meteorological Society.


McLuckie, B.F., 1970, The Warning System in Disaster Situations: A Selective Analysis. Research Report No. 9. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, Disaster Research Center.


Mileti, D., 1975, Natural Hazard Warning Systems in the United States. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Mileti, D., and J. Sorensen, 1988, "Planning and Implementing Warning Systems." Pp. 321-345 in M. Lystad, ed., Mental Health Care in Mass Emergencies: Theory and Practice. New York: Brunner/Mazel.


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1994, The Great Flood of 1993. Natural Disaster Survey Report. Silver Spring, MD: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Nelson, C.E., C. Crumley, B. Fritzsche, and B. Adcock. Lower Southwest Florida Hurricane Study. Jacksonville, FL.: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.


Parker, D.J., 1987, "Flood Warning Dissemination: the British Experience." In J.W. Handmer, ed., Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives. Norwich: Geo Books.


** Pielke, R.A., Jr., and R.A. Pielke, Sr., "Vulnerability of Hurricanes Along the U.S. Atlantic Coast: Considerations of the Use of Long-Term Forecasts." Pp. 147-184 in Diaz, H.F., and R.S. Pulwarty, eds., 1997, Hurricanes: Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Pike, A.C., 1984, "The Importance of Meteorological Data in the Statistical Prediction of Tropical Cyclones." Unpublished manuscript. Coral Gables, FL: National Hurricane Center.


Roeloffs, E., and J. Langbein, 1994, "The Earthquake Prediction Experiment at Parkfield, California." AGU Reviews of Geophysics 32 (3): 315.


Rogers, G., and J. Sorensen, 1988, "Diffusion of Emergency Warnings." Environmental Professional10: 281-294.


Rothermel, R.C., 1972, A Mathematical Model for Predicting Fire Spread in Wildland Fuels. Forest Service Research Paper INT-115. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture.


Scarpa, R., and R.I. Tilling, eds., 1996, Monitoring and Mitigation of Volcano Hazards. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Scholz, C.H., 1997, "Whatever Happened to Earthquake Prediction? Geotimes42 (3): 16-19.


Schware, R., 1992, "Official and Folk Flood Warning Systems: An Assessment." Environmental Management 6 (3): 209-16.


Sheets, R.C., 1990, "The National Hurricane Center: Past, Present, and Future." Weather and Forecasting 5 (2): 185-232.


Sheets, R.C., and C.J. McAdie, 1989, Preliminary Results of a Study of the Accuracy of Satellite-based Tropical Cyclone Position and Intensity Estimates. Tropical Cyclone Studies, FCM-R11-1988, Washington, D.C.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


Smith, D.I., and J.W. Handmer, eds., 1986, Flood Warning in Australia, Policies, Institutions and Technology. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies.


Sorensen, J., and D.S. Mileti, 1989, "Warning and Evacuation: Answering Some Basic Questions." Industrial Crisis Quarterly 2 (3 and 4), 195-210.


Sorensen, J., and D.S. Mileti, 1987, "Decision Making Uncertainties in Emergency Warning System Organizations." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 5 (1).


Sparks, P., E.J. Baker, J. Belville, and D.C. Perry, 1991, Hurricane Elena, Gulf Coast. Natural Disaster Studies 2. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.


Tunnel, L., 1990, "High Elevation Precipitation in Colorado from a Historical Perspective." Paper presented at the Climatology and Flood Hydrology in the Rocky Mountains Workshop, Lakewood, Colorado.


Turner, R.H., 1993, "Reflections on the Past and Future of Social Research on Earthquake Warnings." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 11: 453-468.


Vogt, B., and J. Sorensen, 1992, Preparing EBS Messages. ORNL/TM-12163. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.


Williams, K., 1996, "An Overview of Avalanche Forecasting in North America." Paper presented to the International Avalanche Conference, Davos, Switzerland.


Yevjevich, V., W.A. Hall, and J.D. Salas, eds., 1977, Drought Research Needs: Proceedings of the Conference on Drought Research Needs. Fort Collins, CO: Water Resources Publications.


Warning Response

Baker, E.J., 1991, "Hurricane Evacuation Behavior." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 9 (2): 287-310.


Baker, E.J., 1988, "Fatal Errors in Deriving Behavioral Assumptions for Hurricane Evacuation Planning." Paper presented at the 10th Annual National Hurricane Conference, Atlanta, Georgia.


Baker, E.J., 1979, "Predicting Response to Hurricane Warnings: A Reanalysis of Data from Four Studies." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 4: 9-24.


Bourque, L.B., K. Shoaf, and L.A. Russell, 1995, "Community Response to the January 17, 1994, Northridge Earthquake." Paper presented at the 20th Natural Hazards Research and Applications

Workshop, Boulder, Colorado.


Chemical Manufacturers Association, 1985, Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program Handbook. Washington, D.C.: Chemical Manufacturers Association.


Cutter, S., and K. Barnes, 1982, "Evacuation Behavior and Three Mile Island." Disasters 6 (2): 116-124.


Drabek, T.E., 1994, "Anticipating Organizational Evacuations: Disaster Planning by Managers of Tourist-Oriented Private Firms." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 9: 219-246.


Drabek, T.E., 1983, "Shall We Leave? A Study of Family Reactions When Disaster Strikes." Emergency Management Review 1 (Fall): 25-29.


Drabek, T.E., 1969, "Social Processes in Disaster: Family Evacuation." Social Problems 16 (Winter): 336-349.


Gavin, J.P., 1996, Hurricane Evacuation Studies Program Overview. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.


Gillespie, D.A., and S.A. Murty, 1991, "Setting Boundaries for Research on Organizational Capacity to Evacuate." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 9: 201-218.


Lachman, R., M. Tatsuoka, and W. Bonk, 1961, "Human Behavior During the Tsunami of May, 1960." Science 133 (May 5): 1405-1409.


Leik, R.K., T.M. Carter, and J.P. Clark et al., 1981, Community Response to Natural Hazard Warnings: Final Report. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.


Perry, R.W., 1989, "Evacuation Decision-making in Natural Disasters." Mass Emergencies 4 (March): 25-38.


Perry, R.W., and M.R. Greene, 1983, Citizen Response to Volcanic Eruptions: The Case of Mount St. Helens. New York: Irvington Publishers, Inc.


Perry, R.W., and A. Mushkatel, 1984, Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.


Perry, R.W., M.K. Lindell, and M.R. Greene, 1982, "Threat Perception and Public Response to Volcano Hazard." The Journal of Social Psychology 116: 199-204.


Quarantelli, E.L., 1980, Evacuation Behavior and Problems: Findings and Implications from the Research Literature. Columbus, OH: Disaster Research Center, The Ohio State University.


Sorensen, J., 1991, "When Shall We Leave: Factors Affecting the Timing of Evacuation Departures." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 9 (2): 153-165.


Stallings, R., 1984, "Evacuation Behavior at Three Mile Island." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 2: 11-26.


Turner, R.H., 1983, "Waiting for Disaster: Changing Reactions to Earthquake Forecasts in Southern California." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 1: 307-334.


Turner, R., J. Nigg, and D. Heller-Paz, 1986, Waiting for Disaster: Earthquake Watch in Southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.


Urbanik, T., 1978, Texas Hurricane Evacuation Study. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University.


Vogt, B.M., and J.H. Sorensen, 1992, Evacuation Research: A Reassessment. ORNL/TM-11908.Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.


Wilkinson, K.P., and P.J. Ross, 1970. Citizens Response to Warnings of Hurricane Camille. Report No. 35. State College, MS: Mississippi State University,Social Science Research Center.


Williams, H.B., 1964, "Human Factors in the Warning and Response Systems." Pp. 79-104 in G. Grosser et al., eds., The Threat of Impending Disaster. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Withey, S.B., 1962, "Reaction to Uncertain Threat." Pp. 93-123 in George Baker and D. Chapman, eds., Man and Society in Disaster. New York: Basis Books.


