Shelby Wolf, in memoriam


Shelby Wolf was professor of education and an award-winning teacher and educational scholar.  In 2006, she was invited to join the ranks of the University of Colorado President's Teaching Scholars —a guild of faculty from all three CU campuses who excel in teaching, scholarship, and research. Their mission is to endorse teaching excellence throughout the university.

Dr. Wolf's research centered on children's language and learning through engagement in literature and collaborative as well as creative modes of expression—discussion, writing, the visual arts, and drama.  Her most recent book, Interpreting Literature with Children (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004), portrays her close work with teachers as co-researchers in the study of children's literary learning.  She worked within numerous school-change programs to validate the perspectives of teachers who undertake enquiry into how learning works in their classrooms.  She was a senior author of Houghton Mifflin English, a textbook series devoted to helping children improve as writers.  With Shirley Brice Heath, she wrote The Braid of Literature: Children's Worlds of Reading (Harvard University Press, 1992).


Most recently, Dr. Wolf joined again with Shirley Brice Heath to look closely at how language, attention, inspiration, and collaboration within two schools in England changed through artistic partnership.  One set of booklets reports on Visual Learning in the Community School (Creative Partnerships, 2004) while another set concentrates on Dramatic Learning in the Primary School (Creative Partnerships, 2005). Dr. Wolf continued this work on her own, and her latest publications were “The Mermaid's Purse: Looking Closely at Young Children's Art and Poetry” Language Arts , 2006), “The Mysteries of Creative Partnerships” Journal of Teacher Education, 2008) as well as three monographs entitled A Playwright's Life for Me! Young Children's Language & Learning Through Drama (Creative Partnerships, 2006), From the ‘Mantle' to Expertise: The Arc of Creative Partnerships (2009), and Hand in Hand: The Art of Amalgamation (2010).

Dr. Wolf was senior editor of The Handbook of Research on Children’s and Young Adult Literature (Routledge, 2011) with her editorial colleagues Karen Coats, Patricia Enciso, and Christine Jenkins. The editors assembled a group of internationally known scholars from Education, English, and Library and Information Science for chapter contributions as well as a group of renowned children’s and young adult authors and illustrators to add their own perspectives on the field.

In 2007, Dr. Wolf began a new project with the Tate Modern Museum in London. She followed the progress of 11 children from two primary schools over a three-year period. Her work focused on the "imaginative continuum" in young children and how that can be stretched to even greater capacity, not only through viewing the work of professional artists but through the children’s own creative endeavors. In the summers of 20082009, and 2010, Tate curators and artists Roy and Claire Smith showcased the children's artwork in a series of exhibitions. She and Roy Smith designed a resource entitled Looking for Change to help teachers use the art in galleries and museums to enhance their own curricular goals.


PhD Language, Literacy, & Culture, Stanford University, 1992
MS Educational Studies, University of Utah, 1988
BA Elementary Education, University of Utah, 1977
BA Psychology, Westhampton College, University of Richmond, 1972


As an educator, my expertise lies in elementary literacy with an emphasis in literary interpretation. In this statement I will address the past accomplishments and future directions of my research through four strands: (a) children's engagement in literature, (b) the teaching of literature, (c) children's writing and writing assessment, and (d) interpretation of text through the arts. All four of these strands carry a central theme of connecting children's lives with narrative text.

Children's Engagement in Literature

My research interests have always centered on children's engagement in literature. Early in my career, I co-authored a book entitled The Braid of Literature: Children's Worlds of Reading (Wolf & Heath, 1992, Harvard University Press) (PDF). It was a nine-year case study of my two daughters' responses to literature, which explored how the initial reading of a literary text cycles into children's re-readings of the world. The book attempted to answer not only what happens with children's response during the actual reading event, but also provided insights into the variety of ways that children's responses emerge in their talk, in their play, in their interactions with friends and family, and in their reenactments of story in the world. In a review article for the American Journal of Education, Dr. Betsy Hearne (a leading children's literature librarian) called the book "One of the most creative—and readable—pieces of research to emerge recently in the field of children's literacy." Dr. Jerome Bruner, a prominent psychologist and eminent educator, wrote: "This is a book for those who care about the miracle of literature that life imitates. In a season when we mostly are supplied with books on ‘learning to read,' here is a first-class one on ‘reading to learn.'"

