“ko3éínoo3ítoó” = ko3ei-noo3itoo =  old-story (69 sentences)

 

[The following historical narrative of the Northern Arapaho Tribe was composed and written down in Arapaho by a group of teachers, all of whom are native speakers. They provided the translation as well, which has been slightly modified by Dr. Andrew Cowell of the University of Colorado to more closely reflect the original Arapaho. The analysis on lines 2 and 3 of each sentence is by Dr. Cowell, who also added the pitch accents on the first line. The surface forms (line 1) have simply been divided on line 2 - no underlying forms have been given.]

 

téécxo   3í’eyóóne’  hinóno’éíno  hé’ih’éntoono’.

teecxo     3i’eyoo-ne’          hinono’ei-no’  he’ih-’entoo-no

long ago   monument-LOC  Arapaho-PL    NPAST-be at(AI)-PL

a long time ago, the Arapaho were in Canada.’

 

hih’oowuuni  woxhóóxebii.

hi-h-’oow-uuni            woxhoox-ebii

3-PAST-NEG-ADV    horse-PL

there were no horses.’

 

nih’iibíítobéé3i’.

nih-’ii-biitobee-3i’

PAST-HABIT-go on foot(AI)-3p

they traveled by foot.’

 

nih’iinóó’ei3óó3i’  heníítonookuteení3i.

nih-’iinoo’ei3-oo3i’                     heniiton-ookutee-ni3i

PAST-hunt(TA).HABIT-3p/3p   ??-tooth(AI)-3p.OBV

they hunted sabertooth cats.’

 

béexó3ii     hé’ih’iitonóunowuu.

beex-o3-ii        he’ih-’ii-tonoun-owuu

big-arrow-PL   NPAST-HABIT-use(TI)-PL

they used spears [to hunt]’

 

notóyeicii  nihí’iiniistíí3i’  hitéíxoonínoo.

notoyeic-ii  nih-i’-ii-niistii-3i’                                   hi-teix-oon-inoo

hide-PL      PAST-INSTR-HABIT-make(AI-T)-PL  3POSS-clothing-NOM.PL-PL

they used the hides [of the sabertooths] to make their clothing.’

 

nih’iibiinóó3i’;  3eicíií  cí’nih’ííbii3í’i.

nih-’ii-biin-oo3i’                       3eici-ii   ci’=nih-’ii-bii3-i’i

PAST-HABIT-eat(TA)-3p/3p   root-PL  also-PAST-HABIT-eat(AI)-3p

they ate [the sabertooths]; they also ate roots.’

 

hóxtoonóu’u   néhe  nii3ííne’etíí3i’.

hoxtoonou’-u  nehe  nii3-iine’etii-3i’

bank/cliff-PL  that     along-live(AI)-3p

they lived along the banks [of rivers].’

 

hé’ne’cihcésisíihí3i’  hínee   yiisííhi   béesóówu’.

he’ne’-cih-cesisiihi-3i’                                       hinee  yiis-iihi          bees-oowu

then/next-to speaker-move camp away(AI)-3p  that     toward-ADV  big-water [sic]

then they moved to the Greak Lakes.’

 

né’céí’sooní’i      hibíí3hiinínoo:  nówou’u,  bííbinóótno  noh  cééyowciinéyoono.

ne’-cei’soon-i’i           hi-bii3hiin-inoo  nowou’-u  biibinoot-no  noh  ceeyow-ciineyoo-no

then-different(II)-PL  3POSS-food-PL  fish-PL      berry-PL       and   various-planted-PL

their food was different now: fish, berries and vegetables.’

 

cííyoneehíího  né’césistonóunóó3i’.

ciiyoneehii-ho’  ne’-cesis-tonoun-oo3i’

large dog-PL     than-begin-use(TA)-3p/3p

that’s when they started using big dogs.’

 

nih’óo3óu’u   né’cihcésisóoséíto’onéí3i’,.

nih’oo3ou-’u   ne’-cih-cesis-ooseito’on-ei3ei’        

white man-PL  then-to speaker-begin-herd(TA)-3p’/3p  

then the white people started forcing them west,

 

            honóót  hé’ihcihnó’xuuohetíno   niinéniiniicíe

            honoot  he’ih-cih-no’xuuh-eti-no                                                    niinenii-niicie

            until      NPAST-to speaker-arrive with effort(TA)-REFL(AI)-PL   tallow-river

            until they finally reached Colorado.’