Zeigler, D.J., and J.H. Johnson, 1984, "Evacuation Behavior in Response to Nuclear Power Plant Accidents." Professional Geographer 36 (2): 207-222.


Insurance

Berz, G., 1991, "Natural Disasters and Insurance and Reinsurance." Earthquakes and Volcanoes 22 (3): 99-102.


Britton, N.R., and J. Oliver 1995, "Insurance and Urban Planning: Partnering in Risk Resolution." Pp. 1-20 in N.R. Britton and J. Oliver, eds., Insurance Viability and Loss Mitigation: Partners in Risk Resolution. Brisbane: Griffith University Press.


Camerer, C.F., and H. Kunreuther, 1989, "Decision Processes for Low Probability Events: Policy Implications." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 8 (4): 565-592.


** Diaz, H.F., and R.S. Pulwarty, eds., 1997, Hurricanes: Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Harris, H., 1992, "Taming Tornado Alley." Civil Engineering (June): 77.


Insurance Research Council, 1996, Public Attitude Monitor96 (January).


Insurance Research Council and Insurance Institute of Property Loss Reduction, 1995, Coastal Exposure and Community Protection: Hurricane Andrew's Legacy. Wheaton, IL: Insurance Research Council.


Kunreuther, H., 1996, "Mitigating Disaster Losses through Insurance." Journal of Risk and Uncertainty12: 171-187.


Kunreuther, H., 1997, "Rethinking Society's Management of Catastrophic Risks." Working Paper 96-06-04. Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance 83: 151-176.


Kunreuther, H., R. Ginsberg, L. Miller, P. Sagi, P. Slovic, B. Borkan, and N. Katz, 1978, Disaster Insurance Protection: Public Policy Lessons. New York: Wiley.


Manes, A., 1938, Insurance: Facts and Problems. New York: Harper.


Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman, 1974, "Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases." Science 185: 1124-1131.


U.S. Congress, 1995, Federal Disaster Assistance Report of the Senate Task Force on Funding Disaster Relief. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


White, R., and D.A. Etkin, 1997, "Climate Change, Extreme Events, and the Canadian Insurance Industry." Journal of Natural Hazards 16 (203): 135-163.


VII. DISASTERS


The Nature of Technological and Natural Disasters

Barton, A.H., 1969, Communities in Disasters: A Sociological Analysis of Collective Stress Situations. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday.


Bates, F.L., and C. Pelanda, 1994, "An Ecological Approach to Disasters." Pp. 149-159 in R.R. Dynes and K.J. Tierney, eds., Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.


Bates, F., C.W. Fogleman, B. Parenton, R. Pittman, and G. Tracy, 1963, The Social and Psychological Consequences of a Natural Disaster. NRC Disaster Study 18. Washington D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.


Couch, S.R., and J.S. Kroll-Smith, 1985, "The Chronic Technical Disaster: Toward a Social Scientific Perspective." Social Science Quarterly 66: 3.


Dynes, R.R., B. De Marchi, and C. Pelanda, eds., 1987, Sociology of Disasters: Contribution of Sociology to Disaster Research. Milan, Italy: Franco Angeli.


Faupel, C.E., 1987, "Human Ecology and Disaster: Contributions to Research and Policy Formation." Pp. 181-210 in R.R. Dynes, B. DeMarchi, and C. Pelanda, eds., Sociology of Disasters: Contribution of Sociology to Disaster Research. Milan: Franco Angeli.


Faupel, C.E., 1985, The Ecology of Disaster: An Application of a Conceptual Model. New York: Irvington.


Form, W.H., and S. Nosow, 1958, Community in Disaster. New York: Harper and Brothers.


Hawley, A., 1950, Human Ecology: A Theory of Community Structure. New York: Ronald Press Co.


Hewitt, K., 1995, "Excluded Perspectives in the Social Construction of Disaster." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 13 (3): 317-339.


International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 1995, "Special Issue: What is a Disaster? Six Views of the Problem" 13 (3).


Kreps, G.A., and T.E. Drabek, 1996, "Disasters Are Nonroutine Social Problems." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 14: 129-153.


Morrow, B.H., and E. Enarson, 1994, "Making the Case for Gendered Disaster Research." Paper presented to the XIIIth World Congress of Sociology, Bielefeld, Germany.


Nielsen, J.M., 1984, "Sex and Gender in Disaster Research." Unpublished report. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado.


Oliver-Smith, A., 1986, "Introduction--Disaster Context and Causation: An Overview of Changing Perspectives in Disaster Research." Pp. 1-34 in Natural Disasters and Cultural Responses. Studies in Third World Societies No. 36. Williamsburg, VA: College of William and Mary.


Perry, J.B., Jr., 1988, "Tornadoes Over Texas: A Study of Waco and San Angelo in Disaster and its Impact upon the Study of Disaster," International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 6 (3): 253-281.


Quarantelli, E.L., 1995, "What Is a Disaster?" International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters13 (3): 221-229.


Seitz, S.T., and M. Davis, 1984, "The Political Matrix of Natural Disasters: Africa and Latin America." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 2: 231-250.


Wenger, D.E., 1985, "Collective Behavior and Disaster Research." Pp. 213-237 in R.R. Dynes, B. De Marchi, and Carlo Pelanda, eds., Sociology of Disasters: Contribution of Sociology to Disaster Research. Milan, Italy: Franco Angeli.


Disaster Management and Emergency Management

Bolin, R., and L.M. Stanford, 1993, "Emergency Sheltering and Housing of Earthquake Victims: The Case of Santa Cruz County." Pp. B43-B50 in P.A. Bolton, ed., The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989--Public Response. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1553B. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Bolin, R., and L.M. Stanford, 1990. "Shelter and Housing Issues in Santa Cruz County." In R. Bolin, ed., The Loma Prieta Earthquake: Studies of Short-Term Impacts. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Britton, N.R., and J. Lindsay 1995, "Demonstrating the Need to Integrate City Planning and Emergency Preparedness: Two Case Studies." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 13 (1): 161-178.


Britton, N.R., C.C. Moran, and B. Correy, 1994, "Stress Coping and Emergency Disaster Volunteers: A Discussion of Some Relevant Factors." Pp. 128-144 in R.R. Dynes and K.J. Tierney, eds., Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.


Comfort, L.K., ed., 1988, Managing Disaster: Strategies and Policy Perspectives. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.


Cook, L., 1993, "Charleville in Conjunction with Women of the Community." Paper presented at a symposium on Women in Emergencies and Disasters, Brisbane, Queensland.


Cooke, D., 1995, "Los Angeles Earthquake Puts City Disaster Services to the Test." Disaster Recovery Journal 7 (1): 10-14.


Dann, S., and P. Wilson, 1993, "Women and Emergency Services." Paper presented at a symposium on Women in Emergencies and Disasters, Brisbane, Queensland.


Drabek, T.E., 1990. Emergency Management: Strategies for Maintaining Organizational Integrity. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Drabek, T.E., and G.J. Hoetmer, eds., 1991, Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association.


Drabek, T., and W. Key, 1976, "The Impact of Disaster on Primary Group Linkages." Mass Emergencies 1 (2): 89-105.


Federal Emergency Management Agency and U.S. Department of the Army, 1996, Planning Guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.


Federal Emergency Management Agency and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1981, Planning Guide and Checklist for Hazardous Materials Contingency Plans. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Goggin, M., A.O. Bowman, J.P. Lester, and L.J. O'Toole, 1990. Implementation Theory and Practice: Toward a Third Generation. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.


Honeycombe, B., 1993, "Special Needs of Women in Emergency Situations." Paper presented at a symposium on Women in Emergencies and Disasters, Brisbane, Queensland.


Kates, R.W., C. Hohenemser, and J.X. Kasperson, 1985, Perilous Progress: Managing the Hazards of Technology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Kreimer, A,, 1979, "Emergency, Temporary and Permanent Housing After Disasters in Developing Countries." Ekistics 46: 361-365.


Kreps, G.A., 1990. "The Federal Emergency Management System in the United States: Past and Present." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 8: 275-300.