This was my first book about books. My second is Interpreting Literature with Children (Wolf, 2004, Lawrence Erlbaum) (PDF). In this text I've moved far beyond the lives of two very mainstream children as well as lives so closely connected to my own, to the many and varied lives of children engaging in literature in the classrooms of the master teachers I've taught at CU, Boulder. Standing on the edges of two textbook genres—the survey of literature text and the literary criticism text—I leaned out beyond these foundations to explore how children respond to text in everyday classroom situations, especially when they are given opportunities to express their literary interpretation through talk, through culture, class, and gender, and through creative modes of expression including writing, the visual arts, and drama. The early feedback on the book has been excellent. Dr. Patricia Enciso, a well-known scholar of children's literary engagement wrote: "To me the key to the book is interpretation. That's the piece of children's literature instruction that's difficult to teach well. Shelby hands it to the reader on a delicious platter. Its strength is the expression and the description of teaching strategies coupled with Shelby's deep knowledge of literary forms. It promises to be a powerhouse book." Interpreting Literature with Children is the lead volume in Lawrence Erlbaum's new Literacy Teaching Series.

The Teaching of Literature

Yet texts standing twelve years apart have only book-ended my career thus far, and while the learning involved in writing my most recent book centered on my CU master's students, I have spent even more time researching how CU preservice teachers grow in their understandings of literacy in a diverse society. Using my Children's Literature class for preservice and post-BA students as a research site, I first began to collect data in 1993, to understand the effects of using case studies of young children to prepare teachers to be more knowledgeable and skilled in supporting young children's engagement in literature. I invited two of the undergraduates in my class, Angela Carey and Erikka Mieras, to join me in the analysis and write up of the work, and we were able to publish our research in three refereed journals: Reading Research Quarterly (1996, lead article), The Journal of Literacy Research (1996, lead article), and The National Reading Conference Yearbook (1996).

Building from this work, and after redesigning my course in children's literature to increase its emphasis on diversity, I won a National Academy of Education Spencer Fellowship (1996-1998), an award which is given to only 30 scholars in the United States a year. The grant supported my study of how immersion experiences with children enable preservice teachers to change in their perceptions of diversity, literature, and learning as well as how teacher educators themselves come to view the need for reflection about their teaching. Following the pattern of working with student colleagues, I asked two of the preservice teachers in the study, Lisa Hill and Darcy Ballentine, to join me in the analysis and write up of the work, which appeared in four separate refereed articles:Theory into Practice (2001), The Journal of Literacy Research (2000), Research in the Teaching of English (1999), and The National Reading Conference Yearbook (1999).

Children's Writing and Writing Assessment

In addition to my work in literary engagement and the teaching of teachers, I've spent much time exploring the impact of state and national assessment initiatives on children's writing. I worked for the Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST), which is funded by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement in the U.S. Department of Education. In my first CRESST project, I worked with teachers on the power of literary criticism, for young writers will be more effective if they are given multiple opportunities to read and to talk analytically about text. One of the articles stemming from this work was published in Language Arts (Wolf & Gearhart, 1994), and sections from the program we developed— "Writing What You Read"—have been reprinted in a number of textbooks. In my second project, I focused on how young writers want to engage readers with refreshing and surprising language, yet few are provided the guidance for how to do it. My doctoral student colleague, Dr. Kathy Davinroy, and I wrote a piece for the refereed journal Written Communication (1998, lead article) arguing that writing revolves around criticism, but if the assessment stays on the surface and encourages word substitution over content revision, then the criticism may be not be helpful in pushing the generative aspect of writing: the work of language.