 

nih’iibí’nii3óeenowóó3i’.

nih-’ii-bi’-nii3oeen-owoo-3i’

PAST-HABIT-only-make willow shelter(TI)-SELFB(AI)-3p

they made shelters of willow’

 

né’césistonóunóu’u  3óuuyokóyono.

ne’-cesis-tonoun-ou’u   3ouuyokoy-ono

then-begin-use(TI)-3p   pointed tent-PL

then they used tipis.’

 

nííto   nih’iitonóunóu’u notóyeicii.

niito   nih-’ii-tonoun-ou’u            notoyeic-ii

first     PAST-HABIT-use(TI)-3p  hide-PL

at first they used hides of animals [for shelter and clothing’.’

 

né’césisóónoxóébiinóó3i’  nih’óo3óu’u   heeyóuhuu.

ne’-cesis-oon-oxeebiin-oo3i’        nih’oo3ou-’u    heeyouhuu

then-begin-REDUP-trade-3p/3p   white man-PL   thing

then they started trading goods with the whiteman.’

 

né’césistonóunóó3i’  nuhu  woxhóóxebii.

ne’-cesis-tonoun-oo3i’         nuhu  woxhoox-ebii

then-begin-use(TA)-3p/3p    this     horse-PL

then they began using horses.’

 

hoowoohbíítobééno

hoowooh-biitobee-no

no longer-go on foot(AI)-PL

they didn’t walk on foot anymore.’

 

nih’iicíicíísiikohéí3i’  yiisííhi  heetíhco’óó’,  wóó’teenótoyóó’,

nih-’ii-cii-ciisiikohei-3i’                          yiis-iihi         heet-ihco’oo-’              woo’teenotoyoo-’

PAST-HABIT-REDUP-ride far(AI)-3p  toward-ADV  where-go up(II)-SING black mtn(II)-SING

they would ride a long ways, to Yellowstone, the Black Hills,

 

            béí’i’einiicíe  heenéí’isííhi.

            bei’i’ei-niicie   hee-nei’is-iihi

            shell-river        REDUP-how-ADV

            Casper, and places like that.’

 

noh  nih’ee3ebcé’eeckóohu3i’  heetko’éinóóni’.

noh  nih-’ee3eb-ce’-eeckoohu-3i’              heet-ko’einooni-’

and  PAST-there-again-go home(AI)-3p    where-be circular(II)-SING

and they would go back home to Estes Park.’

 

néhe’nih’íítcecinsí’i.

nehe’-nih-’iit-cecins-i’i

that-PAST-where-spend winter (AI)-3p

that is where they stayed for the winter.’

 

noh  beníícení’i  né’nih’iiwóowo’wuuhu3i’,

noh  beniicen-i’-i                          ne’-nih-’ii-woo-wo’wuuhu-3i’

and  be summer(II)-SING-ITER  then-PAST-HABIT-REDUP-move camp along(AI)-3p

and when summer came, they would move around

 

            tih’ii3óókuhóó3i’ h íí3einóónin.

            tih-’ii-3ookuh-oo3i’                                 hii3einoon-in

            when.PAST-HABIT-follow(TA)-3p/3p  buffalo-OBV

            following the buffalo.’

 

heníísnoh’oonóó3i,  né’nih’iicéni3óó3i’.

heniis-noh’-oonoo3i              ne’-nih-’ii-ceni3-oo3i’

PERF-kill(TA)-3p.ITER/3p  then-PAST-HABIT-butcher(TA)-3p/3p

after killing the buffalo, they would dress it.’

 

nih’iibístonóunéíhit.   néhe’nih’eenéisííne’etíí3i’.

nih-’ii-bis-tonouneihi-t                               nehe’-nih-’een-eis-iine’etii-3i’

PAST-HABIT-all-be used(AI.PASS)-3     that-PAST-REDUP-how-live(AI)-3p

every part of the buffalo was used. that is how they lived.’