May, P., and W. Williams, 1986, Disaster Policy Implementation: Managing Programs Under Shared Governance. New York: Plenum Press.


McLoughlin, D., 1985, "A Framework for Integrated Emergency Management." Public Administration Review 45 (January): 165-172.


Mileti, D.S., J.H. Sorensen, and P.W. O'Brien, 1992, "Toward an Explanation of Mass Care Shelter Use in Evacuations," International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 10 (1): 25-42.

National Academy of Public Administration, 1993, Coping With Catastrophe: Building an Emergency Management System to Meet People's Needs in Natural and Manmade Disasters. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration.


Noel, G.E., 1990, "The Role of Women in Disaster Management." Paper presented to the 17th Biennial Conference of the Caribbean Nurses' Organization, Saint Lucia.


Oliver, P., 1978, "The Cultural Content of Shelter Provisions." Disasters: The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management 2 (2): 125-128.


Perry, J.B., Jr., R. Hawkins, and D.M. Neal, 1983, "Giving and Receiving Aid." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 1 (March): 171-188.


Perry, R.W., M.R. Greene, and M.K. Lindell, 1980. "Enhancing Evacuation Warning Compliance: Suggestions for Emergency Planning." Disasters: The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management 4 (4): 433-449.


Perry, R.W., M.K. Lindell, and M.R. Greene, 1981, Evacuation Planning in Emergency Management. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.


Quarantelli, E.L., 1984, Sheltering and Housing after Major Community Disasters: Case Studies and General Observations. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center.


Quarantelli, E.L., 1983, Delivery of Emergency Medical Services in Disasters: Assumptions and Realities. New York: Irvington.


Quarantelli, E.L., 1982, "General and Particular Observations on Sheltering and Housing in American Disasters." Disasters 6: 277-281.


Rosenthal, M.M. 1979, "Detroit Rumor Control Center, a Device for Intervention." Disasters: The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management 3 (3): 269-273.


Schneider, S.K., 1995, Flirting With Disaster: Public Management in Crisis Situations. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.


Topping, K.C., 1995, Disaster Field Office Information Management Action Plan. Pasadena, CA: California Governor's Office of Emergency Services.


U.S. Department of Transportation, 1984, Emergency Response Handbook. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988, Review of Emergency Systems: Final Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency.


Vogt, B., 1990. Evacuation of Institutionalized and Specialized Populations. ORNL/Sub-7685/1. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory,


Vogt, B., 1988, "A Study of Characteristics Affecting Organizational Behavior of Nursing Homes and Related Health Care Facilities during Emergency Evacuations." Ph.D. Dissertation. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee.


Wenger, D.E., E.L. Quarantelli, and R.R. Dynes, 1989, Disaster Analysis: Police and Fire Departments. DRC Final Project Report No. 37. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center.


Wenger, D., E.L. Quarantelli, and R.R. Dynes, 1986, Disaster Analysis: Emergency Management Offices and Arrangements. DRC Final Project Report No. 34. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center.


Wiest, R.E., J.S.P. Mocellin, and D.T. Motsisi, 1992, The Needs of Women and Children in Disasters and Emergencies. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: University of Manitoba.


Preparedness and Response

Anderson, K.M., and G. Manuel, 1994, "Gender Differences in Reported Stress Response to the Loma Prieta Earthquake." Sex Roles 30: 9-10.


Auf der Heide, E., 1989, Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.


Baumann, D.D., and J.H. Sims, 1974, "Human Response to the Hurricane." Pp. 25-29 in G.F. White, ed., Natural Hazards: Local, National and Global. New York: Oxford University Press.


Bolin, R., and D.J. Klenow, 1988, "Older People in Disaster: A Comparison of Black and White Victims." International Journal of Aging and Human Development 26 (1): 29-33.


Bosworth, S.L., and G.A. Kreps 1986, "Structure as Process: Organization and Role." American Sociological Review 51: 699-716.


Bourque, L.B., L.G. Reeder, A. Cherlin, B.H. Raven, and D.M. Walton, 1973, The Unpredictable Disaster in Metropolis: Public Response to the Los Angeles, Earthquake of February, 1971. Los Angeles, CA: University of California at Los Angeles Survey Research Center.


Bourque, L.B., L.A. Russell, and J.D. Goltz, 1993, "Human Behavior During and Immediately After the Earthquake." Pp. B3-B22 in P.A. Bolton, ed., The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989--Public Response. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1553-B. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Britton, N.R., and J. Lindsay 1995, "Integrating City Planning and Emergency Preparedness: Some of the Reasons Why." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters13 (1): 93-106.


Carroll, G.R., 1984, "Organizational Ecology." Annual Review of Sociology 10: 71-93.


Clason, C., 1983, "The Family as a Life-saver in Disaster." Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 1 (1): 43-62.


Committee on Earthquake Response and Recovery, 1993, Emergency Response and Recovery. Monograph 4. Memphis, TN: Central United States Earthquake Consortium.


Cutter, S.L., 1987, "Airborne Toxic Releases: Are Communities Prepared?" Environment 29 (6): 12-17, 28-31.


Dahlhamer, J.D., and M. D'Souza, 1997, "Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness in Two U.S. Metropolitan Areas." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters15: 265-281.


Davenport, J., and J. Davenport, 1982, "Utilizing the Social Network in Rural Communities." Social Casework 63: 106-113.


Dobson, N., 1993, "From Under the Mud-Pack: Women and the Charleville Floods." Paper presented at a symposium on Women in Emergencies and Disasters, Brisbane, Queensland.


Drabek, T.E., 1995, "Disaster Responses Within the Tourist Industry." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 13: 7-23.


Drabek, T.E., 1994, Disaster Evacuation and the Tourist Industry.Monograph No. 57. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Drabek, T., 1986, Human System Response to Disaster: An Inventory of Sociological Findings. New York: Springer Verlag.


Drabek, T.E., and K. Boggs, 1968, "Families in Disaster: Reactions and Relatives." Journal of Marriage and the Family 30 (August): 443-451.


Drabek, T.E., and J.S. Stephenson III, 1971, "When Disaster Strikes." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 1 (2): 187-203.


Drabek, T.E., W.H. Key, P.E. Erickson, and J.L. Crowe, 1975, "The Impact of Disaster on Kin Relationships." Journal of Marriage and the Family (August): 481-494.


Duguay, J., 1996, "Safe in Any Language." Emergency Preparedness Digest (October): 12-14.


Faupel, C.E., S.P. Kelley, and T. Petee, 1992, "The Impact of Disaster Education on Household Preparedness for Hurricane Hugo." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 10 (1): 5-24.


Fiske, S.T., 1987, "People's Reactions to Nuclear War." American Psychologist 42: 207-217.


Forrest, T.R., 1978, "Group Emergence in Disaster." Pp. 105-125 in E.L. Quarantelli, ed., Disasters: Theory and Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.


Freeman, J., and M.T. Hannan, 1983, "Niche Width and the Dynamics of Organizational Populations." American Journal of Sociology 88: 1116-1145.


Fresno County, California Department of Health, 1984, Crisis Counseling Grant-Coalinga, California: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


Freudenberg, W., 1986, "The Density of Acquaintanceship: an Overlooked Variable in Community Research?" American Journal of Sociology 92: 27-63.


Freudenburg, W.R., and T.R. Jones, 1991, "Attitudes and Stress in the Presence of Technological Risk: A Test of the Supreme Court Hypothesis." Social Forces 69: 1143-1167.


Fritz, C.E., and E.S. Marks, 1954, "NORC Studies of Human Behavior in Disaster." Journal of Social Issues10 (3): 26-41.


Gaitz, C.M., and J. Scott, 1972, "Age and the Measurement of Mental Health." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 13: 55-67.


Gelles, R.J., and C.P. Cornell, 1990. Intimate Violence in Families. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.


Gillespie, D.F., and C.L. Streeter, 1987, "Conceptualizing and Measuring Disaster Preparedness." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 5: 155-176.


