OTPIC Officially Retired
As of December 2, 2005, the Online Training Program on Intractable Conflict (OTPIC) has been officially retired, and is no longer open to new registrations.
The successor to OTPIC is a course called Dealing Constructively with Intractable Conflicts (DCIC). The new curriculum is built around one of our major projects, Beyond Intractability, and offers a much more extensive and informative set of learning materials than that available through OTPIC.
International Online Training Program On Intractable Conflict
Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, USA
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People can also respond to threats by pretending to submit to the demands of the threatening party while simultaneously and secretly defying the wishes of their opponent.. For example, threats are embodied in election laws which prohibit the bribery of public officials. Still, it is often possible for interest groups to find ways to "reward" government officials for their support. Or, in cases where countries are attempting to enforce economic sanctions against another country, it is often possible for businesses to get around the sanctions through smuggling or shipping goods through intermediary countries which are not honoring the sanctions.
From a defensive perspective, this kind of deception can be used to reduce power imbalances. For example, in cases where political activism on behalf of disempowered communities is prohibited, it is often possible to establish a network of international sympathizers who can coordinate protest activities and mobilize international supporters.
In short, the effectiveness of force is limited in cases where the threatening parties cannot reliably determine whether or not threatened parties are complying with their demands.
Misunderstanding the Relationship Between Threat and Force
Failure to Anticipate Opponent Reactions and the Backlash Effect
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