 

wohéí  né’césisníhi’neenóxoonó  heesííne’etííno’,

wohei  ne’-cesis-nihi’nee-noxoon-o             hees-iine’etii-no

well    then-begin-very-dangerous(II)-SING  how-live(AI)-1p.INCL

okay that’s when our life became more dangerous,

 

            hi’ííhi  tohníhi’neewoo3éé3i’  nih’óo3óu’u.

            hi’-iihi            toh-nihi’nee-woo3ee-3i’           nih’oo3ou-’u

            INSTR-ADV   because-very-be many(AI)-3p  white man-PL

            because there were more white people now.’

 

wohéí  né’neyéisiséé3i’:

wohei  ne’-neyeisisee-3i’

well    then-go apart(AI)-3p

well that’s when they parted:

 

            hiinóno’wuuhunénnó   noowuuhu  hee3ébiséé3i’,

            hiinono’wuuh-nen-no   noow-uuhu  hee3eb-isee-3i’

            wander-man-PL              south-ADV   there-go(AI)-3p

            the Southern Arapahoes moved south,

 

            noh  béésoowu’unénnó  né’cei3íihí3i’

            noh  beesoowu’-unen-no  ne’-cei3iihi-3i’

            and  great lakes-man-PL    then-move camp this way(AI)-3p

            and the Great Lakes people came to

 

            béí’i’einiicíe  noh  nóuuhóowu’;

            bei’i’ei-niicie noh   nouu-hoowu

            shell-river      and    swift fox-lodge

            the Casper area and Arminto area.

 

noh  né’nih’íitnííseekuu’u  hóseihóowu’u;  céése  hítesííno’,

noh  né-nih-’iit-niiseekuu-’u                      hosei-hoowu’-u  ceesehitesii-no’

and  that-PAST-where-two be held(II)-PL  away-lodge-PL   one      cheyenne-PL

and that’s where they had two sundances; one was Cheyenne,

 

            céése  hinóno’éíno’.

            ceese  hinono’ei-no

            one      Arapaho-PL

            the other Arapaho.’

 

noh  nuhu  niisíísiiyeinííxonéé3i’   nih’étbisíítonéíno’.

noh  nuhú nii-siisiiyei-niixonee-3i’    nih-’et-bisiiton-eino

and  this    HABIT-snake-eat(AI)-3p   PAST-FUT-attack(TA)-3p’/1p.INCL

and these Shoshones were going to attack us.’

 

hé’ne’niitówootóu’u  nuhu  niibóootno.

he’ne’-niitowoot-ou’u  nuhu  niibooot-no

then/next-hear(TI)-3p  this      song-PL

then they heard these songs.’

 

wohéí  neeníhéesííni:  heetbí’co’óókootííno  nuhu  niibóootno.

wohei  neeni-hees-iini          heet-bi’-co’-ookootii-no                             nuhu  niibooot-no

well    let it be-how-II.EX    FUT-just-again-take home(AI-T)-1p.INCL this     song-PL

they said, ‘let it go, we’ll just take these songs back home’‘

 

heetíhtonóunowuno  nuhu  niibóootno  heehehkóni’.

heetih-tonoun-owuno       nuhu  niibooot-no  hee-hehkoni

so that-use(TI)-1p.INCL   this      song-PL       say(AI)-3p.SUBJ

‘’we can use these songs’ they said to themselves.’

 

‘oh  hoowée’ínowuu  tih’oonoyóóhobéihí3i’:

‘oh  hoow-ee’in-owuu    tih-’oonoyoohobeihi-3i’

but  NEG-know(TI)-PL  when.PAST-be watched(AI.PASS)-3p

but they didn’t know they were being watched:

 

heneihcée3tóó3i’  hihbisíítonéíno’óhk.

henei-h-cee3too-3i’                                 hih-bisiiton-eino’-ohk

POTENT-PAST-make mistake(AI)-3p   COUNTERFACT-attack(TA)-3p’/1p.INCL-SUBJ

they would have made a mistake if they had attacked us.’

 

henéíhnoo’oohóóno’.

henei-h-noo’-ooh-oono

POTENT-PAST-REDUP-kill(TA)-1p.INCL/3p

we would have killed them all.’

 

héetnííseekuu   néé’eesíh’iinóó  nuhu.

heet-niis-eekuu-’                         nee’eesih’iinoo-’                                                           nuhu

where-two-be put up(II)-SING    that is what (something) is/was called(II.REL)-SING  this

‘’Where Two Sundance Lodges Stood’ is what [that place] is called.’