Goltz, J.D., L.A. Russell, and L.B. Bourque, 1992, "Initial Behavioral Response to a Rapid Onset Disaster: A Case Study." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 10 (1): 43-69.


Governor's Office of Emergency Services. "Networks." Earthquake Preparedness News 6 (2).


Greene, M.R., R.W. Perry and M.K. Lindell, 1981, "The March 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens: Citizen Perceptions of Volcano Threat." Disasters5 (1): 49-66.


Hill, R., and D.A. Hansen, 1962 "Families in Disaster." Pp. 185-221 in G.W. Baker and D.W. Chapman, eds., Man and Society in Disaster. New York: Basic Books.


Huerta, F., and R. Horton, 1978, "Coping Behavior of Elderly Flood Victims." The Gerontologist 18: 541-546.


Gillespie, D.F., R.A. Colignon, M.M. Benerjee, S.A. Murty, and M. Rogge, 1993, Partnerships for Community Preparedness. Monograph No. 54. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Ives, S.M., and O.J. Furuseth, 1983, "Immediate Response to Headwater Flooding in Charlotte, North Carolina." Environment and Behavior15 (4): 512-525.


Kartez, J.D., and M.K. Lindell, 1990, "Adaptive Planning for Community Disaster Response." Pp. 5-31 in R.T. Silves and W.L. Waugh, Jr., eds., Cities and Disaster: North American Studies in Emergency Management. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers.


Kartez, J.D., and M.K. Lindell, 1987, "Planning for Uncertainty: The Case of Local Disaster Planning." Journal of the American Planning Association 53: 487-498.


Kreps, G.A., and S.L. Bosworth 1993, "Disaster, Organizing, and Role Enactment: A Structural Approach." American Journal of Sociology 99: 428-63.


Landesman, L.Y., 1989, "Improving Medical Preparedness for Chemical Accidents: An Inter-organizational Resource Review." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 7: 152-166.


Laval, A., ed., 1994, Viviendo en Riesgo: Communidades Vulnerables y Prevencion de Desastres en America Latina. Bogata, Lima, and San Jose: Tercer Mundo Editores--La Red.


Lindell, M.K., 1994, "Are Local Emergency Planning Committees Effective in Developing Community Disaster Preparedness?" International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 12: 159-182.


Lindell, M.K., and M.J. Meier, 1994, "Effectiveness of Community Planning for Toxic Chemical Emergencies." Journal of the American Planning Association 60: 222-234.


Lindell, M.K., and D.J. Whitney, 1995, "Effects of Organizational Environment, Internal Structure and Team Climate on the Effectiveness of Local Emergency Planning Committees." Risk Analysis 15: 439-447.


Lindell, M.K., D.J. Whitney, C.J. Futch, and C.S. Clause, 1996, "The Local Emergency Planning Committee: A Better Way to Coordinate Disaster Planning." Pp. 274-295 in R.T. Silves and W.L. Waugh, Jr., eds., Disaster Management in the U.S. and Canada: The Politics, Policymaking, Administration and Analysis of Emergency Management. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers.


Lindell, M.K., D.J. Whitney, C.J. Futch, and C.S. Clause, 1996, "Multi-Method Assessment of Organizational Effectiveness in a Local Emergency Planning Committee." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters14: 195-220.


Mansilla, G. ed., 1996, Desastres: Modelo Para Armar. Lima: La Red.


Mileti, D.S., and P. O'Brien, 1992, "Warnings During Disaster: Normalizing Communicated Risk." Social Problems 39: 40-57.


Mileti, D., and J. Sorensen, 1987, "Determinants of Organizational Effectiveness in Crisis." Columbia University Journal of World Business 12: 1.


Mileti, D.S., C. Fitzpatrick, and B.C. Farhar, 1992, "Fostering Public Preparations for Natural Hazards: Lessons from the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction." Environment33 (3): 16-20.


Millican, P., 1993, "Women in Disaster." Paper presented at a symposium on Women in Emergencies and Disasters, Brisbane, Queensland.


Morrow, B.H., 1993 "Families of Andrew." Paper presented at the Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology, San Antonio, Texas.


Morrow-Jones, H.A., and C.R. Morrow-Jones, 1991, "Mobility Due to Natural Disaster: Theoretical Considerations." Disasters: The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management 15 (2): 126-132.


National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, 1992, "Symposium on Policy Issues in the Provision of Post-Earthquake Shelter and Housing." Buffalo, NY: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research and the Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project.


National Hurricane Center/Emergency Management Institute, 1995, Hurricane Planning for the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico: Instructor's Guide. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Neal, D.M., J.B. Perry, Jr., and R. Hawkins, 1982, "Getting Ready for Blizzards: Preparation Levels in the Winter of 1977-1978." Sociological Focus 15 (1): 67-76.


Neal, D.M., and B.D. Phillips, 1990. "Female-Dominated Local Social Movement Organizations in Disaster-Threat Situations." In G. West and R.L. Blumberg, eds., Women and Social Protest.New York: Oxford University Press.


Nehnevajsa, J., 1989, Volunteering For Emergency Preparedness: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


O'Brien, P.W., and D.S. Mileti, 1993, "Citizen Participation in Emergency Response." Pp. B23-B30 in P.A. Bolton, ed., The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989--Public Response. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1553-B. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


O'Brien, P.W., and D.S. Mileti, 1992, "Citizen Participation in Emergency Response Following the Loma Prieta Earthquake." Mass Emergencies and Disasters 10 (1): 71-89.


Paulsen, R.L., 1981, Human Behavior and Fire Emergencies: An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce.


Perry, R.W., and M.R. Greene, 1982, "The Role of Ethnicity in the Emergency Decision-making Process." Sociological Inquiry 52 (Fall): 309-334.


Perry, R.W., and A.H. Mushkatel, 1986, Minority Citizens in Disasters. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.


Phillips, B.D., 1993, "Cultural Diversity in Disasters: Sheltering, Housing, and Long Term Recovery." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 11 (1): 99-110.


Quarantelli, E.L., 1960. "A Note on the Protective Function of the Family in Disasters." Journal of Marriage and Family Living (August): 263-264.


Quarantelli, E.L., and R.R. Dynes 1977, "Response to Social Crisis and Disaster." Annual Review of Sociology 3: 23-49.


Quarantelli, E.L., and R.R. Dynes, 1976, "Community Conflict: Its Absence and Its Presence in Natural Disasters." Mass Emergencies 1: 139-152.


Quarantelli, E.L., C. Lawrence, K.J. Tierney, and T. Johnson, 1979, Initial Findings from a Study of Socio-Behavioral Preparations and Planning for Acute Chemical Hazard Disasters. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center.


Rivers, J.P.W., 1982, "Women and Children Last: An Essay on Sex Discrimination in Disasters." Disasters6 (4): 256-267.


Russell, G.W., and R.K. Mentzel, 1990. "Sympathy and Altruism in Response to Disasters." Journal of Social Psychology 130 (3): 309-316.


Saunders, S.L., and G.A. Kreps 1987, "The Life History of Emergent Organization in Disaster." Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 23: 443-62.


Simile, C., 1995, Disaster Settings and Mobilization for Contentious Collective Action: Case Studies of Hurricane Hugo and the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Doctoral dissertation. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice.


Solomon, S.D., E.M. Smith, L.N. Robins, and R.L. Rischbach, 1987, "Social Involvement as a Mediator of Disaster-Induced Stress." Journal of Applied Psychology 17: 1092-1112.


Sorensen, J., and G. Rogers, 1988, "Community Preparedness for Chemical Emergencies: A Survey of U.S. Communities." Industrial Crisis Quarterly 2 (2): 89-108.


Sorensen, J.H., D.S. Mileti, and E. Copenhaver, 1985, "Inter and Intraorganizational Cohesion in Emergencies." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 3: 27-52.


Stinchcombe, A.L., 1965, "Social Structure and Organizations." Pp. 142-193 in J.G. March, ed., Handbook of Organizations. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.


