WORKS CITED IN THE TEXT

This study of the nature of geography is derived from writings by students of the subject. In the text, citations of these writings occur on nearly every page, where they stand, abbreviated, in brackets. To facilitate reference to the titles thus cited, the bibliography is unconventionally placed before the text.

In each bracketed citation in the text the number in italics gives the number of the title in this list. Succeeding numbers in Roman type cite the pages to which reference is made.

The works are arranged in groups such that the list, in itself, may be of most service to the student. In each group (excepting the miscellaneous group listed last) the titles are arranged in approximately chronological order. The first part is concerned with the historical development of thought concerning geography prior to the present century, including historical and biographical studies as well as examples of studies in geography. The second and larger part is concerned with the development of thought in the present century. The following outline indicates the arrangement.
 

I. History of geographic thought, prior to 1900 [1-82]

General historical studies [1-11] [Additional notes 401-407]
Biographical and critical studies of the work of individual geographers [12-37] [Additional notes 408-410]
Methodology, with illustrative works [38-82]
II. Geographic thought in the twentieth century [83-400]
General surveys of geographic work [83-110] [Additional notes 411-415]
Philosophy of science and of non-geographic fields [111-120]
The methodology of geography, in general [121-224]
in Germany and other German-speaking countries [121-181] [Additional notes 416-419]
in France [182-187] [Additional notes 420-421]
in other continental countries [188-191]
in Great Britain [192-202] [Additional notes 422-431]
in the United States and Canada [203-224] [Additional notes432-436]
The theory of regions, Landschaften, landscapes, and boundaries [225-297]
in Europe [225-280] [Additional notes 437-442]
in the United States and Canada [281-297] [Additional notes443-450]
Systems of regional division [298-328]
Studies cited as illustrations (arranged alphabetically, by authors), [329-400]
Methodology of applied geography [Additional notes 451-460]


The word "Bibliography," in parentheses indicates that the study includes a particularly useful list of references, whether in the form of a separate list or in footnote references.

A. HISTORY OF GEOGRAPHIC THOUGHT, PRIOR TO 1900

GENERAL HISTORICAL STUDIES

1. Wisotzki, Emil: Zeitströmungen in der Geographie. Leipzig, 1897. (Bibliography.)

2. Hettner, Alfred: "Die Entwicklung der Geographie im 19.Jahrhundert," Geogr. Ztschr., 4 (1898), 305-320. [Expanded in 161, 1-109.]

3. Richthofen, Ferdinand Frh. von: "Triebkräfte und Richtungen der Erdkunde im neunzehnten Jahrhundert" (Rektoratsrede, University of Berlin, 1903), Ztschr. d. Ges, f. Erdkunde, Berlin, 38 (1903), 655-692.

4. Günther, Siegmund: "Entwicklung der Erdkunde als Wissenschaft: Teil- und Hilfswissenschaften derselben," in Rothe, K. C., and E. Weyrich, Der moderne Erdkunde-Unterricht, Wien, Leipzig, 1912, 7-40.

5. Becker, Anton: "Entwicklung der Methodik des Erdkundeunterrichtes," in Rothe, K. C., and E. Weyrich, Der moderne Erdkunde- Unterricht, Wien, Leipzig, 1912, 41-55.

6. Wagner, Hermann: Lehrbuch der Geographie. Hannover, 1920. "Einleitung," 17-36.

7. Schmidt, Peter Heinrich: Wirtschaftsforschung und Geographie. Jena, 1925. (Bibliography.)

8. Plewe, Ernst: Untersuchung über den Begriff der "vergleichenden" Erdkunde und seine Anwendung in der neueren Geographie. Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdkunde, Berlin, Erg. Heft 4 (1932). (Bibliography.)

9. Wright, John Kirtland: "A Plea for the History of Geography," Isis (Bruxelles), 8 (1925), 477-491. (Excellent bibliography on history of geography.)

10. Dickinson, Robert E., and O. J. R. Howarth: The Making of Geography. Oxford, 1933.

11. Bürger, Kurt: Der Landschaftsbegriff: ein Beitrag zur geographischen Erdraumauffassung. Dresdener geograph. Studien 7, 1935. (Bibliography). Abstract by K. H. Huggins, "Landscape and Landschaft," Geography 21 (1936), 225 f.
 
 

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL STUDIES OF THE WORK OF INDIVIDUAL GEOGRAPHERS

12. Gerland, Georg: "Immanuel Kant, seine geographischen und anthropologischen Arbeiten," Kant-Studien, 19 (1905), 1-43, 417-547. Also published separately, Berlin, 1906.

13. Adickes, Erich: Katies Ansichten über Geschichte und Bau der Erde. Tübingen, 1911.

14. idem: Untersuchungen zu Kants physicher Geographie. Tübingen, 1911.

15. idem: Ein neu aufgefundenes Kollegheft nach Kants Vorlesung über physische Geographie. University, Tübingen, 1913. Reviews of this and two preceding titles, by O. Schlüter, Geogr. Ztschr., 19 (1913), 115; 20 (1914), 415.

16. Dove, Alfred: "Johann Reinhold Forster," and "George F. Forster," Allg. deutsche Biographie, 7 (1878), 166-181.

17. Fünf Briefe der Gebrüder von Humboldt an Johann Reinhold Forster, edited by F. Jonas. Berlin, 1899.

18. Goethes Briefwechsel mit Wilhelm und Alexander v. Humboldt, edited by L. Geiger. Berlin, 1919.

19. Briefwechsel Alexander v. Humboldt's mit Heinrich Berghaus, edited by Berghaus. 3 vols., Jena 1862, 1869.

20. Bruhns, Karl, editor: Alexander v. Humboldt: tine wissenschaftliche Biographie. 3 vols., Leipzig, 1872; English edition, vols. 1-2 only, London, 1873. (Bibliography.) (The references in this paper are taken from the biographical sections of Vol. I, by J. Löwenberg, and Vol. II, by A. Dove, and from the critical essay in Vol. III, by A. H. R. Grisebach; Peschel's essay is reprinted in his Abhandlung [66].)

21. Dove, Alfred: "Alexander v. Humboldt," Allg. deutsche Biographie, 13 (1881), 358-383.

22. Döring, Lothar: Wesen und Aufgaben der Geographie bei Alexander von Humboldt. Diss., Univ. Frankfurt, 1930. Also published in Frankfurter Geograph. Hefte, 1931. (Bibliography.)

23. Rehder, Helmut: Die Philosophie der unendlichen Landschaft: Ihr Ursprung und ihre Vollendung. Diss., Heidelberg, 1929.

24. Kramer, Gustav: Carl Ritter: ein Lebensbild nach seinem handschriftlichen Nachlass. 2 vols., Halle, 1864, 1870.

25. Marthe, F.: Was bedeutet Carl Ritter für die Geographie. Berlin, 1880. Brochure, reprinted with additions, from Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdkunde, Berlin, 1879, 374-400.

26. Ratzel, Friedrich: "Zu Carl Ritters hundertjährigem Geburtstage," in Kleine Schriften, Munich, 1906, I, 377-428. Originally published in newspaper, 1879, in part also in Allg. Dtsch. Biographie, 28, 679-697.

27. Hözel, Emil: "Das geographische Individuum bei Carl Ritter und seine Bedeutung für den Begriff des Naturgebietes und der Naturgrenze," Geogr. Ztschr., 2 (1896), 378-96, 433-444.

28. Fröbel, Julius: Ein Lebenslauf: Aufzeichnungen, Erinnerungen und Bekenntnisse. 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1890-91. Abstract in Allg. deutsche Biographie, 49 (1904), 163-172.

29. Hantzsch, Viktor: "Ernst Kapp," Allg. deutsche Biographie, 51 (1906), 31-33.

30. Girardin, Paul, and Jean Brunhes: "Elisée Reclus' Leben und Wirken," Geogr. Ztschr., 12 (1906), 65-79.

31. Ratzel, Friedrich: "Oscar Peschel," Allg. deutsche Biographie, 25 (1887), 416-430. Repub. in Ratzel, Kleine Schriften, Munich, 1906, I, 429-447.

32. Hettner, Alfred: "Ferdinand von Richthofens Bedeutung für die Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 12 (1906), 1-11.

33. Ule, Willi: "Alfred Kirchhoff," Geogr. Ztschr., 13 (1907), 537-552.

34. Steffen, Hans: "Erinnerungen an Alfred Kirchoff als Methodiker und Universitütslehrer," Geogr. Ztschr., 25 (1919), 289-302.

35. Helmodt, Hans: "Friedrich Ratzel, ein Lebensabriss von ihm selbst und vom Herausgeber," in Ratzel, Kleine Schriften, Munich, 1906 (H. Helmodt, editor), I, xxi-xxiii.

36. Hassert, Kurt: "Friedrich Ratzel, Sein Leben und Wirken," Geogr. Ztschr., 11 (1905), 305-325, 361-380.

37. Sapper, Karl: "Georg Gerland," Geogr. Ztschr., 25(1919), 329-340.
 
 

METHODOLOGY, WITH ILLUSTRATIVE WORKS (See Supplementary Note 1)

38. The Geography of Strabo. Trans. by H. C. Hamilton and W. Falconer, London, 1892.

39. Kant, Immanuel: Vorkritische Schriften, in Kant's Gesammelte Schriften, Berlin Academy of Sciences edition, Bd. I, II (1902, 1905). (Includes various short studies on the earth and its movements, earthquakes, and winds, and statements of his program for the course in "Physical Geography" for various years, originally published 1754-1765, Bd. I, 183-204, 417-472, 489-503; II, 1-12, 312 f., 443. See also Reflexionen zur physischen Geographie, edited by E. Adickes from manuscripts, Bd. XIV (1911), 539-635.)