My interest in language and writing assessment continued in my final CRESST project. Here I joined Dr. Hilda Borko to study literacy assessment in Kentucky and Washington over a five-year period. We followed master teachers of writing, and I wrote a variety of pieces focusing on the impact of large-scale writing assessment. The first was a policy piece I wrote with my doctoral student colleague, Dr. Monette McIver, for Phi Delta Kappan (1999). Together Dr. McIver and I wrote another piece for Language Arts (1999), where we followed the questioning strategies of an exemplary teacher of writing as she conferenced with her students. In addition to the strong focus on writing instruction, I was the lead author for a CRESST-team piece for the American Educational Research Journal(2000). Entitled "That Dog Won't Hunt: Exemplary School Change Efforts Within the Kentucky Reform," our research presented case studies of four exemplary schools, arguing that teachers' responses to large-scale reform efforts exist in a larger web of connection and are dependent on their collaborative and consistently positive stance towards learning as well as their principal's leadership. Thus human capital, the knowledge and willingness to learn on the part of individuals, is inextricably linked to social capital, the relationships of trust and willingness to risk among school personnel. This article has garnered a number of positive comments from the research community, and it will be reprinted in an upcoming book entitled Deep Change: Reforming Schools for Significance AND Test Success, edited by Dr. Gerald Ponder and Dr. David Straham. Furthermore, my CRESST work on writing instruction and its interrelationship to leadership and community in schools led to three additional co-authored pieces in Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis (2003), Educational Leadership (2002), andLanguage Arts (2002).

Finally, my work on writing and writing assessment captured the attention of a major textbook publisher who asked me to serve as a senior author of Houghton Mifflin English (2001) and its Spanish edition Houghton Mifflin Lenguaje (2001). This Kindergarten through eighth grade textbook series is designed to aid children in becoming accomplished writers with emphasis on a variety of writing genres (including writing to express an opinion, to persuade, to compare and contrast, to report on research, to share a personal narrative, and to tell a story) as well as on the conventions of grammar, punctuation, and spelling. A new edition of this textbook series was released in 2004.

Interpretation of Text Through the Arts

My dissertation at Stanford University concerned how children dramatize written text. Since that piece of research, I have been intrigued with how children express their interpretations of literature through the arts, especially through writing, drama, and the visual arts. My early work in drama resulted in four articles in refereed journals from my dissertation: The Reading Teacher (1993), Research in the Teaching of English (1994, lead article), The Journal of Curriculum Studies (1995, lead article), and Reading Research Quarterly (1998, lead article). The second and fourth publications (RTE and RRQ) are two of the top journals in the field of literacy research. In addition to working on these pieces, I wrote a refereed article (with Pat Enciso) on drama for the National Reading Conference Yearbook (1994), which stemmed from a session that Dr. Enciso and I conducted at the conference. I also wrote a chapter on drama (with Dr. Enciso and Dr. Brian Edmiston) for the Handbook for Literacy Educators: Research on Teaching the Communicative and Visual Arts (1997), which provides an overview of research on drama in education. While my work in drama has been the most productive, I have also published refereed pieces on children's literary interpretations though the visual arts in The New Advocate (2001) and through writing in the Colorado Reading Council Journal (2003, lead article).

Most recently, I've joined a team of senior researchers, headed by Dr. Shirley Brice Heath, to examine how high-level linguistic forms are acquired and used habitually by young people involved in the arts, particularly drama and the visual arts. Our International Enquiry Network team is working with Creative Partnerships, which "provides school children across England with the opportunity to develop creativity in learning and to take part in cultural activities of the highest quality." Designed to be the most important cultural and creative program in a generation, Creative Partnerships is working to provide "a powerful, focused, high profile and inspirational tool of change, genuinely capturing the imagination of children, parents and carers, teachers and communities" (see Currently I'm conducting research in Bexhill Primary School, which is dedicated to drama, as well as with Hythe Community School, which is devoted to children's study of the visual arts. In both sites, I have been working to link drama and art to literary interpretation. Two sets of booklets have emerged from the work so far: Visual Learning in the Community School (Creative Partnerships, 2004) (PDF) and Dramatic Learning in the Primary School (Creative Partnerships, 2005) (PDF).

Anatole Broyard once said, "A good book is never finished; it goes on whispering to you from the wall." In the years since I first came to CU, Boulder the shape of my research and creative life has been constantly focused on the power of literature, and hopefully my books and articles will reverberate in the lives of teachers and children in schools. Still, my work is far from over, for the books, people, and places I've studied continue to whisper the need for more research, especially concerning the intriguing blend that occurs when children come together with books. They talk, they write, they dramatize, and they represent themes with imaginative and generative images. They exchange ideas, compare and contrast characters and themes, and agree as well as argue, all in an effort to expand their understandings and justify their claims. They look deeply into texts, and they look beyond to the experiences of their lives and those of the larger world. And that is my research goal. Through continuing research on rich literary interpretation, I hope to help children and their teachers not only learn to love reading, but also learn to love thinking about literature and life.