Subervi-Velez, F.A., M. Denney, A. Ozuna, and C. Quintero, 1992, Communicating with California's Spanish-Speaking Populations: Assessing the Role of the Spanish-Language Broadcast Media and Selected Agencies in Providing Emergency Services. Berkeley, CA: California Policy Seminar.


Sylves, R.T., 1984, "Nuclear Power Plants and Emergency Planning: An Intergovernmental Nightmare." Public Administration Review 44: 393-401.


Turner, R.H., and L.M. Killian, 1987, Collective Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Turner, R.H., J.M. Nigg, D.H. Paz and B.S. Young, 1979, Earthquake Threat: The Human Response in Southern California. Los Angeles: University of California, Institute for Social Science Research.


Turner, R.H., J.M. Nigg, J.M. Paz, D. Heller, and B.S. Young, 1980. Community Response To Earthquake Threat In Southern California. Los Angeles: University of California, Institute for Social Science Research.


Waugh, W.L. Jr., 1988, "Current Policy and Implementation Issues in Disaster Preparedness." Pp. 111-125 in L.K. Comfort, ed., Managing Disaster: Strategies and Policy Perspectives. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.


Wenger, D.E., 1972, "DRC Studies of Community Functioning." In Proceedings of the Japan4,33United States Disaster Research Seminar: Organizational and Community Responses to Disasters. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, Disaster Research Center.


Wenger, D.E., and T.F. James, 1994, "The Convergence of Volunteers in a Consensus Crisis: The Case of the 1985 Mexico City Earthquake." Pp. 229-243 in R.R. Dynes and K.J. Tierney, eds., Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.


Whitney, D.J., and M.K. Lindell, 1996, "Antecedents and Consequences of Commitment in LEPCs." Paper presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego.


Wyner, A.J., and D.E. Mann, 1986, Preparing for California's Earthquakes: Local Government and Seismic Safety. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Institute of Governmental Studies.


Recovery and Long-term Impacts

Anderson, M., and P. Woodrow, 1989, Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Times of Disaster. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Aysan, Y., and P. Oliver, 1987, Housing and Culture after Earthquakes. Oxford: Oxford Polytechnic Press.


Bates, F.L., and W.G. Peacock, 1989, "Long Term Recovery." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 7 (3): 349-365.


Baum, A., I. Fleming, A. Israel, and M.K. O'Keefe, 1992, "Symptoms of Chronic Stress Following a Natural Disaster and Discovery of a Human-Made Hazard." Environment and Behavior 24: 347-365.


Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project, 1990, Putting the Pieces Together: The Loma Prieta Earthquake One Year Later. Oakland CA: Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project.


Berke, P., and T. Beatley, 1997, After the Hurricane--Linking Recovery to Sustainable Development in the Caribbean. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Berke, P.R., J. Kartez and D. Wenger, 1993, "Recovery After Disaster: Achieving Sustainable Development, Mitigation and Equity." Disasters 17 (2): 93-109.


Bidinger, P.D., T.S. Walker, B. Sarker, A.R. Murthy, and P. Babu, 1991, "Consequences of Mid-1980s Drought: Longitudinal Evidence from Mahbubnagar." Economic and Political Weekly26 (39): A105-A114.


Bolin, R.C., 1993, Household and Community Recovery After Earthquakes. Monograph No. 56. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Bolin, R., 1986, "Disaster Impact and Recovery: A Comparison of Black and White Victims." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters4 (1): 35-50.


Bolin, R.C., 1982, Long-Term Family Recovery From Disaster. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Bolin, R.C., 1976, "Family Recovery from Natural Disasters: A Preliminary Model." Mass Emergencies 1: 267-277.


Bolin, R., and P. Bolton, 1986, Race and Ethnicity in Disaster Recovery. Environment and Behavior Monograph No. 42. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Bolin, R., and L. Stanford, 1991, "Shelter, Housing and Recovery: A Comparison of U.S. Disasters." Disasters: The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management 15 (1): 24-34.


Bolin, R., and P. Trainer, 1978, "Modes of Family Recovery Following Disaster: A Cross National Study." Pp. 234-247 in E.L. Quarantelli, ed., Disasters: Theory and Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.


Bolton, P., 1979, "Family Recovery Following a Natural Disaster: The Case of Managua, Nicaragua." Doctoral dissertation. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Department of Sociology.


Bolton, P.A., E.B. Liebow, and J.L. Olson, 1993, "Community Context and Uncertainty Following A Damaging Earthquake: Low-Income Latinos in Los Angeles, California." The Environmental Professional 15: 240-247.


California Governor's Office of Emergency Services, 1993, Earthquake Recovery: A Survival Manual for Local Governments. Sacramento, CA: California Office of Emergency Services.


** Comerio, M.C., 1998, Disaster Hits Home: New Policy for Urban Housing Recovery. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.


Dahlhamer, J.M., 1992, "Small Business and the Whittier Narrows Earthquake: Loan Request Outcomes in the U.S. Small Business Administration Disaster Loan Program for Businesses." Master's thesis. Newark, DE: Department of Sociology, University of Delaware.


Davis, N.Y., 1986, "Earthquake, Tsunami, Resettlement and Survival in Two North Pacific Alaskan Native Villages." Pp. 123-154 in Natural Disasters and Cultural Responses. Studies in Third World Societies No. 36. Williamsburg, VA: College of William and Mary.


Drabek, T.E., and W.H. Key, 1983, Conquering Disaster: Family Recovery and Long-Term Consequences. New York: Irvington.


Durkin, M.E., 1984, "The Economic Recovery of Small Businesses After Earthquakes: The Coalinga Experience." Paper presented at the International Conference on Natural Hazards Mitigation Research and Practice, New Delhi, India.


Dynes, R.R., and E.L. Quarantelli, 1989 Reconstruction in the Context of Recovery Thoughts on the Alaskan Earthquake. Preliminary Paper No. 141. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center.


French, S. P., C. A. Ewing, and M.S. Isaacson, 1984, Restoration and Recovery Following the Coalinga Earthquake of May, 1983. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute for Behavioral Science.


Friesma, H.P., J. Caporaso, G. Goldstein, R. Lineberry, and R. McCleary, 1979. Aftermath, Communities After Natural Disasters. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.


Geipel, R., 1982, Disaster and Reconstruction: The Friuli (Italy) Earthquake of 1976. London: George Allen and Unwin.


Greene, M., 1992, "Housing Recovery and Reconstruction: Lessons from Recent Urban Earthquakes." Pp. 11-15 in Proceedings of the 3rd U.S./Japan Workshop on Urban Earthquakes. Publication No. 93-B. Oakland, CA: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.


Haas, J.E., R.W. Kates, and M.J. Bowden, eds., 1977, Reconstruction Following Disaster. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.


Kreimer, A., 1978, "Post-Disaster Reconstruction Planning: The Cases of Nicaragua and Guatemala." Mass Emergencies 3: 23-40.


Mader, G.G., and M.B. Tyler, 1991, Rebuilding After Earthquakes, Lessons from Planners: Report of an International Symposium on Rebuilding after Earthquakes. Portola Valley, CA: William Spangle and Associates.


Mader, G.G., W. Spangle, and M. Blaire, 1980. Land Use Planning After Earthquakes. Portola Valley, CA: William Spangle and Associates.


Marris, P., 1986, Loss and Change. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.


May, P.J., 1985, Recovery From Catastrophes: Federal Disaster Relief Policy and Politics. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


Mazmanian, D.A., and P.A. Sabatier, 1983, Implementation and Public Policy. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.


McDonnell, S., R.P. Troiano, N. Barker, E. Noji, W.G. Hlady, and R. Hopkins, 1995, "Evaluation of Long-term Community Recovery from Hurricane Andrew: Sources of Assistance Received by Population Sub-groups." Disasters: The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management 19 (4): 338-347.


Miller, J.A., J.G. Turner, and E. Kimball, 1981, "Big Thompson Flood Victims: One Year Later." Family Relations 30 (1): 111-116.