40. Immanuel Kant's physische Geographie, edited by F. T. Rink. First published Königsberg, 1802, evidently from manuscripts of 1775 and 1759 (see footnote 3 in text). Republished in various editions of Kant's works, particularly in edition pub. by Berlin Academy of Sciences, Kant's Gesammelte Schriften, Bd. IX (1923), 151-436, with notes by Paul Gedan, 509-568.

41. Forster, John Reinhold: Observations made during A Voyage Round the World, on Physical Geography, Natural History and Ethic Philosophy. London, 1778.

42. Humboldt, Alexander v.: Florae Fribergensis Specimen. Berlin, 1793. (Long footnote on the division of the sciences concerned with nature, ix-x.)

43. idem: Ideen zu einer Physiognomik der Gewächse. (Brochure), Tübingen, 1806.

44. idem: Ideen zu einer Geographie der Pflanzen nebst einem Naturgemälde der Tropenländer. Tübingen, 1807.

45. idem: Ansichten der Natur: mit wissenschaftlichen Erläuterungen. Stuttgart, 1808, 1849.

46. idem: Essai politique sur le royaume de la nouvelle Espagne. Paris, 1811.

47. idem: Relation historique du Voyage aux régions équinoxes du Nouveau Continent. 3 vols.; Paris, 1814-25.

48. Alexander von Humboldts Natur- und Kulturschilderungen, ausgewählt und eingeleitet von Karl H. Dietzel. Leipzig, 1923. [Selections chiefly from the three preceding works.]

49. Ritter, Carl: Die Erdkunde, im Verhältniss zur Natur und zur Geschichte des Menschem, oder allgemeine, vergleichende Geographie als sichere Grundlage des Studiums und Unterrichts in physikalischen und historischen Wissenschaften. 19 vols. (2nd. ed. of Vols. I. II), Berlin, 1822-59. [Introduction, 1, 1-88, republished in 50.]

50. idem: Einleitung zur allgemeinen vergleichenden Geographie, und Abkandlungen zur Begründung einer mehr wissenschaftlichen Behandlung der Erdkunde. Berlin, 1852. Republication of "Einleitung," and "Allgemeine Vorbemerkungen über die festen Formen der Erdrinde," both from the Erdkunde (1817); and five lectures given before the Acad. d. Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1826, 1828, 1833, 1836, 1850, and previously published in Abhandlung d. kgl. Akad. . . . (hist.-phil. Kl.).

51. Bucher, August Leopold: Von den Hindernissen, welche der Einführung eines besseren Ganges beym Vortrage der Erdkunde auf Schulen im Wege stehen. Cöslin, 1827.

52. Humboldt, Alexander v.: Vorlesungen über physikalische Geographie nebst Prolegomenen über Stellung der Gestirne, Berlin im Winter 1827-28. Ed. by Miron Goldstein, Berlin, 1934.

53. Fröbel, Julius: Geographisch-statistische Beschreibung von Ober-und Nieder-Peru, Argentinien, Uruguay und Paraguay. Vol. 20 of Handbuch der neuesten Erdbeschreibung, ed. by A. C. Gaspari, GuthsMuts and others. Weimar, 1831-32.

54. idem: "Einige Blicke auf den jetzigen formellen Zustand der Erdkunde," Annalen der Erd-, Völker- und Staatenkunde (Berghaus Annalen), 4 (1831), 493-506.

55. Ritter, Carl: "Carl Ritter's Schreiben an Heinrich Berghaus, in Beziehung auf den vorstehenden Aufsatz des Herrn Julius Fröbel," Annalen der Erd-, Vö1ker- und Staatenkunde (Berghaus Annalen), 4 (1831), 506-520.

56. Fröbel, Julius: "Ueber die Unterscheidung einer Erdkunde als eigentlicher Naturwissenschaft und einer historischen Erdkunde," Annalen der Erd-, Vö1ker- und Staatenkunde (Berghaus Annalen), 6 (1832), 1-10.

57. idem: "Entwurf eines Systemes der geographischen Wissenschaften," Mittheil. aus d. Gebiete d. Theoretischen Erdkunde (Zurich), 1 (1836), 1-35, 121-132. Discussed by H. Wagner, Geogr. Jahrb. 7 (1878), 621 f.

58. idem: "Ueber den orographischen Begriff des Gebirges, mit Andeutungen zu einer reinen Hypsographie," Mittheil. aus d. Gebiete d. Theoretischen Erdkunde (Zurich), 1 (1836), 469-481,

59. Humboldt, Alexander v.: Asie Centrale: Recherches sur les Chaines de Montagnes et la climatologie comparée. 2 vols., Paris, 1843.

60. idem: Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung. 5 vols., Stuttgart, 1845-62.

61. Ritter, Carl: Allgemeine Erdkunde. Vorlesungen an d. Univ. Berlin, hrsg. v. H. A. Daniel, Berlin, 1862.

62. Fröbel, Julius: Aus Amerika: Erfahrungen, Reisen und Studien. 2 vols., Leipzig, 1857-58. Rewritten as Seven Years Travel in Central America, Northern Mexico, and the Far West of the United States. London, 1859. Review of former by Neumann, in Ztschr. f. allg. Erdkunde, 1858, 83 ff.; see also review by same of Fröbel's study of German immigration in America, op. cit., 1860.

63. idem: Amerika, Europa und die politischen Gesichtspunkte der Gegenwart. Berlin, 1859.

64. Guyot, Arnold H.: The Earth and Man. (Trans. from French), Boston, New York, 1863.

65. Brown, Ralph H.: "Arnold Guyot's Notes on the Southern Appalachians," Geogr. Rev., 29 (1939), 157 f.

66. Peschel, Oscar: Abhandlungen zur Erd- und Vö1kerkunde. 3 vols., Leipzig, 1877. Republication, after his death, of articles published 1854-75.

67. idem: Neue Probleme der Vergleichenden Erdkunde als Versuch einer Morphologie der Erdoberfläche. Leipzig, 1870, 1878. In part previously published in Ausland, 1866 and following years.

68. Spörer, Julius: "Zur historischen Erdkunde: Ein Streifzug durch das Gebiet der geographischen Literatur," Geogr. Jahrb., 3 (1870), 326-420. (Bibliography.)

69. Richthofen, Ferdinand Frh. v.: China. Vol. I, Berlin, 1877.

70. Marthe, F.: "Begriff, Ziel und Methode der Geographie," Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, 1877, 422-467. Abstract in Geogr. Jahrb., 7 (1878), 628.

71. Wagner, Hermann: "Bericht über die Methodik der Erdkunde," Geogr. Jahrb., 9 (1882), 651-700.

72. Ratzel, Friedrich: Anthropogeographie. Stuttgart, 1. Teil, 1882, 1899; 2. Teil, 1891, 1912.

73. Richthofen, Ferdinand Frh. v.: Aufgaben und Methoden der heutigen Geographie. Akad. Antrittsrede, Leipzig, 1883.

74. Wimmer, J.: Historische Landschaftskunde. Innsbruck, 1885.

75. Wagner, Hermann: "Bericht über die Methodik der Erdkunde (1883-1885)," Geogr. Jahrb., 10 (1885), 607-610.

76. Gerland, Georg: "Vorwort des Herausgebers," ("Die wissenschaftliche Aufgabe der Geographie, ihre Methode und ihre Stellung im praktischen Leben," title according to Ratzel), Beiträge zur Geophysik, 1 (1887), i-liv.

77. Wagner, Herman: "Bericht über die Entwickelung der Methodik und des Studiums der Erdkunde (1885-1888)," Geogr. Jahrb., 12 (1888), 418-444.

78. Supan, Alexander: "Über die Aufgaben der Spezialgeographie und ihre gegenwärtige Stellung in der geographischen Literatur," Peterm. Mitt., 35 (1889), 153-157.

79. Vidal de la Blache, Paul: "États et nations de I'Europe autour de France. Paris, 1889.

80. Wagner, Hermann: "Bericht über die Methodik der Erdkunde," Geogr. Jahrb., 14 (1890), 371-399. (The last of a series of critical surveys of methodological literature, by Wagner, in Vols. 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 14.)

81. Richthofen, Ferdinand Frh. v.: "Antrittsrede"; Sitzg. Ber., Akad. d. Wissensch. (phys.-math. Kl.) Berlin, 1899, xxxii (603-607).

82. Richter, Edward: Die Grenzen der Geographie. Rektoratsrede, Graz Univ., 1900.
 
 

B. GEOGRAPHIC THOUGHT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

GENERAL SURVEYS OF GEOGRAPHIC WORK

83. Brunhes, Jean: "Human Geography"; chapter in History and Prospects of the Social Sciences, H. E. Barnes, ed., New York, 1925.

84. Sauer, Carl: "Recent Developments in Cultural Geography," Chap. 4 of Recent Developments in the Social Sciences, E. C. Hayes, ed., Philadelphia, 1927, pp. 154-212. (Bibliography.)

85. idem: "Cultural Geography," in Encycl. of Social Sciences, 6 (1931), 621-623.

86. Vallaux, Camille: "Human Geography," in Encycl. of Social Sciences, 6 (1931), 624-626.

87. Sapper, Karl: "Economic Geography," in Encycl. of Social Sciences, 6 (1931), 626-628,

88. Joerg, W. L. G.: "Recent Geographical Work in Europe," Geogr. Rev., 12 (1922), 431-483. (Bibliography.)

89. Vogel, Walther: "Stand und Aufgaben der historisch-geographischen Forschung in Deutschland," Peterm. Mitteil., Erg., H. 209 (1930), 346-360. Bibliography.)

90. Penck, Albrecht: on Alfred Hettner's importance in the development of geography, "Review" of Hettner's Vergleichende Länderkunde, in Deutsche Literaturzeitung, (I), 1935, 38-43; (II), 1936, 31-39.

91. Krebs, Norbert: "Der Stand der deutschen Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 241-249.

92. Oestreich, Karl: "Die neueren Strömungen in der niederländischen Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 289-297.

93. Musset, R.: "Der Stand der Geographie und ihre neueren wissenschaftlichen Strömungen in den Ländern französischer Zunge," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 269-277. (Bibliography.)

94. Migliorini, Elio: "Die heutigen neuen Strömungen in der italienischen Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 277-283.

95. Galon, Rajmund: "Die Geographie in Polen, ihre Fortschritte und Ziele," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 297-306. (Bibliography.)

96. Ahlmann, Hans W., and Nits Friberg: "Neue Strömungen in der nordischen geographischen Forschung," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 307-315. (Bibliography.)

97. Berg, Lev Simonovich: Outline of the History of Geography in Russia (in Russian). Reference based on review in Geogr. Ztschr., 36 (1930), 103.

98. Sö1ch, Johann: "Der geographische Unterricht in England," Geogr. Ztschr., 31 (1925), 26 ff.

99. idem: "Die.Verknüpfung von Geographie und Gesellschaftslehre in England," Geogr. Ztschr., 36 (1930), 145-157.

100. Huender, W. J.: De Englesche Geographie en de 20ste Euw. Utrecht, 1934. Synopsis in two pages in English. Review by J. Sö1ch in Geogr. Ztschr., 42 (1936), 27.

101. Dickinson, Robert E.: "Die gegenwärtigen Strömungen der britischen Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 258-269. (Bibliography.)

102. Davis, William Morris: "The Progress of Geography in the United States," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogr., 14 (1924), 159-215.

103. Johnson, Douglas: "The Geographic Prospect," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 19 (1929), 167-231.

104. Davis, William Morris: "A Retrospect of Geography," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 22 (1932), 211-230.

105. Parkins, Almon E.: "The Geography of American Geographers," Journal of Geog., 33 (1934), 221-230.

106. Bowman, Isaiah: Geography in Relation to the Social Sciences. New York, 1934. (Bibliography.)

107. Colby, Charles C.: "Changing Currents of Geographic Thought," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 26 (1936), 1-37. (Bibliography.)

108. Broek, J. O. M.: "Neuere Strömungen in der amerikanischen Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 249-258. (Bibliography.)

109. Pfeifer, Gottfried: "Entwicklungstendenzen in Theorie und Methode der regionalen Geographie in den Vereinigten Staaten, nach dem Kriege," Ztsch. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, 1938, 93-125. (Bibliography.) Abstract by J. Leighly, Geogr. Rev., 28 (1938), 679. (A complete translation by Leighly has been distributed in mimeograph form by the American Geographical Society.)

110. Inouyé, Syuzi: "Die japanische Geographie der letzten zehn Jahre," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 284-289,
 
 

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE, AND OF NON-GEOGRAPHIC FIELDS

111. Hettner, Alfred: Das System der Wissenschaften," Preuss. Jahrbücher, 122(1905), 251-277 [in part in 161, 110-117].

112. Wundt, Wilhelm: Logik. Stuttgart, 1907. Vol. II. "Logik der exakten Wissenschaften."

113. Lehmann, Otto: "Über die Stellung der Geographie in der Wissenschaft," Vierteljahrsschr. d. Naturforsch. Ges. in Zürich, 81 (1936), 217-239.

114. Barry, Frederick: The Scientific Habit of Thought: An Informal Discussion of the Source and Character of Dependable Knowledge. NewYork, 1927.

115. Cohen, Morris: Reason and Nature: An Essay on the Meaning of the Scientific Method. New York, 1931.

116. Kroeber, Alfred Louis: "History and Science in Anthropology," AmericanAnthropologist, 37 (1935), 539-569.

117. Johnson, Allen: The Historian and Historical Evidence. New York, 1934.

118. Steefel, Lawrence D.: "History," Chap. vii in Man and Society: A Substantive Introduction to the Social Sciences, E. P. Schmidt, ed., New York, 1937, 305-322.

119. Shotwell, James T.: "History," Encyc. Britt., 14th ed.

120. Barnes, Harry Elmer: "History," Encycl. Amer., rev. ed., 1938.
 
 

THE METHODOLOGY OF GEOGRAPHY, IN GENERAL

IN GERMAN-SPEAKING COUNTRIES*

121. Hettner, Alfred: "Geographische Forschung und Bildung," Geogr. Ztschr., 1 (1895), 1-19. [Concepts later developed in 126 and 161.]

122. Schlüter, Otto: "Bemerkungen zur Siedlungsgeographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 5 (1899), 65-84, especially, 65-68.

123. Hettner, Alfred: "Grundbegriffe und Grundsätze der physischen Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 9 (1903), 21-40, 121-139, 193-213. [Largely repeated in 161, 215-343.]

124. Oberhummer, Eugen: Die Stellung der Geographie zu den historischen Wissenschaften. (Brochure), 1904.

125. Penck, Albrecht: "Die Physiographie als Physiogeographie in ihren Beziehungen zu anderen Wissenschaften," Geogr. Ztschr., 11(1905), 1-20.

126. Hettner, Alfred: "Das Wesen und die Methoden der Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 11 (1905), 545-564, 615-629, 671-686. [Included in 161, 110-132, etc.]

127. Schlüter, Otto: Die Ziele der Geographie des Menschen. Antrittsrede, Munich, 1906.

128. Penck, Albrecht: Beobachtung als Grundlagen der Geographie.Two addresses, Berlin, 1906.

129. idem: "Antrittsrede," Sitzg. Ber., Akad. d. Wissensch. (phys.-math. KI.), Berlin, 1907: xxxiii (634-641).

130. Hettner, Alfred: "Die Geographie des Menschen," Geogr. Ztschr., 13(1907), 401-425. [Included in 161, 266-273.]

131. Schlüter, Otto: "Über das Verhältnis von Natur und Mensch in der Anthropogeographie" Geogr. Ztschr., 13(1907), 505-517. Discussion by A. Hettner, 580-583.

132. Hettner, Alfred: "Methodische Streifzüge," Geogr. Ztschr., 13(1907), 627-632, 694-699; 14 (1908), 561-568.

133. Banse, Ewald: "Geographie," Peterm. Mitt., 58 (1912), 1-4, 69-74, 128-131.

134. Schlüter, Otto: "Die Erde als Wohnraum des Menschen," in Rothe, K. C., and E. Weyrich, Der moderne Erdkunde-Unterricht, Wien, Leipzig, 1912, 379-430.

135. Hahn, Friedrich: "Methodische Untersuchungen über die Grenzen der Geographie (Erdbeschreibung) gegen die Nachbarwissenschaften," Peterm. Mitt., 60 (1914), 1-4, 65-68, 121-124.

136. Gradmann, Robert: "Geographie und Landeskunde," Geogr. Ztschr., 21 (1915), 700-704.

137. Penck, Albrecht: "Der Krieg und das Studium der Geographie," Ztschr. d. Ges. Erdk., Berlin, 1916; 158-176, 222-248.

138. Merz, Al.: "Die Heidelberger Tagung deutscher Hochschullehrer der Geographie, 26-27. April 1916," Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, 1916, 392-408.

139. Hellpach, Willy: Die geopsychischen Erscheinungen. Leipzig, 1917, 1923. Revised, 1935, as Geopsyche.

140. Hettner, Alfred: "Die allgemeine Geographie und ihre Stellung im Unterricht," Geogr. Ztschr., 24 (1918), 172-178. [Included in 161, 122-132].

141. Hassinger, Hugo: "Über einige Aufgaben geographischer Forschung und Lehre," Kartogr. u. Schulgeogr. Ztschr., 1919, 1-12.

142. Hettner, Alfred: "Die Einheit der Geographie in Wissenschaft und Unterricht," Geogr. Abende, im Zentralinst. f. Erzhg. u. Unterr., Heft 1, Berlin, 1919.

143. Philippson, Alfred: "Die Lehre vom Formenschatz der Erdoberfläche als Grundlage für die geographische Wissenschaft," Geogr. Abende, Heft 2, Berlin 1919.

144. Gradmann, Robert: "Pflanzen und Tiere im Lehrgebäude der Geographie," Geogr. Abende, Heft 4, Berlin 1919.

145. Schlüter, Otto: "Stellung der Geographie des Menschen in der erdkundlichen Wissenschaft," Geogr. Abende, Heft 5, Berlin 1919.

146. Branca, W., and Em. Kayser: "Zu welchen schweren Schäden führt eine übertriebene Betonung der Geologie in der Geographie?" Ztschr. d. dtsch. geol. Ges., 71 (1919), B 30-44.

147. Penck, Albrecht: "Zu welchen schweren Schäden führt eine übertriebene Betonung der Geologie in der Geographie?" Ztschr. d. dtsch. geol. Ges., 72 (1920), 124-138. [Reply to 146.]

148. Schlüter, Otto: "Die Erdkunde in ihrem Verhältnis zu den Natur- und Geisteswissenschaften," Geogr. Anzeig., 21 (1920), 145-152, 213-218.

149. Philippson, Alfred: Grundzüge derallgemeinen Geographie. Leipzig, 1920, 1933. Especially pp. 1-16.

150. Leutenegger, Albert: Begriff, Stellung und Einteilung der Geographie. 1922.

151. Volz, Wilhelm: "Das Wesen der Geographie in Forschung und Darstellung," Antrittsrede, Leipzig 1923, Schles. Jahrb. f. Geistes- u. Naturwissensch., 1 (1923), 239-272.

152. Hettner, Alfred: "Methodische Zeit- und Streitfragen," Geogr. Ztschr., 29 (1923), 37-59.

153. Heiderich, Franz: "Geographisch-methodische Streiflichter," in Sieger-Festschrift, Wien, 1924, 212-222.

154. Schlüter, Otto: "Staat, Wirtschaft, Volk, Religion in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erdoberfläche," Ztschr. f. Geopolitik, 1(1924), 378-383, 432-443.

155. Braun, Gustav: Zur Methode der Geographie als Wissenschaft. (Brochure),Greifswald, 1925. Also pub. as Erg. H. z. 17/38 Jahresbericht d. geogr. Ges., Greifswald.

156. Graf, Otto: Vom Begriff der Geographie. Munich and Berlin, 1925 (Bibliography). Review by A. Hettner, Geogr. Ztschr., 32(1926), 304-306, with reply by Graf and counter-reply by Hettner, Geogr. Ztschr., 33(1927), 341-344.

157. Maull, Otto: Politische Geographie. Berlin, 1925. (Bibliography.) Review by O. Schlüter, Geogr. Anz., 27 (1926), 62-66; reply by Maull, 245-253; and review by R. Sieger, Geogr. Ztschr., 32 (1926), 379 f.

158. Penck, Albrecht: "Geographie und Geschichte," Neue Jahrbücher f. Wissensch. u. Jugendbildg., 2 (1926), 47-54. Abstract in Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, 60 (1925), 384 f.

159. idem: "Geography among the Earth's Sciences," Proceed. Amer. Philos. Soc., 66 (1927), 621-644.

160. Tiessen, Ernst: "Die Eingrenzung der Geographie," Peterm. Mitt., 73(1927), 1-9.

161. Hettner, Alfred: Die Geographie, ihre Geschichte, ihr Wesen und ihre Methoden. Breslau, 1927. (Contains most of the material published in his numerous articles in the Geogr. Ztschr. from 1895 to 1927.)

162. Penck, Albrecht: "Die Geographie unter den erdkundlichen Wissenschaften," Die Naturwissenschaften, 16 (1928), 33-41.

163. idem: "Neuere Geographie," Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdkunde, Berlin, Sonderband 1928, 31-56.

164. Pfeifer, Gottfried: "Uber raumwirtschaftliche Begriffe und Vorstellungen und ihre bisherige Anwendung in der Geographie und Wirtschaftswissenschaft," Geogr. Ztschr., 34 (1928), 321-340, 411-425.

165. Hassinger, Hugo: "Über einige Beziehungen der Geographie zu den Geschichtswissenschaften," Jahrb. f. Landeskunde u. Niederösterreich, 21 (1928), Festschrift f. O. Redlich, 3-29.

166. Kraft, Victor: "Die Geographie als Wissenschaft," in Enzykl. d. Erdk., Teil: Methoden d. Geographie, Leipzig, Vienna, 1929, 1-22.

167. Hettner, Alfred: "Methodische Zeit- und Streitfragen: Neue Folge," Geogr. Ztschr., 35 (1929), 264-286, 332-345.

168. idem: "Unsere Auffassung von der Geographie" (addressed to Alfred Philippson), Geogr. Ztschr., 35 (1929), 486-491.

169. Schlüter, Otto: "Über die Aufgaben der Verkehrsgeographie im Rahmen der 'reinen' Geographie," Peterm. Mitt., Erg. Heft 209 (1930), 298-309.

170. Ule, Willi: "Methoden der geographischen Forschung," in Handbuch d. biolog. Arbeitsmethoden, Abt. X (1930), 485-528.

171. Hettner, Alfred: "Die Geographie als Wissenschaft und als Lehrfach," Geogr. Anz., 32 (1931), 107-117.

172. Passarge, Siegfried: "Aufgaben und Methoden der politischen Geographie," Ztschr. f. Politik, 21 (1931), 443-460.

173. Lautensach, Hermann: "Wesen und Methoden der geographischen Wissenschaft," in Klute's Handbuch der geographischen Wissenschaft, Potsdam, 1933, I, 23-56.

174. Schrepfer, Hans: "Einheit und Aufgaben der Geographie als Wissenschaft," in J. Peterson and H. Schrepfer, Die Geographie vor neuen Aufgaben. Frankfort a. M., 1934.

175. Hettner, Alfred: "Neue Angriffe auf die heutige Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 40 (1934), 341-343, 380-383.

176. idem: "Gesetzmässigkeit und Zufall in der Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 41 (1935), 2-15.

177. Plewe, Ernst: "Randbemerkungen zur geographischen Methodik," Geogr. Ztschr., 41 (1935), 226-237.

178. Obst, Erich: "Zur Auseinandersetzung über die zukünftige Gestaltung der Geographie," Geogr. Wockenschr., 3(1935), 1-16.

179. Maull, Otto: "Allgemeine vergleichende Länderkunde in Länderkundliche Forschung," Krebsfestschrift, Stuttgart, 1936, 172-186.

180. Schmidt, Peter Heinrich: Philosophische Erdkunde: Die Gedankenwelt der Geographie unde ihre nationalen Aufgaben. Stuttgart, 1937.

181. Lehmann, Otto: Der Zerfall der Kausalität und die Geographie. (Brochure published by author), Zurich, 1937.
 
 

IN FRANCE

182. Brunhes, Jean: La géographie humaine. Paris, 1910, 1925. Translated as Human Geography. Chicago, 1920.

183. Vidal de la Blache, Paul: "Les caractères distinctifs de la géographie," Ann. de Géogr., 22 (1913), 289-299.

184. idem: Principes de géographie humaine. Ed. by Emm. de Martonne, Paris, 1921. Translated as Principles of Human Geography, New York, 1926.

185. Febvre, Lucien: Le terre et l'évolution humaine, in the series, "L'Évolution de L'Humanité." Paris, 1924. Translated as A Geographical Introduction to History, in the series, The History of Civilization. New York, 1925. (Bibliography.)

186. Vallaux, Camille: Les sciences géographiques. Paris, 1925.

187. Ancel, Jacques: Geopolitique. (Brochure), Paris, 1938.
 
 

IN OTHER CONTINENTAL COUNTRIES

188. Almagià, Roberto: "Problemi e indirizzi attuali della Geografia," Atti d. Soc. Italiana per il Progresso d. Scienze (Pavia), 1929, 3-33.

189. Michotte, P.: "L'Orienation nouvelle en géographie"; Bull. de la Soc. R. Belge de Géogr., 1921, 5-43.

190. DeGeer, Sten: "On the Definition, Method, and Classification of Geography," Geografiska Annaler, 1923, l-37.

191. Markus, Eduard: Geographische Kausalität. Tartu, 1936. (Bibliography.)
 
 

IN GREAT BRITAIN

192. Chisholm, George G.: "The Meaning and Scope of Geography" (Inaugural address, Edinburgh), Scott. Geogr. Mag., 24 (1908), 561-575.

193. Unstead, John Frederick: "Geography and Historical Geography," Geogr. Journal, 49 (1922), 55-59; a review of Carl Sauer, Geography of the Ozark Highland of Missouri.

194. Fairgrieve, James: Geography in School. London, 1926, 1933.

195. Roxby, Percy M.: "The Scope and Aims of Human Geography," Scott. Geog. Mag., 46 (1930), 276-289.

196. Mackinder, Halford John: "The Human Habitat," Scott. Geog. Mag., 47 (1931). 321-335.

197. "What is Historical Geography?" report of a joint meeting of British geographers and historians, Geography, 17 (1932),39-45.

198. Gilbert, Edmund William: "What is Historical Geography?" Scott. Geogr. Mag., 48 (1932), 129-136.

199. East, William Gordon: "The Nature of Political Geography," Politica, 2 (1937), 259-286.

200. Stamp, Josiah C.: "Geography and Economic Theory," Geography, 22(1937), 1-14.

201. Crowe, P. R.: "On Progress in Geography," Scott. Geogr. Mag., 54 (1938), 1-19.

202. Dickinson, Robert E.: "Landscape and Society," Scott. Geogr. Mag., 55 (1939), 1-14, with comment by P. R. Crowe, 14 f.
 
 

IN THE UNITED STATES

203. Davis, William Morris: "An Inductive Study of the Content of Geography," Bull. Am. Geogr. Soc., 38 (1906), 67-84.

204. Semple, Ellen Churchill: Influences of Geographical Environment, New York, 1911. (Bibliography.)

205. Brigham, Albert Perry: "Problems of Geographical Influence," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 5 (1915), 3-25.

206. Fenneman, Nevin: "The Circumference of Geography," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs.,·9 (1919), 3-12.

207. Dryer, Charles Redway; "Genetic geography: The Development of the Geographic Sense and Concept," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 10(1920), 3-16.

208. Barrows, Harlan H.: "Geography as Human Ecology," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 13 (1923), 1-14.

209. Sauer, Carl: "The Survey Method in Geography and its Objectives," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 14 (1924), 17-33.

210. Thomas, Franklin: The Environmental Basis of Society: A Study in the History of Sociological Thought. New York, 1925. (Bibliography.)

211. Sauer, Carl: "The Morphology of Landscape," Univ. Calif. Publs. in Geog., 2 (1925), 19-53.

212. Whitbeck, Ray H.: "Adjustments to Environment in South America: An Interplay of Influences," (long introductory footnote), Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 16 (1926), 1 ff.

213. Huntington, Ellsworth: "The Terrestrial Canvas," Chap. 1 of his The Human Habitat. New York, 1927.

214. Turner, Frederick J.: The Significance of Sections in American History. New York, 1932. "Introduction."

215. Whitbeck, Ray H., and Thomas, Olive J.: The Geographic Factor: Its Role in Life and Civilization. New York, 1932. (Bibliography.)

216. Hartshorne, Richard: "Recent Developments in Political Geography," Amer. Pol. Sci. Rev., 29 (1935), 785-804, 943-966. (Bibliography.)

217. Whittlesey, Derwent: "Geography," Thirty-sixth Yearbook, Nt. Soc. for the Study of Educ., (1937), II, 119-125.

218. Hartshorne, Richard: "Geography for What?" (editor's title), Social Education, 1 (1937), 166-172.

219. Huntington, Ellsworth: "Geography and History," CanadianJournal of Econ. and Pol. Science, 3 (1937), 565-572 [a review of 389].

220. Leighly, John: "Some Comments on Contemporary Geographic Methods," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 27 (1937), 125-141.

