|"Lassen Sie uns mit vorsichtiger Kritik, aber nicht zaghaften
Sinnes, sondern in mutigem Denken und in froher Zuversicht an dem weiteren
Ausbau...unserer Wissenschaft arbeiten."
WORKS CITED IN THE TEXT
A. Historical background of American geographyII.THE NATURE OF GEOGRAPHY ACCORDING TO ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
B. Attempts to reform the nature of geography
C. The purpose of this study
D. The need for an historical study
A. The pre-classical period of modern geographyIII. DEVIATIONS FROM THE COURSE OF HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
B. The classical period: Humboldt and Ritter
C. Shifting viewpoints in the second half of the nineteenth century
D. The immediate background of current geography
A. Attempts to construct a "scientific" geographyIV. THE JUSTIFICATION FOR THE HISTORICAL CONCEPT OF GEOGRAPHY AS A CHOROGRAPHIC SCIENCE
B. Geography as a science of the planet earth
C. Geography as a science of relationships
D. Geography as the science of distributions
A. The common-sense justificationV. "LANDSCHAFT" AND "LANDSCAPE"
B. The logical justification: the position of geography in relation to other sciences
C. Importance of the comparison of geography and history
D. Disagreements concerning the character of geography as a chorographic science
A. The present confusionVI. THE RELATION OF HISTORY TO GEOGRAPHY
B. A solution for "landscape"
C. Natural and cultural landscapes
A . Geography in historyVII. THE LIMITATION OF THE PHENOMENA OF GEOGRAPHY TO THINGS PERCEIVED BY THE SENSES
B. History in geography
C. Historical geography
A. Significance in current thoughtVIII. A LOGICAL BASIS FOR THE SELECTION OF DATA IN GEOGRAPHY
B. Is the limitation logically founded?
C. Is the limitation consistent with the historical development of the field?
D. Does the limitation provide a unified field?
E. Practical results of the concept
F. Relation to the study of settlement forms
A. Derived from the fundamental concept of geographyIX. THE CONCEPT OF THE REGION AS A CONCRETE UNIT OBJECT
B. The criteria for the selection of data
C.. Application of the criteria
D. Relation of the criteria to the special technique of geography
A. Various statements of the conceptX. METHODS OF ORGANIZING THE WORLD INTO REGIONS
B. The purpose of the concept
C. Is the geographic area an organism?
D. Harmony and rhythm in the geographic area
E. Is the geographic area a concrete unitary object?
F. Apparent and partial forms of areal units
G. Conclusion: practical results of the concept
A. Theoretical principles of regional divisionXI. WHAT KIND OF SCIENCE IS GEOGRAPHY
B. Types of systems that have been constructed
C. Systems of "natural regions"
D. Systems of specific regions: Hettner's genetic system
E. Comparative systems of generic regions based on elements of the natural environment
F. Comparative systems of generic regions based on cultural element-complexes
G. The practicability and validity of comparative systems of cultural regions
A. "What's in a name?"XII.CONCLUSION: THE NATURE OF GEOGRAPHY
B. The character of geography as determined by its position among the sciences
C. The character of geography in relation to the general nature of science
D. Generic concepts and principles in geography
E. Organization of knowledge in geography
F. Comparison of the organization in geography with that in other integrating sciences
G. The character of systematic geography
H. The character of regional geography
I. The integrated dualism of geography
Created on January 7, 1998 by RRR. Last revised 1999.4.1. KEF.