Miller, K., and J.M. Nigg, 1993, "Event and Consequence Vulnerability: Effects on the Disaster Recovery Process." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Sociological Society, Boston, Massachusetts.


Miller, K.S., and C. Simile, 1992, "They Could See the Stars from their Beds: The Plight of the Rural Poor in the Aftermath of Hurricane Hugo." Paper presented at the Society for Applied Anthropology Annual Meetings.


Mitchell, J., ed., 1996., The Long Road to Recovery: Community Responses to Industrial Disasters. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations Press.


Moore, H.E., 1958, Tornadoes Over Texas. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.


Nigg, J.M., and K.J. Tierney, 1993, "Disasters and Social Change: Consequences for Community Construct and Affect." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Miami, Florida.


Nigg, J.M., and K.J. Tierney, 1990, Explaining Differential Outcomes in the Small Business Disaster Loan Application Process. Preliminary Paper No. 156. Newark, DE: University of Delaware.


Oliver-Smith, A., 1993, "Post Disaster Reconstruction: An Overview of Issues and Problems." Paper presented at the Seminar on Socio-Economic Aspects of Disasters in Central America in San Jose, Costa Rica.


Oliver-Smith, A., 1992, The Martyred City: Death and Rebirth in the Andes. Homewood, IL: Waveland Press.


Oliver-Smith, A., and R. Goldman, 1988, "Planning Goals and Urban Realities: Post-Disaster Reconstruction in a Third World City." City and Society2 (2): 105-126.


Peacock, W.G., B.H. Morrow, and H. Gladwin, eds., 1997, Hurricane Andrew and the Reshaping of Miami: Ethnicity, Gender, and the Socio-Political Ecology of Disasters. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.


Phifer, J.F., K.Z. Kaniasty, and F.H. Norris, 1988, "The Impact of Natural Disaster on the Health of Older Adults: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 29: 65-78.


Preuss, J., 1995, Configuration of Vulnerability, Reconstruction to the Present Anchorage Bowl, 1964-1994. Seattle, WA: Urban Regional Research.


** Rodrigue,C.M., E.Rovai, and S.E. Place, 1997, "Construction of the 'Northridge' Earthquake in Los Angeles' English and Spanish Print Media: Damage, Attention, and Skewed Recovery." Presentation to the Southern California Environment and History Conference, Northridge, CA. Available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/geop/chr/scehc97.html


Rovai, E., 1994, "The Social Geography of Disaster Recovery: Differential Community Response to the North Coast Earthquakes." Association of Pacific Coast Geographers Yearbook 56.


** Rovai, E., and C.M. Rodrigue, 1998, "The 'Northridge' and 'Ferndale' Earthquakes: Spatial Inequities in Media Attention and Recovery." National Social Science Journal 11, 2: 109-120.


Rubin, C.B., 1995, "Physical Reconstruction: Timescale for Reconstruction." In Wellington After The Quake: The Challenge of Rebuilding Cities. Christchurch, New Zealand: Centre for Advanced Engineering and the New Zealand Earthquake Commission.


Rubin, C.B., 1991, "Recovery From Disaster." In Principles and Practice of Emergency Management. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association.


Rubin, C.B., and D.G. Barbee, 1985, "Disaster Recovery and Hazard Mitigation: Bridging the Intergovernmental Gap." Public Administration Review45: 57-63.


Rubin, C.B., and R. Popkin, 1990, Disaster Recovery After Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina. Working Paper No. 69. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Rubin, C.B., D. Barbee, and M. Saperstein, 1985, Community Recovery From A Major Natural Disaster. Monograph #41. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Sabatier, P.A., 1986, "Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Implementation Research: A Critical Analysis and Suggested Synthesis." Journal of Public Policy 6 (January4,33March): 21-48.


Saylor, C.F., C.C. Swenson, and P. Powell, 1992, "Hurricane Hugo Glows Down the Broccoli: Preschoolers' Post-Disaster Play and Adjustment." Child Psychiatry and Human Development 22: 139-149.


Snarr, D.N., and E.L. Brown, 1994, "Post-disaster Housing Reconstruction: A Longitudinal Study of Resident Satisfaction." Disasters18 (1): 76-80.


Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project, 1991, Earthquake Recovery and Reconstruction Planning Guidelines for Local Governments. Pasadena, CA: Governor's Office of Emergency Services.


Spangle Associates with R. Olson Associates, Inc., 1997, The Recovery and Reconstruction Plan of the City of Los Angeles: Evaluation of its Use after the Northridge Earthquake. Portola Valley, CA: Spangle Associates.


Spangle, W.E., ed., 1994, "Pre-Earthquake Planning for Post-Earthquake Rebuilding." Report to the National Science Foundation. Portola Valley, CA: Spangle and Associates.


Topping, K.C., 1998, "Model Recovery and Reconstruction Ordinance." In J. Schwab, et al., Pre-Event Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery. Planners Advisory Service Report prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association.


Trainer, P., and R. Bolin, 1976, "Persistent Effects of Disasters on Daily Activities: A Cross-Cultural Comparison." Mass Emergencies 1: 279-290.


United Nations, 1970, Skopje Resurgent. New York: United Nations Development Programme.


Wilson, R.C., 1991, The Loma Prieta Quake: What One City Learned. Washington D.C.: International City Management Association.


Wright, J.D., P.H. Rossi, S.R. Wright, and E. Weber-Burdin, 1979, After the Clean-Up, Long-Range Effects of Natural Disasters. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.


Zaman, M., 1991, "The Displaced Poor and Resettlement Policies in Bangladesh." Disasters 15: 117-25.


VIII. INNOVATIVE PATHS AND NEW DIRECTIONS


Research, Education & Training, and Knowledge Transfer

Beavers, J., 1994, Earthquake Risk Reduction in the United States: An Assessment of Selected User Needs and Recommendations of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering.


Bergmann, B.R., 1991, "Bloated Administration: Blighted Campuses." Academe (November/December): 12-16.


Central United States Earthquake Consortium, 1994, Toward an Action Agenda for Increasing Research Utilization in the Central United States. Memphis, TN: Central United States Earthquake Consortium.


Drabek, T., 1987, The Professional Emergency Manager: Structures and Strategies for Success. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Gori, P.L., 1991, "Communication Between Scientists and Practitioners: The Important Link in Knowledge Utilization." Earthquake Spectra 7 (1): 89-95.


Gori, P.L., ed., 1993, Applications of Research from the U.S. Geological Survey Program, Assessment of Regional Earthquake Hazards and Risk Along the Wasatch Front, Utah. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1519. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Havlick, S.W., and J. Harris, 1983, Incorporation of Natural Hazards Research into Planning Curricula at Selected Graduate and Undergraduate Programs in the Rocky Mountain Region. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.


Hays, W.W., ed., 1988, A Review of Earthquake Research Applications in the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program: 1977-1987. Open File Report 88-13-A. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Hays, W.W., and B.M. Rouhban, 1991, "U.S. National Earthquake Program Technology Transfer." Episodes 14 (1): 66-72.


Hunter, J.E., and F.L. Scmidt, 1990, Methods of Meta-Analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.


Johnson, L.A., and T.C. Durham, 1995, Towards an Action Agenda for Increasing Research Utilization in the Central United States. A Report on the Natural Hazards Research Symposium, Translating Research Into Practice. Louisville, KY: Central United States Earthquake Consortium.


Kreps, G.A., 1994, "Disaster Archives and Structural Analysis: Uses and Limitations." Pp. 45-71 in R.R. Dynes and K.J. Tierney, eds., Disaster Collective Behavior, and Social Organization. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.


Michaels, S., 1992, "New Perspectives on Diffusion of Earthquake Knowledge." Earthquake Spectra 8 (1): 159-174.


Mileti, D.S., 1995, "Assessing Hazards Research and Applications in the United States." Environment and Society 8 (3): 1-2.