 

wohéí  he’íícxooyéinííhi,  hé’ne’ce’bisíítonéí3i’  síísiiyeinííxoneehíího

wohei  he’ii-cxooyei-niihi              he’ne’-ce’-bisiiton-ei3ei’               siisiiyeiniixoneehii-ho

well     INDEF-time length-ADV    then/next-again-attack(TA)-3p’/3p Shoshone-PL.OBV

well sometime later, they were attacked again by Shoshones

 

            noh  bení’inénnó  hínee  konóuwoo’óé  ní’íi3éíhiinóó’.

            noh  beni’inen-no       hinee konouwoo’oe-’            ni’ii3eihiinoo-’

            and  soldier-PL.OBV  that   sweat brush(II)-SING  to be called that(II)-SING

            and soldiers at the place called ‘Lost Cabin’.’

 

wohéí  céése’inén   hé’ihwóowóxu’óo3éíh.

wohei  ceese’-inen  he’ih-woo-woxu’oo3eih

well     one-man      NPAST-REDUP-to be blessed(AI.PASS)

well, one man was blessed.’

 

noh  né’cihnootosó’ei’ít  woxhóóxebii,  héé3ebnóho’oesó’noot  teesí’.

noh  ne’-cih-nootoso’ei’i-t          woxhoox-ebii  hee3eb-noho’oeso’on-oot  tees-i

and  then-to speaker-herd(AI)-3  horse-PL          there-chase up(TA)-3/3p   top-LOC

and he rounded up the horses and chased them to the top [to where the Arapahos

                                                                                                had retreated].’

 

ne’eenéitóóxobéí3i’.  né’cih’oowkóóhuuhéí3i’.

ne’-een-eitooxobei-3i’                ne’-cih-’oowkoohuuhei-3i’

then-REDUP-get horse(AI)-3p   then-to speaker-ride down(AI)-3p

then they got their horses. then they rode back down [to where their camp was].’

 

né’íyiihowóó3i’.

ne’-iyiihow-oo3i’

then-chase(TA)-3p/3p

then [the Arapahos] chased [the attackers].’

 

wohéí  né’ooxohoecésisbí’owoo3óó3i’.

wohei  ne’-ooxohoe-cesis-bi’owoo3-oo3i’

well     then-in exchange-begin-defeat(TA)-3p/3p

well now it was their turn to start beating them in battle.’

 

hé’ne’cihtókohuní3i.

he’ne’-cih-tokohu-ni3i

then/next-to speaker-flee(AI)-3p.OBV

that’s when they started running from them.’

 

noh  nééceeno  tóotóu’eebí3i’  ciibéhnéénoníhe’.

noh  neecee-no’  too-tou’eebi-3i’                             ciibeh-nee-nonih-e

and   chief-PL    REDUP-be warned(AI.PASS)-3p PROHIB-REDUP-kill(TA)-IMPER.PL

and they were warned by the chiefs ‘don’t kill them, just

 

            bí’tóuninóó3e’.

            bi’-touninoo3-e’

            just-count coup(TA)-IMPER.PL

            capture them!’’

 

wohéí  hé’ne’cihkoo’ouute.

wohei  he’ne’-cih-koo’ouut-e

well     then/next-to speaker-be dusty(II)-SING

now there was just a big cloud of dust’

 

nuhu  nihwoonó’oteihí3i’  né’cihbixóneséí’i3i’

nuhu  nih-woo-no’oteihi-3i’                 ne’-cih-bixonesei’i-3i’

this     PAST-recently-be tough(AI)-3p then-to speaker-cry while chased(AI.PASS)-3p

these that were tough before, they were now crying while being chased,

 

            wootíí  to’óéneehíího.

            wootii  to’oeneehii-ho’

            like      puppu-PL

            just like little pups.’

 

hé’ihbixónotóuuhunó  céi3ííhi’.

he’ih-bixonotouuhu-no                    cei3-iihi’

NPAST-cry while hollering(AI)-PL  to here-ADV

they were crying and screaming coming this way.’

 

wohéí  néhe’nih’íisóó.

wohei  nehe’-nih-’iisoo-’

well    that-PAST-how something is(II.REL)-SING

okay, that’s how it was.’

 

wohéí  he’íícxooyéinííhi  néhe  tééb3ee3éít,

wohei  he’ii-cxooyei-niihi               nehe  teeb-3ee3ei-t

well    INDEF-length of time-ADV  this     cut off-finger(AI)-3

well sometime later this man Black Coal

 

né’cihnoxuutéixóhoot  he’íítoxní3i  hinóno’éíno

ne’-cih-noxuuteixoh-oot                          he’iitox-ni3i                      hinono’ei-no

then-to speaker-bring to river(TA)-3/3p  indefinite number(AI)-3p Arapaho-PL.OBV

brought so many Arapahoes to

 

            nuhu  hiiwóonhéhé  héetóóno’.

            nuhu  hiiwoonhehe  heetoo-no’

            this      now/today       where be located(AI.REL)-1p.INCL

            this place where we now live.’

 

tééb3ee3éít  né’sóosononíhoot   tooté’einí3  heetíhneecéentóóno’.

teeb3ee3eit  ne’-soo-sononih-oot         toot-e’ei-ni3          heetih-neeceentoo-no

Black Coal  then-REDUP-flatter-3/3   hole-head-3.OBV  so that-stay a while(AI)-1p.INCL

‘Black Coal said a lot of good things about Chief Washakie, so we could stay here

            for a while.’

 

noh  nii’óówoot.

noh  nii’oow-oot

and  receive consent(TA)-3/3

and he received his consent.’

 

Néhe  heenííbeet  né’cihwoono’uuhut

nehe  hee-niibee-t          ne’-cih-woo-no’uuhu-t

this     long-nose(AI)-3   then-to speaker-recently-move camp here(AI)-3

‘Sharp Nose them moved over here

 

            nohkuuhu  híni  hoo3óó’o’  hinóno’éíno’.

            nohk-uuhu  hini hoo3-oo’o’               hinono’ei-no’

            with-ADV   that   next/other-NOM.PL Arapaho-PL

            along with the rest of the Arapahos.’

 

niis  nih’oontóótowuno  nuhu  bííto’ówu’.

niis  nih-’oontoot-owuno          nuhu  biito’owu

two  PAST-pay(TI)-1p.INCL     this      land

we paid for this land twice.’

 

néé’eehee3eenéentóóno’  hiit.

nee’ee-hee3ee-neentoo-no’                                hiit

that-why-be located somewhere(AI)-1p.INCL   here

that’s why we are living here.’

 

héíhoowuni’cé3éso’onéín.

hei-hoow-uni’-ce3eso’on-ei-n

2-NEG-able-chase away(TA)-3p-1.INCL

they cannot chase us away.’

 

wohéí  nenéé,  néé’eetoxunihííni’.

wohei  nenee  nee’eetox-unihii-ni

well     it           enough-say(AI)-1p.EXCL

okay, we’ve said enough.’

 

néíhoowbéetbísoo3ítootowube   heesíí3oobéé’.

nei-hoow-beet-bis-oo3itoot-owube                             hees-ii3oobee-’

1-NEG-want-all-tell story about something(TI)-PL    how-true(II)-SING

‘we  don’t want to tell the whole story [about] how true it is.’

ADDENDUM

 

néhe  hinóno’éí  né’césiswóowo’wuuhut  céi3ííhi’.

nehe  hinono’ei  ne’-cesis-woo-wo’wuuhu-t                    cei3-iihi’

this     Arapaho    then-begin-REDUP-move camp(AI)-3  to here-ADV

then the Arapaho started to move this way’

 

hínee  béésniiciihóho  cenihtókooxuuséé3i’.

hinee  bees-niicii-hoho  cenih-tokooxuusee-3i’

that    big-river-PL         to speaker-cross over(AI)-3p

they crossed those big rivers coming this way.’

 

híí3einóón  né’césis3óó3ookuhoot  honóót

hii3einoon  ne’-cesis-3oo-3ookuh-oot                 honoot

buffalo        then-begin-REDUP-follow(TA)-3/3  until

then they started to follow the buffalo until

 

            cenihnó’xuuohetí3i’  niinéniiniicíe.

            cenih-no’xuuh-eti-3i’                             niinenii-niicie

            to speaker-arrive with effort-REFL-3p  tallow-river

            they reached the Denver area.’

