The present disclosure concerns methods and compositions relating to mixed-library parallel gene trait mapping. In particular embodiments, the methods concern quantitative microarray hybridization techniques for genome-wide identification of trait conferring genes. In other embodiments, the compositions concern genetic elements that confer or are associated with a trait. In an exemplary embodiment, the trait is enhanced growth rate. In another exemplary embodiment, genetic elements that confer enhanced bacterial growth rate comprise part of all of the sequences of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:4, or SEQ ID NO:5. In other embodiments, the genetic elements that confer enhanced bacterial growth rate correspond to the YliF, adrA, yeaP, yddV or ydeH genes of E. coli.
SAPO-34 membranes and methods for their preparation and use are described. The SAPO-34 membranes are prepared by contacting at least one surface of a porous membrane support with a synthesis gel. The Si/Al ratio of the synthesis gel can be from 0.3 to 0.15. SAPO-34 crystals are optionally applied to the surface of the support prior to synthesis. A layer of SAPO-34 crystals is formed on at least one surface of the support. SAPO-34 crystals may also form in the pores of the support. SAPO-34 membranes of the invention can have improved selectivity for certain gas mixtures, including mixtures of carbon dioxide and methane.
The invention provides methods for inducing reversible chain cleavage of polymer chains in a crosslinked polymeric material. Reversible cleavage of the polymer backbone is capable of relieving stress in the polymeric material as the bonds reform in a less stressed state. The invention also provides methods for making polymeric materials capable of reversible chain cleavage, materials made by the methods of the invention, and linear monomers containing reversible chain cleavage groups, which are useful in the materials and methods of the invention.
A modular surfactant architecture based on room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) has been developed that affords non-polymerizable and polymerizable amphiphiles that form lamellar (L), hexagonal (H) or bicontinuous cubic (Q) LLC phases when mixed with water or RTILs serving as the polar solvent. The amphiphiles are imidazolium salts having two or more imidazolium head groups joined by one or more spacers. Polymerization of the LLC assembly can produce polymeric materials having ordered nanopores, with the ordering of the pores determined by the LLC phase.
The invention provides composite nanofiltration membranes with lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) polymer porous membranes attached to a porous support. The LLC membranes are prepared from LLC monomers which form the inverted hexagonal or bicontinuous cubic phase. The arrangement, size, and chemical properties of the pores can be tailored on the molecular level. The composite membrane of the invention is useful for separation processes involving aqueous and nonaqueous solutions as well as gases. Methods for making and using the composite nanofiltration membranes of the inventions are also provided.