Uses of Energy

 

Topics:

 

 

 

Production and consumption trends

 

Current global energy use by type (in percent)

 

Energy type

 

Percent use

 

Percent use without wood

 

Oil

 

33

 

38

 

Natural gas

 

17

 

20

 

Coal

 

26

 

30

 

Nuclear

 

3

 

4

 

Fuelwood

 

15

 

 

Hydropower

 

6

 

7

 

Windpower

 

Less than 1

 

Less than 1

 

Solar

 

Less than 1*

 

Less than 1*

 

Geothermal

 

Less than 1

 

Less than 1

Notes:

 

*solar use is intrinsically underestimated as we don't know how much passive solar energy is used in heating, for example.

Fossil fuel use is 76%, or 88% without fuelwood

Wind, solar, and geothermal total about 1%.

Production and consumption of energy is misbalanced

Production and consumption ratios:

 

Region/

country

 

Oil

 

Natural gas

 

Coal

 

OPEC

 

7

 

1.4

 

1.3

 

NOOE

 

2.7

 

1.2

 

0.9

 

Africa

 

0.4

 

0.4

 

1.4

 

Asia and Oceania

 

0.7

 

1.1

 

1.0

 

Latin America

 

0.8

 

0.9

 

1.0

 

North America

 

0.6

 

1.0

 

1.1

 

Western Europe

 

0.4

 

0.7

 

0.7

 

Pacific

 

0.1

 

0.3

 

0.9

 

Central Europe

 

0.3

 

0.5

 

1.0

 

Russia

 

1.6

 

1.2

 

1.0

 

World

 

1.1

 

1.0

 

1.0

 

Notes:

OPEC countries: Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela

 

NOOE is non-OPEC oil exporters: Developing countries whose exports of petroleum and gas account for at least 30 percent of merchandise exports: Afghanistan, Angola, Bahrain, Bolivia, Brunei, the Congo, Egypt, Mexico, the Netherlands Antilles, Oman, Syria, Trinidad & Tobago, and Yemen

 

Pacific: Australia, Japan, and New Zealand.

 

Only OPEC and Russia have exports exceeding imports for all fossil fuels

 

Oil is the least balanced fossil fuel

 

Western Europe and Pacific countries have net imports for all fossil fuels

 

 

 

Focus on the oil imbalance

The industrialized countries consume most of the oil (more than 50%), but produce less than a quarter of the oil.

Consider what is needed to make up for an energy "gap" should imports be cut off:

 

North America

Oil imports are about 13,000 petajoules per year

Export of coal is about 2,500 petajoules per year

 

Energy gap is about 10,500 petajoules per year

 

Example: current nuclear energy production is about 2,000 petajoules per year, so this would have to increased by 500% (5 times) to make up the gap (imports only!).

 

Western Europe

Oil imports are about 14,500 petajoules per year

Coal imports are about 3,500 petajoules per year

Natural gas imports are about 2,500 petajoules per year

 

Energy gap is about 20,500 petajoules per year… this is nearly twice that of North America's energy gap.

 

Example: current nuclear energy production is about 2,500 petajoules per year, so this would have to increased by 1000% (10 times) to make up the gap (imports only!).

 

 

 

 

Trade deficit and oil

 

 

Oil and autos have become the largest component of our trade deficit.

 

 

Current Trade Deficit:

 

 

 

Growth of fossil fuel use is larger

in the developing countries

 

 

Driven both by population increase and by increase in the per capita energy use.

This is partly balanced by the amount of energy needed to produce goods, or the energy intensity.

 

Industrialized countries are more efficient than developing countries in energy use.

This does not balance the high per capita energy use of industrialized countries, however.

 

 

Energy use per person

 

Countries/Region

 

Energy use in petajoules

 

Popu-lation in millions

 

Energy use per person*

 

Energy use per person relative to North America

 

OPEC

 

12200

 

506

 

24

 

12.3

 

NOOE

 

7000

 

233

 

30

 

9.9

 

Africa

 

5000

 

497

 

10

 

29.5

 

A&O

 

50000

 

3069

 

16

 

18.2

 

LA

 

8000

 

358

 

22

 

13.3

 

NA

 

82000

 

314

 

261

 

1.1

 

WE

 

50000

 

416

 

120

 

2.5

 

Pacific

 

19000

 

164

 

116

 

2.6

 

Central Europe

 

15000

 

128

 

117

 

2.5

 

Russia

 

55000

 

328

 

167

 

1.8

 

Total

 

303200

 

6013

 

 

*Energy use per person is in petajoules per million people

 

 

How energy is used

 

Four sectors:

Agriculture is generally small, 2 to 5% of total energy use.

In industrialized countries, the "big 3", transportation, res/comm and industry, are about even.

In developing countries, industry uses most of the energy.

 

Worldwide, the distribution is approximately

  • 40% industry

    20% transportation

    40% residential/commercial

     

  • Note that individuals in industrialized countries have direct control over about 1/3 of the energy used…

     

     

    Choices made by individuals, such as the type of auto driven, the use of solar energy in the home, etc., play a major part in how efficiently energy is used.

     

    Trends in energy use

     

    General trends with time: