Boreal Vegetation

References



Alberta Centre for Boreal Studies. http://www.borealcentre.ca. Internet. Accessed 3 September 2003.

Antoniuk, Terry. "Cumulative Effects assessment and Linear Corridors: The Representative Areas Approach." 7th International Symposium Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management, ed. by John W. Goodrich-Mahoney, Dean F. Mutrie, Colin A. Guild. Calgary, Alberta: Elsevier Science, 2000.

Blanken, P. D., T. A. Black, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, P. C. Yang, Z. Nesic, X. Lee. "The seasonal water and energy exchange above and within a boreal forest." Journal of Hydrology 245 (May, 2001): 118-136.

Bonan, Gordon B., Herman H. Shugart. "Environmental Factors and Ecological Processes in Boreal Forests." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20 (1989a): 1-28.

Bonan, Gordon B., Michael D. Korzuhin. "Simulation of Moss and Tree Dynamics in the Boreal Plants of Interior Alaska." Vegetatio 84 (1 November, 1989b): 31-44.

BOREAS--Results Summary. http://www.daac.ornl.gov/BOREAS/bhs/Summary.html. Internet. Accessed 8 September 2003.

Ealey, M. J. Vigil. "Natural Regeneration on a Pipeline Right-of-Way in the Boreal Forest of West-Central Saskatchewan." 7th International Symposium Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management, ed. by John W. Goodrich-Mahoney, Dean F. Mutrie, Colin A. Guild. Calgary, Alberta: Elsevier Science, 2000.

Environment Canada. http://www.cws-scfed.gc.ca. Internet. Accessed October 2003.

Finley, Chris G., Richard D. Revel. "Pipeline Projects and Cumulative Effects Assessment Issues." 7th International Symposium Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management, ed. by John W. Goodrich-Mahoney, Dean F. Mutrie, Colin A. Guild. Calgary, Alberta: Elsevier Science, 2000.

Harper, Karen A., G. Peter Kershaw. "Natural Revegetation on Borrow Pits and Vehicle Tracks in Shrub Tundra, 48 Years Following Construction of the CANOL No. 1 Pipeline, N. W. T., Canada". Journal of Arctic and Alpine Research 28 (August, 1996): 163-171.

Hegmann, George, Ross Eccles, Kirk Strom. "Practical Approach to Assessing Cumulative Effects for Pipelines." 7th International Symposium Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management, ed. by John W. Goodrich-Mahoney, Dean F. Mutrie, Colin A. Guild. Calgary, Alberta: Elsevier Science, 2000.

Henry, J. David. Canada's Boreal Forest. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002.

Hinkle, Raymond, Sherri Albrecht, Eric Nathanson, Jim Evans. "Direct Relevance to the Natural Gas Industry of the Habitat Fragmentation/Biodiversity Issue Resulting from the Construction of New Pipelines." 7th International Symposium Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management, ed. by John W. Goodrich-Mahoney, Dean F. Mutrie, Colin A. Guild. Calgary, Alberta: Elsevier Science, 2000.

Johnson, Derek, Linda Kershaw, Andy MacKinnon, Jim Pojar. Plants of the Western Boreal Forest & Aspen Parkland. Edmonton, Alberta: Lone Pine Publishing, 1995.

Larsen, James A. The Boreal Ecosystem. New York: Academic Press, 1980.

Laurance, William F., Eric Jensen. "Predicting the Impacts of Edge Effects in Fragmented Habitats." Biological Conservation 55 (1991): 77-92.

Macfarlane, Arin. "Revegetation of Wellsites and Seismic Lines in the Boreal Forest." Honour's Thesis, University of Alberta, Department of Biological Science. Available from http://www.borealcentre.ca. Internet. Accessed September 2003.

Mackenzie Gas Project. http://www.mackenziegasproject.com. Internet. Accessed 2 September 2003.

Margolis, Hank A., Michael G. Ryan. "A physiological basis for biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the boreal forest: an overview." Tree Physiology 17 (August/September, 1989): 491-499.

Pelzer, Duane A., Marcy L. Bast, Scott D. Wilson, Ann K. Gerry. "Plant diversity and tree responses following contrasting disturbances in boreal forest."  Forest Ecology and Management 127 (March, 2000): 191-203.

Reed, Rebecca A., Julia Johnson-Barnard, William L. Baker. "Contribution of Roads to Forest Fragmentation in the Rocky Mountains." Conservation Biology 4 (June, 1996a): 1098-1106.

Reed, Rebecca A., Julia Johnson-Barnard, William L. Baker. "Fragmentation of a Forested Rocky Mountain Landscape, 1950-1993." Biological Conservation 75 (1996b): 267-277.

Schneider, R. "The Oil and Gas Industry in Alberta: Practices, Regulations and Environmental Impact." Available from http://www.borealcentre.ca. Internet. Accessed September 2003.

Van Ham, Laura A., Richard D. Revel.. "Right-of-Way Disturbances and Revegetation in Alpine Tundra: An Evaluation of Natural Revegetation on Plateau Mountain, Alberta." 7th International Symposium Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management, ed. by John W. Goodrich-Mahoney, Dean F. Mutrie, Colin A. Guild. Calgary, Alberta: Elsevier Science, 2000.

Waterose. http://www.geocities.com/Waterose_test/sc17.html. Internet. Accessed 31 October 2003.

Zimov, S. A., S. P. Davidov, G. M. Zimova,  A. I. Davidova, F. S. Chapin III, M. C. Chapin, J. F. Reynolds. "Contribution of disturbance to Increasing Seasonal Amplitude of Atmospheric CO2." Science 284 (18 June, 1999): 1973-1976.

photos

Introduction
spruce bog:  from USGS

Boreal Forest Biomes
Canada's Forest Heritage:  courtesy of www.borealnet.org
lichens:  from SolsticeLight.com , copyright 1999, Kathryn Eberhart
moss understory:  from USGS

Adaptations to Climate
black spruce reproduce by layering:  courtesy of Canadian Forest Service, Fredericton, New Brunswick

Wetlands
wetlands map:  courtesy of Paul Hebert, www.arctic.uofguelph.ca
sphagnum moss:  courtesy of www.nearctica.com
spruce bog:  courtesy of Dale Parker, www.usask.ca/biology/skabugs/index.html

Fire
fire:  from www.larc.nasa.gov

Above (Atmosphere) and Below (Permafrost)
treeline:  from Natural Resources Canada, Terrain Sciences Image Collection

The Pipeline as a Disturbance
Norman Wells pipeline right-of-way:  from Natural Resources Canada, Terrain Sciences Image Collection