221. Platt, Robert S.: "Items in the Regional Geography of Panamá: With Some Comments on Some Comments on Contemporary Geographic Method," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 28 (1938), 13-36.

222. Leighly, John: "Methodologic Controversy in Nineteenth Century German Geography," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 28 (1938), 238-258.

223. Finch, Vernor C.: "Geographical Science and Social Philosophy," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 29 (1939), 1-28.

224. Platt, Robert S.: "Reconnaissance in British Guiana, with Comments on Microgeography," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 29 (1939), 105-126.
 
 

THE THEORY OF REGIONS, LANDSCHAFTEN, LANDSCAPES, AND BOUNDARIES

IN EUROPE

225. Hassinger, Hugo: "Das geographische Wesen Mitteleuropas nebst einigen grundsätzlichen Bemerkungen über die geographischen Naturgebiete Europas und ihre Begrenzung," Mitt. d. k. k. Geogr. Ges., Wien, 60 (1917), 437-493.

226. Penck, Albrecht: Über politische Grenzen. Rektoratsrede, Berlin, 1917.

227. Sieger, Robert: "Zur politisch-geographischen Terminologie," Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, 52 (1917), 497-529; 53 (1918), 48-69.

228. Maull, Otto: "Geographische Staatsstruktur und Staatsgrenzen," Kartogr. u. Schulgeogr. Ztschr., 8 (1919), 129-136.

229. Passarge, Siegfried: Vergleichende Landschaftskunde, Heft1. Berlin, 1921.

230. Friedrichsen, Max: "Die geographische Landschaft," Geogr. Ans., 22 (1921), 154-161, 233-240.

231. Bluntschli, Hans: "Die Amazonasniederung als harmonischer Organismus," Geogr. Ztschr., 27 (1921), 49-67.

232. Sieger, Robert: "Natürliche Räume und Lebensräume," Peterm. Mitt., 69 (1923), 252-256.

233. Sidaritsch, Marian: "Landschaftseinheiten und Lebensräume in den Ostalpen", Peterm. Mitt., 69 (1923), 256-261.

234. Krebs, Norbert: "Natur- und Kulturlandschaft," Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, 58 (1923), 81-94.

235. Younghusband, Francis: Das Herz der Natur. Leipzig, 1923.

236. Gradmann, Robert: "Das harmonische Landschaftsbild," Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, 59 (1924),129-147. Reply by Passarge, and counter-reply, 331-337.

237. Sölch, Johann: Die Auffassung der "natürlichen Grenzen" in der wissenschaftlichen Geographie. (Brochure), Innsbruck, 1924. (Bibliography.) Review by R. Sieger, Peterm. Mitt., 71 (1925), 57-59.

238. Passarge, Siegfried: Vergleichende Landschaftskunde, Heft 4. Berlin, 1924. Review by Sapper, Geogr. Ztschr., 31 (1925), 179.

239. Markus, Eduard: "Naturkomplexe," Sitzungsber. d. Naturf.-Ges. bei d. Univ. Dorpat, 32 (1925), 79-94.

240. Passarge, Siegfried: "Harmonie und Rhythmus in der Landschaft," Peterm. Mitt., 71 (1925), 250-252.

241. Maull, Otto: "Zur Geographie der Kulturlandschaft," in Freie Wege vergleichender Erdkunde, Festgabe für E. von Drygalski, München, Berlin, 1926, 11-30.

242. Hettner, Alfred: "Methodische Zeit- und Streitfragen: Passarges Landschaftskunde!," Geogr. Ztschr., 31 (1925), 162-164.

243. Volz, Wilhelm: "Der Begriff des "Rhythmus" in der Geographie," Mitt. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Leipzig, 1923-5 (1926), 8-41.

244. Vogel, Walther: "Zur Lehre von den Grenzen und Räumen," Geogr. Ztschr., 32 (1926), 191-198.

245. Granö, Johannes G.: "Die Forschungsgegenstände der Geographie," Acta Geographica, 1, 1-15 (Helsinki, 1927).

246. Banse, Ewald: Landschaft und Seele: Neue Wege der Untersuchung und Gestaltung. Munich, 1928.

247. Schlüter, Otto: "Die analytische Geographie der Kulturlandschaft erläutert am Beispiel der Brücken," Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, Sonderband, 1928, 388-411.

248. Creutzburg, Nikolaus: "Über den Werdegang von Kulturlandschaften," Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, Sonderband, 1928, 412-425.

249. Penck, Albrecht: "Deutschland als geographische Gestalt," in Deutschland: die natürlichen Grundlagen seiner Kultur, pub. by K. L. Deutsch, Akad. d. Naturfr. z. Halle, Leipzig, 1928.

250. Waibel, Leo: "Beitrag zur Landschaftskunde," Geogr. Ztschr., 34 (1928), 475-486. Reply by Rudolf Ahrens and counter-reply by Weibel, Geogr. Ztschr., 35 (1929), 166-170.

251. Spethmann, Hans: Dynamische Länderkunde. Breslau, 1928. Review by R. Gradmann, Geogr. Ztschr., 34 (1928), 551-553; [discussions by Hettner, 167, Philippson, 260; reply by Spethmann, and counter discussion by Gradmann, 261.]

252. Granö, Johannes G.: "Reine Geographie: eine methodologische Studie beleuchtet mit Beispielen aus Finnland und Estland," Acta Geographica, 2, No. 2 (Helsinki, 1929). (Bibliography.) Review by H. Hassinger, Geogr. Ztschr, 36 (1930), 293-296.

253. Hassinger, Hugo: Discussion of Passarge school; in a review in Peterm. Mitt., 74 (1928), 371 f. (§ 435) and in discussion with Passarge, op. cit., 75 (1929), 86 f.

254. Lehmann, Otto: "Länderkunde und - - - Länderkunde," Mitt. d. Geogr Ges., Wien, 72 (1929), 292-334.

255. Krebs, Norbert: "Revolution und Evolution in der Geographie," Mitt. d. Geogr. Ges., Wien, 72 (1929), 334-345. [Reply to 254.]

256. Hassinger, Hugo: "Zum Darstellungsproblem in der Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr. 35 (1929), 541-546.

257. Passarge, Siegfried: Beschreibende Landschaftskunde. Hamburg, 1929.

258. idem: "Wesen, Aufgaben und Grenzen der Landschaftskunde," Peterm. Mitt., Erg. Heft 209 (1930), 29-44.

259. idem: "Das Problem des logischen Systems der Landschaftstypen," Naturwissensch., 19 (1931), 702-704.

260. Philippson, Alfred: "Methodologische Bemerkungen zu Spethmann's Länderkunde," Geogr. Ztschr., 36 (1930), 1-16.

261. Spethmann, Hans: Das länderkundliche Schema in der deutschen Geographie: Kämpfe um Fortschritt und Freiheit. Berlin, 1931. Review by E. v. Drygalski, Peterm. Mitt., 1932, 5-6; discussion by R. Gradmann, Geogr. Ztschr., 37 (1931), 540-548.

262. Volz, Wilhelm: "Geographische Ganzheitlichkeit," Ber. d. math.-phys. Kl. d. sächs. Akad. d. Wiss., 84 (1931), 91-113.

263. Lautensach, Hermann: "Die länderkundliche Gliederung Portugals," Geogr. Ztschr., 38 (1932), 193-205, 271-284; especially 193-198.

264. Hassinger, Hugo: "Der Staat als Landschaftsgestalter," Ztschr. f. Geopolitik, 9 (1932), 117-122, 182-187.

265. Hettner, Alfred: "Zur aesthetischen Landschaftskunde , Geogr. Ztschr., 39 (1933), 93-98.

266. Waibel, Leo: "Was verstehen wir unter Landschaftskunde?," Geogr. Anz., 34 (1933), 197-207.

267. Passarge, Siegfried: "Das Problem der kulturgeographischen Räume," Peterm. Mitt., 79 (1933), 1-6.

268. idem: Einführung in die Landschaftskunde. Leipzig, 1933. Review by C. Troll, and discussion by Passarge and Troll, Geogr. Ztschr., 40 (1934), 109, 464-468.

269. Hettner, Alfred: "Der Begriff der Ganzheit in der Geographie," Geogr. Ztschr., 40 (1934), 141-144.

270. Granö, Johannes G.: "Geographische Ganzheiten," Peterm. Mitt., 81 (1935), 295-302.

271. Vogel, Walther: "Landschaft und Land als Raumeinheiten der Geographie," Mitt. d. Ver. d. Ges. d. Geogr. a. d. Univ. Leipzig, H. 14/15, 1936, pp. 1-8.

272. Passarge, Siegfried: "Versuch einer Darlegung der eigenen wissenschaftlichen Tätigkeit," Ztschr. f. Erdk., 1 (1936), 49-62.

273. Hassinger, Hugo: "Die Landschaft als Forschungsgegenstand," Schriften d. Ver. z. Verbreitg. naturwissensch. Kenntnisse in Wien, 1937, 76-95.

274. Wörner, Rolf: "Das geographische Ganzheitsproblem vom Standpunkt der Psychologie aus," Geogr. Ztschr., 44 (1938), 340-347.

275. James, Preston E.: "The Geography of the Oceans: A Review of the Work of Gerhard Schott," Geogr. Rev., 26 (1936), 664-669.

276. Pawlowsky, Stanislaw: "Inwieweit kann in der Anthropogeographie von einer Landschaft die Rede sein," Comptes rendus d. Congr. Intern. d. Géogr., Amsterdam, 1938, Tome 2, Sec. 3a, 202-208.

277. Geisler, Walter: "Die Bedeutung der kulturmorphologischen Strukturelemente bei der Bildung des Landschaftsbegriffes," Comptes rendus du Congrès Intern. d. Géogr., Amsterdam, 1938, Tome 2, Sec. 5, 4-11.

278. Lautensach, Hermann: "Über die Erfassung und Abgrenzung von Landschaftsräumen," Comptes rendus du Congrès Intern. d. Géogr. Amsterdam, 1938, Tome 2, Sec. 5, 12-26.

279. Krebs, Norbert: "Question: La Concept Paysage dans la Géographie Humaine" (report, in German, of 8 papers, particularly of 4 papers concerned with the concept of Landschaft or landscape [276-8 and 297]). Comptes rendus d. Congr. Intern. d. Géogr. Amsterdam, 1938, Tome 2, Rapports, 207-213.

280. Bryan, Patrick W.: Man's Adaptation of Nature: Studies of the Cultural Landscape. London, 1933. Especially Chaps. 2-6.
 
 

IN THE UNITED STATES

281. Jones, Wellington D., and Vernor C. Finch: "Detailed Field Mapping in the study of the Economic Geography of an Agricultural Area" ("the joint conclusions of a group composed of Charles C. Colby, D. H. Davis, V. C. Finch, William H. Haas, Wellington D. Jones, A. K. Lobeck, Kenneth C. McMurry, A. E. Parkins, Robert S. Platt, and Derwent S. Whittlesey"), Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs. 15 (1925), 148-157.

282. Whittlesey, Derwent: "Sequent Occupance," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 19(1929), 162-165.

283. Jones, Wellington D.: "Ratios and Isopleth Maps in Regional Investigation," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 20 (1930), 177-195.

284. Whitaker, Russell: "Regional Interdependence," Journ. of Geogr., 31(1932), 164 f.

285. Finch, Vernor C.: "Montfort, a Study in Landscape Types in Southwestern Wisconsin," Geogr. Soc. of Chicago, Bull. 9 (1933). "Conventionalizing Geographic Investigation and Presentation; a Symposium," three papers listed below, with discussion; Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 24 (1934), 77-122.

286. James, Preston E.: "The Terminology of Regional Description," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 24 (1934), 77-86.

287. Jones, Wellington D.: "Procedures in Investigating Human Occupance of a Region," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 24 (1934), 93-107.

288. Finch, Vernor C.: "Written Structures for Presenting the Geography of Regions," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 24 (1934), 113-120.

289. Whittlesey, Derwent: "The Impress of Effective Central Authority upon the Landscape," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 25 (1935), 85-97. "A Conference on Regions," Papers by R. B. Hall, George T. Remer, Samuel Van Valkenburg (not pub.), and Robert S. Platt, with discussion, Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 25 (1935), 121-174.

290. Hall, Robert Burnett: "The Geographic Region: A Resumé," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 25 (1935), 122-136.

291. National Resources Committee: Regional Factors in National Planning. Govt. Printing Off., Washington, 1935. Especially Parts 4, 5.

292. Joerg, W. L. G.: "The Geography of North America: A History of its Regional Exposition," Geogr. Rev., 26 (1936), 640-663. (Bibliography only on fairly complete works.)

293. Wright, John Kirtland: "Some Measures of Distributions," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 27 (1937), 177-212.

294. James, Preston E.: "On the Treatment of Surface Features in Regional Studies," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 27 (1937), 213-228. (Bibliography.)

295. "Round Table on Problems in Cultural Geography," Discussion led by W. W. Atwood, Ralph Brown, F. B. Kniffen, R. B. Hall, and Derwent Whittlesey; S. D. Dodge, Chairman. Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 27 (1937), 155-175.

296. Dodge, Richard E.: "The Interpretation of Sequent Occupance," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 28 (1938), 233-237.

297. Broek, J. O. M.: "The Concept Landscape in Human Geography," Comptes rendus d. Congr. Intern. d. Géogr. Amsterdam, 1938, Tome 2, Sec. 3a, 103-109.
 
 

SYSTEMS OF REGIONAL DIVISION

298. Hahn, Eduard: "Die Wirtschaftsformen der Erde," Peterm. Mitt., 1892, 8-12.

299. idem: Von der Hacke zum Pflug, Gartenund Feld: Bauern und Hirten in unserer Wirtschaft und Geschichte. Leipzig, 1919.

300. Hettner, Alfred: "Die geographische Einteilung der Erdoberfliche," Geogr. Ztschr., 14 (1908), 1-13, 94-110, 137-150. [Principles also in 161, 118-132; system in detail in 301.]

301. idem: Grundzüge der Länderkunde: I. Europa. Leipzig, 1907, completely revised, 1923, 1932. Review by J. Sölch, Geograf. Annaler, 1923, 323 ff. II. Die Aussereuropäischen Erdteile. Leipzig, 1923, 1926. (First published, in briefer form as text of Spamer's Handatlas, 1897.)

302. idem: Der Gang der Kultur über die Erde. Leipzig, 1923, 1929.

303. Gradmann, Robert: "Wüste und Steppe," Geogr. Ztschr., 22 (1916), 418-441, 489-509.

304. Sieger, Robert: "Die wirtschaftsgeographische Einteilung der Erde," in Karl Andree's Geographie des Welthandels, Vol. 4, 2nd ed., Wien, 1921, 3-128.

305. Passarge, Siegfried: Die Landschaftsgürtel der Erde. Natur und Kultur, Breslau, 1923, 1929.

306. Busch, Wilhelm: Die Landbauzonen im deutschen Lebensraum. Stuttgart, 1936.

307. Herbertson, Andrew John: "The Major Natural Regions: An Essay in Systematic Geography," Geogr. Journ., 25 (1905), 300-312.

308. idem: "The Higher Units: A Geographical Essay," Scientia, 14 (1913), 203-212.

309. Unstead, John Frederick: "A System of Regional Geography," Geography, 18(1933), 175-187.

310. Committee of the Geographical Association (J. F. Unstead, J. L. Myres, P. M. Roxby, and L. D. Stamp): Report on "Classification of Regions of the World"; Geography, 22 (1937), 253-282.

311. Smith, Middleton, O. E. Baker, and R. G. Hainsworth: "A Graphic Summary of American Agriculture," in Yearbook of U. S. Dept. of Agric., 1915. Washington, Govt. Ptg. Off., 1915.

312. Baker, Oliver E.: "Agricultural Regions of North America," Econ. Geogr., intermittently 2-10 (Oct. 1926-1934). Basis in 2 (Oct. 1926), 459-493.

313. Jonasson, Olof: "Agricultural Regions of Europe," Econ. Geogr., 1 (Oct., 1925), 277-314; 2 (Jan., 1926), 19-48.

314. Huntington, Ellsworth, Frank E. Williams, and Samuel Van Valkenburg: Economic and Social Geography. New York, 1933.

315. Jones, Wellington D., and Derwent Whittlesey: "Types of Agricultural Land Occupance." (Map.) Univ. of Chicago Bookstore, 1932.

316. idem: "Nomadic Herding Regions," Econ. Geogr., 8 (1932), 378-385.

317. Whittlesey, Derwent: "Shifting Cultivation," Econ. Geogr., 13 (1937), 35-52.

318. idem: "Fixation of Shifting Cultivation," Econ. Geogr., 13 (1937), 139-154.

319. idem.: "Major Agricultural Regions of the Earth," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 26 (1936), 199-240. (The three preceding studies represent amplifications of parts of this study.)

320. U. S. Bureau of the Census (in co-operation with Bur. Agric. Econ.): Types of Farming in the United States; text by Foster F. Elliott. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, 1933.

321. James, Preston E.: An Outline of Geography. New York, 1935.

322. Finch, Vernor C., and Trewartha, Glenn T.: Elements of Geography. New York, 1936.

323. Dodge, Richard Elwood, and Stanley Dalton Dodge: Foundations of Geography. New York, 1937.

324. Hartshorne, Richard, and Samuel N. Dicken: "A Classification of the Agricultural Regions of Europe and North America on a Uniform Statistical Basis," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 25 (1935), 99-120.

325. Hartshorne, Richard: "A New Map of the Dairy Areas of the United States," Econ. Geogr., 11 (1935), 347-355.

326. idem: "A New Map of the Manufacturing Belt of North America," Econ. Geogr., 12 (1936), 45-53.

327. idem,. "Human Geography," Chap. viii in Man and Society: A Substantive Introduction to the Social Sciences, E. P. Schmidt, ed., New York, 1937, 323-379.

328. Hartshorne, Richard, and Samuel N. Dicken: Syllabus in Economic Geography. (Lithoprint, Edwards Bros.) Ann Arbor, Mich., 1933, 1938.
 
 

STUDIES FROM THE TWENTIETH CENTURY CITED AS ILLUSTRATIONS

(arranged alphabetically, by authors)

329. Allix, André: Un pays de haute montagne: L'Oisans. Étude géographique. Paris, 1929. Review by Demangeon, Ann. de Géogr., 1930, 91.

330. Banse, Ewald: Buch der Länder: Landschaft und Seele der Erde. I. Das Buch Abendland; II. Das Buch Fremdland. Berlin, 1929, 1930. Review by A. Hettner, Geogr. Ztschr., 34 (1928), 626 ff.

331. Blache, Jules: Les Massifs de la Grande Chartreuse et du Vercors. Grenoble, 1931.

332. Bowman, Isaiah: The New World: Problems in Political Geography. Chicago, 1921, 4th ed., 1928. (Bibliography.)

333. Broek, J. O. M.: The Santa Clara Valley, California: A Study in Landscape Changes. University, Utrecht, 1932.

334. Brown, Ralph H.: "Materials Bearing upon the Geography of the Atlantic Seaboard, 1790 to 1810," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 28 (1938), 201-231.

335. Brunhes, Jean, and C. Vallaux: La géographie de I'histoire: Géographie de la Paix et de la Guerre sur terre et sur Mer. Paris, 1921.

336. Brunhes, Jean, and P. Deffontaines: "Géographie politique," Pt. 3 of J. Brunhes, Géographie humaine de la France; Vol. 1 of G. Hanotaux: Histoire de la Nation Francaise. Paris, 1926.