I began my teaching career as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tunisia, where I taught English as a second language to teenagers and adults. Then, after receiving my teacher's license, I was an elementary school teacher for eight years in the United States, Bolivia, and Saudi Arabia. When I began my doctoral work, my first university teaching position was in the Stanford Teacher Education Program, where I helped prepare master's students for positions as secondary teachers. Since 1992, I have been a teacher at the School of Education and have taught a range of students—preservice teachers (undergraduates and post-BA students working towards elementary licensure), master's students (practicing K-12 public school teachers), as well as doctoral students who ultimately want to teach teachers. In 1999, I won the Excellence in Teaching Award from the University of Colorado at Boulder.

Courses frequently taught:

EDUC 4311: Children's Literature & Literary Engagement in Elementary Schools

This course prepares teacher education candidates for teaching children's literature in a social context.  Participants will understand (a) theoretical and developmental processes associated with literary learning, (b) methods for teaching literature in a diverse society, and (c) the integration of classroom instruction with the Colorado Model Content Standards that foster such processes

A generous portion of the course concentrates on five kinds of criticism that are most appropriate for elementary children: (a) genetic criticism with a focus on the author, (b) formal criticism with highly specific attention to the text itself, (c) text-to-text criticism with an emphasis on how one written text fits within the larger body of literature, (d) transactional criticism with an eye on the reader's interaction with the text, and (e) sociocultural criticism with an emphasis on cultural, political, and social-historical perspectives.  The central textbook, Children's Books in Children's Hands, provides teacher education candidates with a thorough explanation of the history of children's literature, the narrative components essential to excellent literature, as well as numerous examples of quality tradebooks and the authors and illustrators who create them.  In short, this course is designed to heighten teacher education candidates' abilities to interpret literature with children.

EDUC 4311 is restricted to students admitted to the elementary teacher education program. Students must have completed the prerequisite (EDUC 3013) prior to registering for EDUC 4311.

EDUC 5255: Processes in Literary Interpretation

This course stresses curiosity, observation, challenge, and insight into how children and adolescents learn to become literate. These processes have much to do with the work and play of literary interpretation, for it is through analytic reading, substantive discussion, reflective writing, visual representation, and dramatic enactment that readers learn to take the words from the page to inform and transform their worlds. The purpose of the class is to expand students' understanding of literary engagement. The conceptual frame builds on theory and research in literary criticism, with a generous portion devoted to genre and its impact on the other narrative components of character, setting, plot, theme, point of view, style, and tone. Each of these components shifts and changes depending on the critical perspective. But the study of literary forms, even with the added zest of the various types of criticism, would make a poor formula for the classroom if children's transactions with text weren't invited into the mix, especially their views of culture, class, and gender. Indeed, who children are is inextricably blended with how they will engage in literature, and it will affect their talk, their writing, their drama, and even their art as they construct meaning from text. 

This course is restricted to students admitted to the Master's in Literacy Program. Students must have completed the prerequisite—EDUC 5245—prior to registering for EDUC 5255.

EDUC 5165: Children's Literature—The Art of the Picture Book

This course is designed to engage students in the world of the picture book—the words, art, symbols, and stories (both on and off the page) that are constructed to extend children's perceptions of narrative. Although some treat the picture book as a genre in itself, children's book illustration spreads across multiple genres of prose and poetry. As children's literature expert Perry Nodelman explains: "Not only is the picture book story the most common form of children's literature, but it's a form of storytelling almost exclusively reserved for children."

Selected Publications

(For complete list of publications, please see the faculty member's curriculum vitae.)


Wolf, S. A. (2004). Interpreting literature with children. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Wolf, S. A. & Heath, S. B. (1992). The braid of literature: Children's worlds of reading. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Edited Volumes

Wolf, S. A., Coats, K., Enciso, P., & Jenkins, C. (Eds.) (2011). The handbook of research on children’s and young adult literature. New York: Routledge.


Wolf, S. A. (2010).  Hand in Hand: The Art of Amalgamation. Kent, England: Future Creative.

Wolf, S. A. (2009). From the “mantle” to expertise: The arc of Creative PartnershipsLondon: Creative Partnerships.

Heath, S. B., Boehncke, E. P., & Wolf, S. A. (2007). Made for each other: Creative sciences and arts in the secondary schoolLondon: Creative Partnerships.

Wolf, S. A. (2006). A playwright's life for me! London: Creative Partnerships.


Creative Partnerships of the Arts Council of England published two series of booklets under the title Learning for Creative Futures. All are co-authored by Shirley Brice Heath and Shelby Wolf, based on research conducted by Wolf in 2003-2004.

Dramatic Learning in the Primary School (2005) 
Having a think about it: Drama for mental agility. 
A way of working: Teachers in drama education. 
It's up to you: Drama for emotional health.
What could happen if? Drama for learning from others.

Visual Learning in the Community School (2004) 
Art is all about looking: Drawing and detail. 
Hoping for accidents: media and technique. 
With an eye on design: The power of presentation. 
It looks to me as if: Talking about picturebooks. 
Sharing a common vision: Community learning for community features.

Resource Guide

Funded by UBS Investment Bank and the Tate Modern Museum, this resource was designed to help teachers use the art in galleries and museums to enhance their own curricular goals. Artist Roy Smith set up a philosophical and pedagogical structure for classroom teachers to follow, and Wolf contributed the research that supported Smith’s more pragmatic choices.

Smith, R., & Wolf, S. A. (2010). Looking for change. London: Tate Modern Museum.

Journal Articles

Enciso, P., Jenkins, C., Coats, K., Wolf, S.A. (2008). The Watsons go to NRC2007: Crossing academic boundaries in the study of childrens literature. National Reading Conference Yearbook, 57, 219-230.

Enciso, P., Jenkins, C., Trites, R. S., & Wolf, S.A. (2008, September/October). Schools of thought. The Horn Book Magazine, 523-536.

Wolf, S. A. (2008). The mysteries of creative partnershipsJournal of Teacher Education, 59(1), 89-102.

Wolf, S. A. (2006). The mermaid's purse: Looking closely at young children's art and poetry. Language Arts, 84(1), 10-20.

Heath, S. B. and Wolf, S. (2005). Focus in creative learning: Drawing on art for language developmentLiteracy, 39: 38–45.

Wolf, S. A. (2003). Because of the visual arts. Colorado Reading Council Journal, 14, 5-11.

Borko, H., Wolf, S. A., Simone, G., & Uchiyama, K. (2003). Schools in transition: Reform efforts and school capacity in Washington state. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(2), 171-202.

Uchiyama, M. K., & Wolf, S. A. (2002). The best way to lead them. Educational Leadership, 59(8), 80-83.

Wolf, S. A., & Wolf, K. P. (2002). Teaching true and to the test in writing. Language Arts, 79(3), 229-240.

Wolf, S. A., & Maniotes, L. (2002). Silenced by sex: Hard truths and taboos in teaching literature. The New Advocate, 15(3), 197-204.

Whitelaw, J., & Wolf, S. A. (2001). Learning to "see beyond": Sixth-grade students' artistic perceptions of the giver. The New Advocate, 14(1), 57-67.

Wolf, S. A. (2001). "Wax on/wax off": Helping preservice teachers "read" themselves, children, and literatureTheory into Practice, 40(3), 205-211.

Wolf, S. A., Ballentine, D., & Hill, L. (2000). Only connect!: Cross cultural connections in the reading lives of preservice teachers and childrenJournal of Literacy Research, 32(4), 533-569.

Wolf, S. A., Borko, H., Elliot, R., & McIver, M. C. (2000). "That dog won't hunt!": Exemplary school change efforts within the Kentucky reformAmerican Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 349-393.

McIver, M. C., & Wolf, S. A. (1999). The power of the conference is the power of suggestion. Language Arts, 77(1), 54-61.

Wolf, S. A., Ballentine, D., & Hill, L. (1999). The right to write: Preservice teachers' evolving understandings of authenticity and aesthetic heat in multicultural literature. Research in the Teaching of English, 34(1), 130-184.

Wolf, S. A., Hill, L., & Ballentine, D. (1999). Teaching on fissured ground: Preparing teachers for culturally conscious pedagogyNational Reading Conference Yearbook48, 423-436.

Wolf, S. A., Hill, L., & McIver, M. (1999). When process becomes policy: The paradox of Kentucky state reform for exemplary teachers of writing. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(5), 401-406.

Wolf, S. A., & Davinroy, K. A. H. (1998). "The clay that makes the pot": The loss of language in writing assessment. Written Communication, 15(4), 419-464.

Wolf, S. A. (1998). The flight of reading: Shifts in instruction, orchestration, and attitudes through classroom theatre. Reading Research Quarterly, 33(4), 382-415.

Wolf, S. A., & Brice, S. B. (1998). Wondrous words: Young children's rewritings of prose and poetry. The New Advocate, 11(4), 291-310.

Wolf, S. A., & Gearhart, M. (1997). New writing assessments: The challenge of changing teachers' beliefs about students as writers. Theory Into Practice, 36(4), 220-230.

Gearhart, M., & Wolf, S. A. (1997). Issues in portfolio assessment: Assessing writing processes from their products. Educational Assessment, 4, 265-296.

Wolf, S. A., Carey, A. A., & Mieras, E. L. (1996). The art of literary interpretation: Preservice teachers learning about the arts in language arts. In D. J. Leu, C. K. Kinzer, & K. A. Hinchman (Eds.), Literacies for the 21st century: Research and practice: Forty-fifth yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 447-460). Chicago, IL: National Reading Conference.

Wolf, S. A., Mieras, E. L., & Carey, A. A. (1996). What's after "what's that?": Preservice teachers learning to ask literary questions. Journal of Literacy Research, 28(4), 459-497.

Wolf, S. A. (1996). "What is this literachurch stuff anyway?" Preservice teachers' growth in understanding children's literary response. Reading Research Quarterly, 31(2), 130-157.

Wolf, S. A. (1995). Language in and around the dramatic curriculumThe Journal of Curriculum Studies, 27(2), 117-137.

Gearhart, M., Herman, J. L., Novak, J.R., & Wolf, S. A. (1995). Toward the instructional utility of large-scale writing assessment: validation of a new narrative rubric. Assessing Writing, 2(2), 207-242. Click here for the journal homepage.

Gearhart, M., & Wolf, S. A. (1994). Engaging teachers in assessment of their students' narrative writing: The role of subject matter knowledge. Assessing Writing , 1 (1), 67-90. Click here for the journal homepage.

Wolf, S. A. (1994). Learning to act/acting to learn: Children as actors, characters, and critics in classroom theatre. Research in the Teaching of English, 28(1), 7-44.

Wolf, S. A., & Enciso, P. (1994). Multiple selves in literary interpretation: Engagement and the language of drama. In D. J. Leu & C. K. Kinzer (Eds.),Multidimensional aspects of literacy research, theory, and practice: Forty-third yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 351-360). Chicago, IL: National Reading Conference.

Wolf, S. A., & Gearhart, M. (1994). Writing what you read: Assessment as a learning event. Language Arts, 71(6), 425-444.

Wolf, S. A., & Heath, S. B. (1993). The net of storyThe Horn Book Magazine, 69(6), 705-713.

Wolf, S. A. (1993). What's in a name? Labels and literacy in readers theatreThe Reading Teacher, 46(7), 540-545.

Wolf, S. A. (1991). Following the trail of story. Language Arts68, 388-395. Chapters in Edited Volumes and Handbooks. National Council of Teachers of English.

Book Chapters 

Siu-Runyan, Y., & Wolf, S. A. (2002). Asian and pacific island literature. In A. McClure & J. Kristo (Eds.), Adventuring with books: A booklist for Pre-K--Grade 6(pp. 317-339). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Wolf, S. A., Edmiston, B., & Enciso, P. (1997). Drama worlds: Places of the heart, head, voice, and hand in dramatic interpretation. In J. Flood, D. Lapp, & S. B. Heath (Eds.), A handbook for literacy educators: Research on teaching the communicative and visual arts (pp. 474-487). New York: Macmillan.

Technical Reports 

Wolf, S., Borko, H., McIver, M., & Elliott, R. (1999). "No excuses": School reform efforts in exemplary schools of Kentucky. (CSE Technical Report No. 514). Los Angeles: University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.

Stecher, B.M., Borko, H., Barron, S., & Wolf, S.A. (1997). Important features of state assessment systems from the local perspective. (CSE Technical Report 472). Los Angeles: University of California, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.