Mitchell, J.K., 1989, "Where might the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Concentrate its Activities? A Comparative Analysis of Disaster Data Sets." Abstract DR-02 prepared for the Natural Hazards Workshop. Boulder Colorado.


Myers, M.F., 1993, "Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: The Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 11 (1): 41-54.


Nigg, J., 1988, "Frameworks for Understanding Knowledge Dissemination and Utilization: Applications for the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program." In W.W. Hays, ed., A Review of Earthquake Research Applications in the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program: 1977-1987. Open File Report 88-13-A. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Olson, R.A., C. Holland, H.C. Miller, W.H. Lambright, H.J. Lagorio, C.R. Treseder, and MEGAN, Inc., 1988, To Save Lives and Protect Property: A Policy Assessment of Federal Earthquake Activities, 1964-1987. Final Report prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Sacramento, CA: VSP Associates, Inc.


Palm, R., 1990. Natural Hazards: An Integrative Framework for Research and Planning. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Quarantelli, E.L., 1996, "Problematic Aspects of the Information/Communication Revolution for Disaster Planning and Disaster Research: Ten Non-Technical Issues and Questions." Paper presented via the Disaster '96 Internet Conference: "Electronic Communication and Disaster Management." at http://www.mcb.co.uk/services/conferen/jun96/disaster/conhome.htm.


Rubin, C.B., and A.C. Webb, 1987, Workshop for Users of Natural Hazards Research--Final Report. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University, Graduate Program in Science, Technology, and Public Policy.


Tierney, K.J., 1989, "Improving Theory and Research on Hazard Mitigation: Political Economy and Organizational Perspectives." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters7: 367-396.


Tierney, W., 1988, "Organizational Structure in Higher Education." Journal of Higher Education (January/February): 2-10.


Tornquist, K.M., 1994, "Out of the Ivory Tower." Journal of Higher Education (September/October): 533-540.


Wenger, D.E., 1989, "The Role of Archives for Comparative Studies of Social Structure and Disaster." Pp. 238-53 in G.A. Kreps, ed., Social Structure and Disaster. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.


Yin, R.K., and G.D. Andranovich, 1987, Getting Research Used in the Natural Hazards Field: The Role of Professional Associations. Washington, D.C.: Cosmos Corporation.


Yin, R.K., and M.K. Gwaltney, 1981, "Knowledge Utilization as a Networking Process." Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization 2: 555-580.


Yin, R.K., and G.B. Moore, 1985, The Utilization of Research: Lessons from the Natural Hazards Field. Washington, D.C.: Cosmos Corporation.


Risk Analysis, Risk Management, Risk Assessment, and Risk Mapping

Cardona, O.D., 1991, "Integrated Urban Seismic Risk Mitigation Project: Methodologies and Strategies for its Coordination and Management in Colombia." Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference on Seismic Zonation, Stanford, California.


Carrara, A., 1983, "Geomathematical Assessment of Regional Landslide Hazard." Pp 3-27 in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Soil and Structural Engineering. Florence, Italy: Universita di Firenze.


Covello, V.T., and J. Mumpower, 1985, "Risk Analysis and Risk Management: An Historical Perspective." Risk Analysis 5 (2): 103-120.


Ellen, S.D., G.F. Wieczorek, eds., 1988, Landslides, Floods, and Marine Effects of the Storm of January 3-5, 1982, in the San Francisco Bay Region, California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1434. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1995, Multi Hazards Identification and Risk Assessment: A Cornerstone of the National Mitigation Strategy. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Gao, J., 1993, "Identification of Topographic Settings Conducive to Landsliding in Nelson County, Virginia, U.S.A." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 18: 579-591,


Haimes, Y.Y., 1996, "Risk Management and Natural Hazard Protection." Natural Hazards Observer XX (3): 1-2.


Harman, J.B., and Murray, D.J., 1992, Soil Survey of Rifle Area, Colorado, Parts of Garfield and Mesa Counties. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.


** Heiman, C.F.L., 1997, Acceptable Risks: Politics, Policy, and Risky Technologies. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.


Hydrologic Engineering Center, 1971, HEC-2 Water Surface Profiles: Computer Program, 723-X6-L202A, Users Manual. Davis, CA.: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Center.


Kasperson, J.X., R.E. Kasperson, and B.L. Turner II, eds., 1995, Regions at Risk: Comparisons of Threatened Environments. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.


Kasperson, R.E., O. Renn, P. Slovic, H.S. Brown, J. Emel, R. Gobel, J.X. Kasperson, and S. Ratick, 1988, "The Social Amplification of Risk: A Conceptual Framework." Risk Analysis: An International Journal 8 (2): 177-204.


Kunreuther, H., and P. Slovic, eds., 1996, "Challenges in Risk Assessment and Risk Management." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 545: 1-220.


Lambe, T.W., and R.V. Whitman, R.V., 1969, Soil Mechanics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Mark, R., 1992, Map of Debris-flow Probability, San Mateo County, California. U.S. Geological Survey Map I-1257-MU. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior.


** Mayo, D.G., and R.D. Hollander (eds), 1991, Acceptable Evidence: Science and Values in Risk Management. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.


** Monmonier, M.S., 1998, Cartographies of Danger: Mapping Hazards in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Mora, S., and W.G. Vahrson, 1992, "Determinacion a Priori de la Amenaza de Deslizamientos Utilizando Indicadores Morfodonamicos." Pp. 259-273 in: J.B. Alzate, ed., Memoria del Primer Simposio Internacional Sobre Sensores Remotos y Sistemas de Informacion Geografica (SIG) para el Estudio de Riesgos Naturales. Bogota, Colombia.


National Research Council, 1994, Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


National Research Council, 1983, Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Nevo, A., and L.A. Garcia, 1993, "Spatial Optimization of Wildlife Habitat." Paper presented at the International Summer Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers and the Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineers, Spokane, Washington, June 20-23.


Petak, W.J., and A.A. Atkisson, 1982, Natural Hazard Risk Assessment and Public Policy. New York: Springer Verlag.


Short, J.F. Jr., 1984, "The Social Fabric at Risk: Toward the Social Transformation of Risk Analysis." American Sociological Review 49 (6): 711-725.


Slovic, P., B. Fischoff, and S. Lichtenstein, 1979, "Rating the Risks." Environment 21 (3): 14-39.


Starr, C., 1969, "Social Benefits vs. Technological Risk." Science 165: 1232-1238.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1987, Unfinished Business: A Comparative Assessment of Environmental Problems. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


U.S. Presidential and Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997, Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management.


Walsh, S.J., D.R. Butler, D.G. Brown, and L. Bian, 1990, "Cartographic Modeling of Snow Avalanche Path Location Within Glacier National Park, Montana." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 56: 615-621.


Wieczorek, G.F., E.W. Lips, and S.D. Ellen, 1989, Debris-flows and Hyperconcentrated Floods along the Wasatch Front, Utah, 1983 and 1984." Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists 26 (3): 191-208.


Technology: GIS, Decision Support Systems, and Remote Sensing

Abrams, M., E. Abbott, and A. Kahle 1991, "Combined Use of Visible, Infrared, and Thermal Infrared Images for Mapping Hawaiian Lava Flows." Journal of Geophysical Research 96: 475-484.


Berke, P., and N. Stubbs, 1989, "Automated Decision Support Systems for Hurricane Mitigation Planning." Simulation (September): 101-109.


Beroggi, G.E.G., and W.A. Wallace, eds., 1995, Computer Supported Risk Management. Dordrecht: Kluwer.


Brabb, E.E., E.H. Pampeyan, and M.G. Bonilla, 1972, Landslide Susceptibility in San Mateo County, California. U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-360. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.


Butler, D.R., and S.J. Walsh, 1990. "Lithologic, Structural, and Topographic Influences on Snow-avalanche Path Location, Eastern Glacier National Park, Montana." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 80: 362-378.


Cablk, M.E., B. Kjerve, W.K. Michener, and J.R. Jensen 1994, "Impacts of Hurricane Hugo on a Coastal Forest: Assessment Using Landsat TM Data." Geocarto International 9 (2): 15-24.