 

wohéí  néhe  nih’óó3oo  héí’níhi’neeno’useet,

wohei  nehe nih’oo3oo    hei’-nihi’nee-no’usee-t

well    this     white man    when.PERF-rapid-arrive(AI)-3

okay, once the white man really started arriving rapidly,

 

            né’cihwo’wuuhu3i’  yiisííhi  béí’i’einiicíe.

            ne’-cih-wo’wuuhu-3i’                      yiis-iihi                    bei’i’ei-niicie

            then-to speaker-move camp(AI)-3p  towards there-ADV  shell-river

            then they moved to the Casper area.’

 

néhe’nih’íítbéétohciinenéíno,  óh  héíhoowni’oobéín.

nehe’-nih-’iit-beetoh-ciinen-eino                             ‘oh  hei-hoow-ni’oob-ei-n

that-PAST-where-want to-place down-3p/1p.INCL  but  2-NEG-agree(TA)-3p-1.INCL

that’s where they wanted to place us, but we didn’t agree.’

 

niinéniiniicíe  héénoo  nih’iibéétohnee’éetóó3i’.

niinenii-niicie  heenoo                nih-’ii-beetoh-nee’eetoo-3i’

tallow-creek     rule/obligation    PAST-IMPERF-want to-that is where located(AI.REL)-3p

they [Arapahos] wanted to stay in the Denver area.’

 

he’íícxooyéinííhi  hiit  né’cihnoxuutéíseenó

he’ii-cxooyein-iihi                  hiit   ne’-cih-noxuuteisee-no

INDEF-length of time-ADV    here  then-to speaker-go to river(AI)-1p.INCL

sometime later we came up to

 

            nuhú  héetóóno  hiiwóonhéhe’.

            nuhu  heetoo-no’                                             hiiwoonhehe

            this      where be located(AI.REL)-1p.INCL     now/today

            where we are living now.’

 

nih’étbí’neecéentóóno,  ‘oh  néhe  nih’óó3oo

nih-’et-bi’-neeceentoo-no                                       ‘oh  nehe  nih’oo3oo

PAST-FUT-just-be located a while(AI)-1p.INCL   but   this     white man

we were only supposed to stay here for a while, but this whiteman (who makes all the rules)

 

            né’bí’ciinenéíno  hiit,

            ne’-bi’-ciinen-eino                         hiit

            then-just-place down-3p/1p.INCL  here

            just put us here,

 

            noh  niis  honoontóótowuno  nuhu  bííto’ówu’.

            noh  niis  hon-oontoow-owunu                                nuhu   biito’owu

            and  two  REDUP-pay for something(TI)-1p.INCL  this      land

            and we have paid for this land twice.’

 

wohéí  néhe  nih’óó3oo  benée3heenebííte’  hebííto’owuuwun

wohei  nehe  nih’oo3oo  benee3-hee-nebiite-’                              he-biito’owuuw-un

well     this    white man   finish-REDUP-steal something(AI)-3  2POSS-land-1.INCL

well, now the white man has stolen all our land

 

            noh  hénecébin,  noh  nonoo’óóhoot  híí3einóón.

            noh  he-neceb-in                  noh   nonoo’ooh-oot        hii3einoon

            and  2POSS-water-1.INCL  and   massacre(TA)-3/3   buffalo

            and our water and he killed all the buffalo.’

 

wohéí  né’césisheenésneenó  noh hiiwóonhéhe

wohei  ne’-cesis-hee-nesnee-no                            noh  hiiwoonhehe

well    then-begin-REDUP-hungry(AI)-1p.INCL   and  now/today

well, that’s when we started getting hungry and now

 

            no’óó  niibí’woníbiiwóohuno.

            no’oo       nii-bi’-won-ibiiwoohu-no

            way out     HABIT-just-go to-cry(AI)-1p.INCL

            we just go out into the hills and just cry.’

 

néé’ee3éí’neenóxootéíht  néhe  nihóó3oo.

nee’ee3-ei’nee-noxooteih-t               nehe  nih’oo3oo

thus-to what extent-be mean(AI)-3   this     white man

that’s how mean the white man is.’

 

néé’ee3éí’cíí3ootéíht.

nee’ee3-ei’-cii3ooteih-t

thus-to what extent-be greedy(AI)-3

that’s how greedy he is.’