OTPIC Officially Retired
As of December 2, 2005, the Online Training Program on Intractable Conflict (OTPIC) has been officially retired, and is no longer open to new registrations.
The successor to OTPIC is a course called Dealing Constructively with Intractable Conflicts (DCIC). The new curriculum is built around one of our major projects, Beyond Intractability, and offers a much more extensive and informative set of learning materials than that available through OTPIC.
International Online Training Program On Intractable Conflict
Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, USA
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Conflict theorists often use three terms--peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peacebuilding-- that are easily confused. Peacekeeping means keeping people from attacking each other by putting some kind of barrier between them. Often this barrier is made up of neutral soldiers--peacekeepers--from the UN or a group of neutral nations. The soldiers do nothing to settle the disputant's differences or help negotiate a peace agreement--they simply keep the two sides apart.
Peacemaking is the process of forging a settlement between the disputing parties. While this can be done in direct negotiations with just the two disputants, it is often also done with a third-party mediator, who assists with process and communication problems, and helps the parties work effectively together to draft a workable peace accord. Usually the negotiators are official diplomats, although citizens are getting involved in the peacemaking process more and more. While they do not negotiate final accords, citizen diplomacy is becoming an increasingly common way to start the peacemaking process, which is then finalized with official diplomatic efforts.
However, peacemaking is not the final step in the peace process. As both the situations in the Middle East and Bosnia so well demonstrate, it takes more than a peace accord to bring peace to a region. The peace accord is just a beginning, which must be followed by long-term peacebuilding--the process of normalizing relations and reconciling differences between all the citizens of the warring factions.
Techniques of peacemaking vary greatly and are beyond the scope of the material we can present here. However, the fundamental techniques used include negotiation, mediation, official and unofficial, or "track two" diplomacy all of which are described in more detail in other sections.
UN Peacemaking Efforts
Information on Peacemaking Efforts Relating to the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict from the UNSeeking Arab - Israeli Peacemaking and Reconciliation Through Culture from the Online Journal of Peace And Conflict Resolution
Peacekeeping, Peacemaking, and Human Rights, by Cedric Thornberry, former Assistant Secretary-General of the UN and Deputy Chief of UNPROFOR in ex-Yugoslavia.
Peacekeepers? Peacemakers? Women in Northern Ireland 1969-1995 - INCORE Publications and Papers Occasional Papers
US Institute of Peace Special Report-The U.S. Contribution to Conflict Prevention, Management, and Resolution in AfricaMichael N. Nagler Peacemaking through Nonviolence
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