Carrara, A., and F. Guzzetti, eds., 1996, Geographical Information Systems in Assessing Natural Hazards. Dordrecht: Kluwer.


Chuvieco, E., and M.P. Martin, 1994, "Global Fire Mapping and Fire Danger Estimation Using AVHRR Images." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 49 (2): 213-217.


Collins, R.F., M.S. Scott, D. Thomas, and M.E. Hodgson 1997, "Working Bibliography on Hazards and Geographic Information Processing Techniques." Discussion Paper 10. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, Department of Geography.


Cowen, D.J., 1988, "GIS vs CAD vs DBMS." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 54: 1551-1555.


Cracknell, A.P., and L.W.B. Hayes, 1991, Introduction to Remote Sensing. Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis, Inc.


Dangermond, J., 1985, "Network Allocation Modeling for Emergency Planning." Emergency Planning: Simulation Series 15 (1): 101-106.


DeBalogh, F., W. Petak, and J. Sessler, 1983, A Computerized Demonstration Model for Earthquake Mitigation. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, Institute of Safety and Systems Management.


Dong, W., J. Kim, F. Wong, and H. Shah, 1988, A Knowledge-based Seismic Risk Evaluation System for the Insurance and Investment Industries (IRAS). Proceedings for the Ninth World Conference of Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo, Japan.


Dunn, C.E., 1992, "Optimal Routs in GIS and Emergency Planning Applications." Area 24: 259-267.


Fedra, K., and D.P. Loucks, 1985, "Interactive Computer Technology for Planning and Policy Modeling." Water Resources Research 21: 114-122.


Gattrell, A.C., and P. Vincent 1991, "Managing Natural and Technological Hazards." Pp. 148-180 in I. Masser and M. Blakemore, eds., Handling Geographical Information: Methodology and Potential Applications. New York: Longman Scientific & Technical and John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Goodchild, M.F., B.O Parks, and L.T. Steyaert, eds., 1993, Environmental Modeling with GIS. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Gurney, R.J., J.L. Foster, and C.L. Parkinson, eds., 1993, Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change. New York: University of Cambridge.


Hazards Management Group, 1988, Enhanced GDS 2.0 at a Glance: Hurricane Response Software for Professionals by Professionals. Tallahassee, FL: Hazard Management Group.


Helfert, M.R., and K.P. Lulla 1990. "Mapping Continental-scale Biomass Burning and Smoke Palls over the Amazon Basin as Observed From the Space Shuttle." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 56: 1367-1373.


Hobeika, A., 1988, Transportation Emergency Decision Support System: Demonstration Program. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


Hobeika, A.G., and B. Jamei, 1985, "Massvac: A Model for Calculating Evacuation Times Under Natural Disasters." Emergency Planning, Simulation Series 15 (1) 23-28.


Jensen, J.R., E.W. Ramsay, J.M. Holmes, J.E. Michel, B. Savitsky, and B.A. Davis, 1990, "Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Mapping for Oil Spills Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System Technology." International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 4 (2): 181-201.


Johnson, G.O., 1992, "GIS Applications in Emergency Management." URISA Journal 4 (1): 66-72.


Johnson, R.D., 1994, "Change Vector Analysis for Disaster Assessment: A Case Study of Hurricane Andrew." Geocarto International 9 (1): 41-45.


Lougeay, R., P. Baumann, and M.D. Nellis, 1994, "Two Digital Approaches for Calculating the Area of Regions Affected by the Great American Flood of 1993." Geocarto International 9 (4): 53-59.


Mejia-Navarro, M., 1992, "Geological Hazard and Risk Evaluation Using GIS: Methodology and Model Applied to Medellin, Colombia." Unpublished M.S. thesis. Fort Collins: Colorado State University.


Mejia-Navarro, M., and E.E. Wohl, 1994, "Geological Hazard and Risk Evaluation Using GIS: Methodology and Model Applied to Medellin, Colombia." Bulletin of the Association of Engineering GeologistsXXXI: 459-481.


Mitchell, J.T., M.S. Scott, D.S.K. Thomas, M. Cutler, P.D. Putnam, R.F. Collins, and S.L. Cutter, 1997, "Mitigating Against Disaster: Assessing Hazard Vulnerability at the Local Level." Pp. 563-571 in Proceedings, GIS/LIS'97. Cincinnati, OH: Association of American Geographers.


Richter, R., F. Lehmann, R. Hayden, and P. Volk, 1986, "Analysis of Landsat TM Images of Chernobyl." International Journal of Remote Sensing 7 (12): 1859-1867.


Risk Management Solutions, Inc., 1995, "What if the 1906 Earthquake Strikes Again? A San Francisco Bay Area Scenario." Menlo Park: Risk Management Solutions, Inc.


Robinson, J.M., 1991, "Fire From Space: Global Fire Evaluation Using Infrared Remote Sensing." International Journal of Remote Sensing 12: 3-24.


Rosenfeld, C., 1994, "Flood Hazard Reduction: GIS Maps Survival Strategies in Bangladesh." Geo Info Systems4 (5): 29-37.


Sorensen, J.H., S.A. Carnes, and G.O. Rogers 1992, "A Approach for Deriving Emergency Planning Zones for Chemical Munitions Emergencies." Journal of Hazardous Materials 30: 223-242.


Symons, L., and A. Perry 1979, "The Blizzards of Early 1978 and the Use of Helicopters to Alleviate the Resulting Economic and Social Disruption." Disasters 3 (1): 8-12.


Tomlinson, R.F., 1987, "Current and Potential Uses of Geographic Information Systems: The North American Experience." International Journal of Geographic Information Systems 1: 203-218.


Wadge, G., A. Wislocki, E.J. Pearson, and J.B. Whittow, 1993, "Mapping Natural Hazards With Spatial Modeling Systems." Pp. 239-250 in P.M. Mather, ed., Geographical Information Handling--Research and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.


International Approaches

Bates, F.L., and W.G. Peacock, 1993, Living Conditions, Disasters and Development: An Approach to Cross-cultural Comparisons. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.


Borton, J., 1993, "Recent Trends in the International Relief System." Disasters 17 (3): 187-201.


Church World Service, 1997, Mitigation and Prevention Issues. New York: Church World Service.


Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, 1993, International Environment: Briefing Book on Major Selected Issues. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service Library of Congress. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Eade, D., and S. Williams, 1995, The Oxfam Handbook of Development and Relief. Oxford: Oxfam.


Harrell-Bond, E., 1986, Imposing Aid. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.


Laval, A., and E. Franco, eds., 1996, Estado, Sociedad y Gestion de los Desastres en Americana Latina. Lima/San Jose: La Red.


League of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 1991, Working with Women in Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation Programmes. Field Studies Paper No. 2. Geneva, Switzerland: The League.


Merani, N.S., 1991, "The International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction." In A. Kreimer and M. Munasinghe, eds., Managing Natural Disasters and the Environment. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.


Mileti, D.S., 1989, "Catastrophic Planning and the Grass Roots: A Lesson to the U.S.A. from the U.S.S.R." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 7: 57-67.


Mitchell, J.K., 1989, "Confronting Natural Disasters: An International Decade for Natural Hazard Reduction." Environment30 (2): 25-9.


National Research Council, 1987, Confronting Natural Disasters: An International Decade for Natural Disasters. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.


von Kotze, A., and A. Holloway 1996, Reducing Risk: Participatory Learning Activities for Disaster Mitigation in Southern Africa. Oxford/Durban/Geneva: Oxfam/University of Durban, Department of Education.


Wescoat, J.L. Jr., and J.W. Jacobs, 1992, The Evolution of Flood Hazards Programs in Asia: the Current Situation. Working Paper No. 85. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.


Wisner, B., and R. Slooff, eds., 1998, A Guide to Environmental Health Management in Disasters and Emergencies. Geneva: World Health Organization.


** These citations were added to this bibliography after its initial publication.


Originally published May 21, 1999
Last revised January 24, 2000