337. Colby, Charles C.: "The California Raisin Industry: A Study in Geographic Interpretation," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 14 (1924), 49-108.

338. Cressey, George B.: "The Land Forms of Chekiang, China," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 28 (1938), 259-276.

339. Darby, Henry Clifford: An Historical Geography of England before 1800. Cambridge, 1936. Review by J. Sö1ch, Ztschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, 72 (1937), 212 ff .

340. Dicken, Samuel N.: "Galeana: A Mexican Highland Community," Journal of Geogr., 34 (1935), 140-147.

341. Dodge, Stanley D.: "Bureau and the Princeton Community," Ann. Assn. Am Geogr., 22 (1932), 159-209.

342. idem: "The Chorology of the Claremont-Springfield Region in the Upper Connecticut Valley in New Hampshire and Vermont," Papers of the Mich. Acad. of Sci., Arts, and Letters, 22 (1936), 335-353.

343. Finch, Vernor C., and O. E. Baker: Geography of the World's Agriculture. Washington, Govt. Ptg. Office, 1917.

344. Friedrichsen Denkschrift: Vom deutschen Osten. Hubert Knothe, ed., Berlin, 1934. Especially articles by W. Geisler and H. Schlenger. Review by R. Hartshorne, Geogr. Rev., 25 (1935), 518.

345. Geisler, Walter: Schlesien als Raumorganismus. (Brochure), Breslau, 1932.

346. idem: Oberschlesien-Atlas. Berlin, 1938.

347. Garver, Frederic, F. M. Boddy, and A. J. Nixon: The Location of Manufacturing in the United States, 1899-1929. Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1933.

348. Hall, Robert Burnett: "Some Rural Settlement Forms in Japan," Geogr. Rev., 21 (1931), 93-123.

349. idem: "The Yamato Basin, Japan," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 22 (1932), 211-230.

350. idem: "Tokaido Road and Region," Geogr. Rev., 27(1937), 353-377.

351. idem: "A Map of Settlement Agglomeration and Dissemination in Japan," Papers of the Mich. Acad. of Science, Arts and Letters, 22 (1936), 365-367.

352. Hartshorne, Richard: "Location Factors in the Iron and Steel Industry," Econ. Geogr., 4 (1928), 241-252.

353. idem: The Iron and Steel Industry of the United States," Journ. of Geogr., 28 (1929), 133-153.

354. idem: "The Twin City District: A Unique Form of Urban Landscape," Geogr. Rev., 22 (1932), 431-442.

355. idem: "Geographic and Political Boundaries in Upper Silesia," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogr., 23 (1933), 195-228.

356. idem: "The Upper Silesian Industrial District," Geogr. Rev., 24 (1934), 423-438.

357. idem: "Suggestions on the Terminology of Political Boundaries," Mitt. d. Ver. d. Geogr. a. d. Univ. Leipzig, Heft 14/15, (1936) 180-192.

358. idem: "The Tragedy of Austria-Hungary: A Post-Mortem in Political Geography" (abstract), Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 28 (1938), 49.

359. idem: "Racial Maps of the United States," Geogr. Rev., 28 (1938), 276-288.

360. Hassinger, Hugo: Die Geographie des Menschen. Vol. II of Klute: Handbuch geographischer Wissenschaft. Potsdam, 1937.

361. Hettner, Alfred: Die Oberflächenformen des Festlandes: Probleme und Methoden der Morphologie. Leipzig, Berlin, 1921, 1928.

362. idem: Die Klimate der Erde. Leipzig, Berlin, 1930.

363. idem: Vergleichende Länderkunde. 4 vols. Leipzig, Berlin, 1933-35. Review by Penck [90].

364. Hoover, Edgar Malone: Location Theory and the Shoe and Leather Industry. Cambridge, 1937.

365. James, Preston E.: "The Coffee Lands of Southeastern Brazil," Geogr. Rev., 22 (1932), 225-244.

366. Jefferson, Mark: "The Civilizing Rails," Econ. Geogr., 4 (1928), 217-231.

367. Jones, Stephen B.: "The Forty-Ninth Parallel in the Great Plains: The Historical Geography of a Boundary," Journ. of Geogr., 31 (1932), 357-368.

368. Kniffen, Fred B.: "Louisiana House Types," Ann. Assn. Am. Geogrs., 26 (1936), 179-193.

369. Langhans, Manfred: "Karte des Selbstbestimmungsrechtes der Vö1ker," Peterm. Mitt., 72 (1926), 1-9.

370. Milojevic, Borivoji Z.: "The Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes: Administrative Divisions in Relation to Natural Regions," Geogr. Rev., 15 (1925), 70-83.

371. Overbeck, Hermann, and George Wilhelm Sante, edits.: Saar-Atlas. Botha, 1934. Review by R. Hartshorne, Geogr. Rev., 24 (1934), 680 ff.

372. Palander, Tord: Beiträge zur Standortstheorie. Diss., Uppsala, 1935. (Bibliography.)

373. Passarge, Siegfried: "Die politische Erdkunde Afrikas vor dem Eingreifen der europäischen Kolonisation," Peterm. Mitt., 70 (1924), 253-261.

374. idem: "Madrid: Das Werden einer Grosstadt in einer Steppenlandschaft," Ztschr. f. Geopolitik, 1 (1924), 688-694.

375. idem: Das Judentum als landschaftskundliches-ethnologisches Problem. Munich, 1929.

376. idem: Aegypten und der arabische Orient: eine politisch-geographische Studie. Weltpol. Büch., Berlin, 1931.

377. idem: "Politisch-Geographische Betrachtungen über Alt-Hellas," Geogr. Wochensch., 1935, 926-932.

378. idem: "Byzanz: eine politisch-geographische Betrachtung," Geogr. Anz., 36 (1935), 484-488.

379. idem: "Die grosse geopolitische Gefahrenzone Europas und ihre Raumbedingtheit," Ztschr. f. Geopolitik, 13 (1936), 137-145.

380. Platt, Robert S.: "Conflicting Territorial Claims in the Upper Amazon," in Geographic Aspects of International Affairs (Harris Institute Lectures for 1937), C. C. Colby, ed. Chicago, 1938.

381. Ripley, William Z.: "Geographical Limitations of Consolidated Systems," Amer. Econ. Rev., 14 (1924), Supplement, 52-64.

382. Sauer, Carl, and Peveril Meigs: "Site and Culture at San Fernando de Velicatá," Univ. Calif. Pubs. in Geogr., 2 (1927), 271-302.

383. Sauer, Carl, and Donald Brand: "Pueblo Sites in Southeastern Arizona," Univ. Calif. Publ. in Geogr., 3 (1930), 415-457.

384. idem: "Prehistoric Settlements of Sonora, with Special Reference to Cerros de Trincheras," Univ. Calif. Publ. in Geogr., 5 (1931), 67-148.

385. Schüter, Otto: "Nation und Nationalität" (review), Geogr. Ztschr., 12 (1906), 528 f.

386. Schmidt, Peter Heinrich: Einführung in die allgemeine Geographie der Wirtschaft. Jena, 1932.

387. Scofield, Edna: "The Evolution and Development of Tennessee Houses," Journ. Tenn. Acad. Sci., 11 (1936), 229-240.

388. Spethmann, Hans: Das Ruhrgebiet im Wechselspiel von Land and Leuten, Wirtschaft, Technik und Politik. Berlin,, 1933. Review by R. Hartshorne, Geogr. Rev., 26 (1936), 343.

389. Taylor, Griffith: Environment and Nation: Geographical Factors in the Cultural and Political History of Europe. Toronto and Chicago, 1936. Reviews by Ellsworth Huntington [219]; by J. O. M. Broek, Canad. Hist. Rev., 18 (1937), 69; by J. K. Wright, Am. Hist. Rev., 42 (1937), 700; and by R. Hartshorne, Journ. Mod. Hist., 9 (1937), 372.

390. Tiessen, Ernst: "Der Friedensvertrag von Versailles und die Politische Geographie," Ztschr. f. Geopolitik, 1 (1924), 203-220. In extended form: Versailles und Fortsetzung: eine geopolitische Studie. (Brochure), Berlin, 1924.

391. Thornthwaite, Warren: "The Climates of the Earth," Geogr. Rev., 23 (1933), 433-440.

392. Trewartha, Glenn T.: "Ratio Maps of China's Farms and Crops," Geogr. Rev., 28 (1938), 102-111.

393. idem: "French Settlement in the Driftless Hill Land," Ann. Assn. Am Geogrs., 28 (1938), 179-200.

394. Troll, Karl: "Die Landbauzonen Europas in ihrer Beziehung zur natürlichen Vegetation," Geogr. Ztschr., 31(1925), 265-280.

395. Waibel, Leo: Probleme der Landwirtschaftsgeographie. Breslau, 1933.

396. Weber, Alfred: Über den Standort der Industrien: reine Theorie des Standortes. Tübingen, 1909. Trans. by C. J. Friedrich, Theory of the Location of Industries. Chicago, 1928.

397. Whitbeck, Ray H.: "Geographical Influences in the Development of New Jersey," Journ. of Geogr., 7 (1908), 177-182. Adapted in C. C. Colby, Source-Book for the Economic Geography of North America, Chicago, 1922, 205-210.

398. Whittlesey, Derwent: "Early Geography in Northern Illinois," Science, 81 (1935), 227-229.

399. idem: "Environment and the Student of Human Geography," Sci. Monthly, 35 (1932), 265-267.

400. Wright, John Kirtland: "Voting Habits in the United States," Geogr. Rev., 22 (1932), 666-672.
 
 

ADDITIONAL WORKS CITED
(Numbers 1-400 are in the original list, pages 1-21.)
 

A. HISTORY OF GEOGRAPHIC THOUGHT, PRIOR TO 1900

GENERAL HISTORICAL STUDIES

401. Peschel, Oscar: Geschichte der Erdkunde bis auf Alexander von Humboldt und Carl Ritter. 2d edition, edited by S. Ruge, Munich, 1877. (Bibliography.)

402. Bunbury, Edward H.: History of Ancient Geography. 2 vols., London 1879, 1883.

403. Tozer, Henry F.: History of Ancient Geography. 2d edition, Cambridge, 1935.

404. Berger, Ernst Hugo: Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen. 2d edition, Leipzig 1903.

405. Wright, John Kirtland: "The History of Geography: A Point of View," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 15 (1925), 192-201. (Bibliography.)

406. Wood, Ella Lucile: "History of the Modern Concepts of Geography," Diss., 1927, manuscript in University of Wisconsin Library.

407. Kühn, Arthur: "Die neugestaltung der deutsche Geographie in 18. Jahrhundert." Quellen u. Forsch. z. Gesch. d. Geogr. u. Völkerkunde, Band V. Leipzig, 1939.
 
 

BIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES

408. Gottmann, Jean: "Vauban and Modern Geography," Geogr. Rev., 34 (1944), 120-128.

409. Brown, Ralph H.: "American Geographies of Jedidiah Morse," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 31 (1941), 145-217.

410. Dana, James D.: "Memoir of Arnold Henry Guyot," Smithson. Inst. Ann. Report 1887, Pt. 1, 693-722; also in Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Science, 2 (1886).
 
 

B. GEOGRAPHIC THOUGHT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

GENERAL SURVEYS OF GEOGRAPHIC WORK





411. Keltie, Sir John Scott: "The Position of Geography in British Universities," Amer. Geogr. Soc. Research Series No. 4. NewYork, 1921.

412. DeMartonne, Emmanuel: "Geography In France," Amer. Geogr. Soc. Research Series No. 4a., New York, 1924. (Bibliography.)

413. Winkler, Ernst: "Internationale Geographie: Gedanken zum Ausbau der erdkundlichen Kongresse,"Schweiz. Hochschulzeitung, 1939 (8p.).

414. idem: "Fortschritte und Probleme der Erdkunde in der Schweiz," Ztschr. f. Erdkunde, 7 (1939), Heft 1, 1-18. (Bibliography.)

415. Martonne, Emmanuel de. "Evolution de la Géographie," in his Traite de Geographie Physique. Paris, 1919 and 1948, pp. 3-26.
 
 

THE METHODOLOGY OF GEOGRAPHY, IN GENERAL

IN GERMANY AND OTHER GERMAN-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

416. Krebs, Norbert: "Die Geographie in ihrer Stellung zu anderen Wissenschaften," Ztschr.f. Schulgeogr. (Vienna), 27 (1906), 129-137.

417. Philippson, Alfred: "Inhalt, Einheitlichkeit und Umgrenzung der Erdkunde und der erdkundlichen Unterrichts," Mitt. d. Hauptstelle f. naturwiss. Unterricht, Berlin, 1919, 2 Heft, 22-43.

418. Winkler, Ernst: "Geographie als Zeitwissenschaft," Ztschr. f. Erdkunde, 5 (1937), 49-58.

419. idem: "Kulturlandschaftsgeschichte,"Ztschr. f. Schweiz. Geschichte, 19 (1939), 54-76. (Bibliography.).
 
 

IN FRANCE





420. Vidal de la Blache, Paul. "Le principe de la géographie générale," Annales de Geographie, V(1896), 129-42.

421. Demangeon, Albert: Problemes de Geographie Humaine. 2d edition, Paris, 1943. Review by H. J. Fleure, Geogr. Rev., 36 (1946), 172 f.
 
 

IN GREAT BRITAIN

422. Mackinder, Halford J. O. "On the Scope and Methods of Geography," Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, N.S.IX (1887), 141-60.

423. Mackinder, Halford J. O. "Modern Geography, German and English," Geographical Journal, VI (1895). 367-79.

424. Herbertson, Andrew J.: "Regional Environment, Heredity and Consciousness," Geogr. Teacher, 8 (1915), 147-153. Preceded by a memoir to "Andrew John Herbertson,"by H. J. Mackinder, N.E. MacMunn, and E. F. Elton, 143-146.

425. Forde, C. Daryll: "Values in Human Geography," Geogr. Teacher, 13 (1925), 215-220.

426. Mackinder, Sir Halford J.: Comments on the relation of history to geography, in Geogr. Journ., 78 (1931), 268 f.

427. East, William G.: "A Note on Historical Geography," Geography, 18 (1933), 282-292. (Bibliography.)

428. Holmes, J. Macdonald: "The Content of Geographic Study," Report, Austral. and New Zealand Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1935, 401-433.

429. Taylor, E. R. G.: "Whither Geography? A Review of Some Recent Geographical Texts," Geogr. Rev., 27 (1937), 129-135.

430. Ogilvie, Alan G. "The Relations of Geology and Geography," Geography, XXIII (1938), 75-82.

431. Forde, C. Daryll: "Human Geography, History and Sociology," Scott. Geogr. Mag., 55 (1939), 217-235.
 
 

IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA

432. Taylor, Griffith: "Geography the Correlative Science," Canad. Journ. of Econ. and Pol. Sci., 1 (1935), 535-550.

433. VanCleef, Eugene: "A Stratigraphic View of Geography," Science, 83 (1936), 313-317.

434. Taylor, Griffith: "Correlations and Culture: A Study in Technique," Proc. Brit. Assn. Adv. Sci., 1938, 103-138.

435. Adams, Charles C.: "A Note for Social-Minded Ecologists and Geographers," Ecology, 19 (1938), 500-502.

436. Renner, George T.: "Human Ecology: A New Social Science," Teachers College Record (New York), 39 (1938), 488-493.
 
 

THE THEORY OF REGIONS, LANDSCRAFTEN, LANDSCAPES, AND BOUNDARIES
(including studies of special techniques)

IN EUROPE

437. Gallois, Lucien: Régions Naturelle et Noms de Pays: Étude sur la Region Parisienne. Paris, 1908. (especially Chapters I and XII.)

438. Hettner, Alfred: "Die Terminologie der Oberflächenformen," Geogr. Ztschr., 17 (1911), 135-144.

439. Creutzburg. Nikolaus: "Wirtschaft und Landschaft," HermannWagner Gedänknisschr. Pet. Mitt., Erg. Heft 209 (1930), 275-286.

440. Jessen, Otto: "Der Vergleich als ein Mittel geographischer Schilderung und Forschung," Hermann Wagner Gedänknisschr. Pet. Mitt., Erg. Heft 209 (1930), 17-28.

441. Granö, Johannes:."Die geographischen Gebiete Finnlands: Eine vergleichende Übersicht nebst methodischen Erörtungen," Publs. Inst. Univ. Aboensis, No. 6, 1931. Review by Eugene VanCleef in Geogr. Rev., 22 (1932), 497 f.

442. Winkler, Ernst: "Zur Frage der allgemeinen Geographie," Athenaeums-Schriften (Zurich), 1938, Heft 2, 1-24. (Bibliography.)
 
 

IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA

443. Joerg, W. L. G.: "The Subdivisions of North America Into Natural Regions: A Preliminary Inquiry," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 4 (1914), 55-83.

444. Mathes, F. S.: "The Conference on the Delineation of Physiographic Provinces in the United States," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 5 (1915), 127-129.

445. Davis, William Morris: "The Principles of Geographical Description," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 5 (1915), 61-105.

446. Jefferson, Mark: "Some Considerations on the Geographical Provinces of the United States," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 7 (1917), 3-15, Plates I, II.

447. Campbell, Marius R.: "Geographic Terminology," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 18 (1928), 25-40.

448. Jones, Wellington D.: "A Method of Determining the Degree of Coincidence in Distribution of Agricultural Uses of Land with Slope-Soil-Drainage Complexes," Transact. Illinois State Acad. Sci., 22 (1930), 549-554.

449. Lösch, August: "The Nature of Economic Regions," South. Econ. Journ., 5 (1938), 71-78.

450. Meigs, Peveril, 3d: "A New Index for the Analysis of Regional Trends," Scott. Geogr. Mag., 55 (1939), 161-170.
 
 

METHODOLOGY OF APPLIED GEOGRAPHY

451. Taylor, Griffith: "The Geographer's Aid in Nation-Planning," Scott. Geogr. Mag., 48 (1932), 1-20, 65-78.

452. Bowman, Isaiah: "Planning in Pioneer Settlement," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 22 (1932), 93-107.

453. Sauer, Carl O.: "Land Resource and Land Use In Relation to Public Policy," Report of the Science Advisory Board, July 31, 1933, to September 1, 1934. Washington, D.C., 1934, Appendix 9, 165-260. (Bibliography.)

454. Joerg, W. L. G.: "Geography and National Land Planning," Geogr. Rev., 25 (1935), 177-208. (Bibliography.)

455. McMurry, K. C.: "Geographic Contributions to Land-Use Planning," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 26 (1936), 91-98.

456. Zuber, Leo J.: "A Comparative View of Regional Planning," Journ. Tenn. Acad. Sci., 12 (1937), 267-272.

457. Bowman, Isaiah: "Geography In the Creative Experiment," Geogr. Rev., 28 (1938), 1-19.

458. Hudson, G. Donald: "The Unit Area Method of Land Classification," Annals Assn. Am. Geogrs., 26 (1936), 99-112.

459. idem: "Methods Employed by Geographers In Regional Surveys," Econ. Geogr., 12 (1936), 98-104.

460. Trefethen, Joseph M.: "A Method for Geographic Surveying," Amer. Journ. Sci.., 32 (1936), 454-464.



Hartshorne, Richard. 1939. The Nature of Geography. Lancaster, Penn.: Association of  American Geographers.  Reprinted with permission of the Association of American Geographers.


Created 1999.10.29. Last revised 1999.11.14. KEF.