I. The Roman road (via) system
   A. "The unspeakable greatness of the Roman empire lies in three things: aqueducts,
          sewer systems, and paved roads"--Dionysius of Halicarnassus
   B. Functions: trade, travel, communication, political stability; expand Roman rule
   C. Three types of roads: dirt road; gravel; paved (Via Popilia)
   D. Milestones (milliaria): milia passuum="1,000 steps" (4850 ft)

II.  By land or by sea
   A. Land transport: horses; ox and donkey carts/wagons; litter; average speed 20/40 miles/day;
        mansiones (20-30 mi apart) = roadside motels (bars, baths, booty)
\       mutationes (horse feeding) = gas stations
        stationes (military guard post) = highway patrol station
   B. River transport
   C. Sea transport: mare clausum (November - March)
     1. Merchant ship: 50-120 ft; carry 150-350 tons; amphorae
     2. Wind-propelled (oars into port); sails; avg 3 knots
     3. Navigation: night - stars; day - landmarks; no compasses
     4. War galley (navis longa)
   D. Vacations: seaside resorts (Baiae); Egypt/Greece (1st-2nd AD); Jerusalem (4th AD)
   E. Travel troubles: shipwreck, pirates, highway robbers, wild animals