GEOL-3540 (3) Introduction to Petroleum Geology

Discusses the origin and distribution of conventional and unconventional petroleum resources, source rocks, types of traps and seals, reservoir rock properties, exploration methods (seismic data analysis and interpretation, formation evaluation, subsurface mapping), reservoir characterization and modeling, reserves calculations. Prereqs., GEOL 1010 and MATH 1300 or APPM 1350, or instructor consent.

GEOL-3720 (3) Evolution of Life: The Geological Record

Discusses the evolution of life on Earth, beginning with the earliest origins and surveying the major steps that led to the rise of higher plants and animals. Covers modern ideas on the causes of periodic mass extinctions in both the marine and terrestrial realms. Emphasizes geologic evidence for the pathways of evolution, using examples from the ordinary to the bizarre. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.

GEOL-3820 (3) The Fluid Earth

Examines the myriad forms of fluid behavior found on Earth, from the atmosphere to the inner core. Explores how basic principles of fluid physics may be used to understand a broad range of earth processes, including mantle convection, atmosphere and ocean dynamics, stream flow, lava spreading, and glacier motion, among others. Covers fundamental fluid concepts such as viscosity, pressure, convection, friction, and free-surface flow. Prereqs., MATH 1300, or APPM 1340 and 1345, or APPM 1350, or equivalent. Recommended prereq., GEOL 1010 or equivalent.

GEOL-3930 (1-6) Internship

Offers an academically supervised opportunity for geological sciences majors to work with public or private organizations. Projects are usually associated with students' career goals; each project has an academic emphasis. Prereq., junior standing and completion, with a B or better, of at least two courses for geology majors.

GEOL-3950 (3) Natural Catastrophes and Geologic Hazards

Surveys historic and prehistoric natural disasters, their cause, and potential for recurrence. Meteorite impact, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, floods, magnetic reversals, and major extinction events. Course formerly numbered as GEOL 4950. Prereq., one year science. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.

GEOL-4060 (4) Oceanography

Examines the ocean as a system influencing the Earth's surficial processes and climate. Composition and properties of seawater, ocean circulation, waves, tides, coastal-, shallow-, and deep-water processes, biogeochemical cycles, deep sea sediments. Laboratory emphasizes the use of oceanographic data. Prereq., one semester chemistry, physics, or geology. Same as GEOL 5060.

GEOL-4070 (3) Paleoclimatology

Covers the primary forcings and feedbacks that determine Earth's energy balance and the resultant climate system on decadal to millennial time scales. Covers ocean/atmosphere circulation, the role of ice sheets in the climate system, monsoons, Holocene climate change and 20th Century warming. Includes coverage of the proxies available to reconstruct climates of the past and the archives that contain these proxies. Recommended for natural science majors only and recommended prerequisite of ENVS or GEOL introduction sequence. Credit not granted for this course and GEOL 3040.

GEOL-4093 (4) Remote Sensing of the Environment

Covers acquisition and interpretation of environmental data by remote sensing. Discusses theory and sensors, as well as manual and computerized interpretation methods. Stresses infrared and microwave portions of the spectrum. Same as GEOL 5093 and GEOG 4093.

GEOL-4130 (3) Principles of Geophysics

Students are introduced to fundamental geophysics including seismology, geomagnetism, gravity, radiometric dating, and heat flow with applications to plate tectonics and exploration of the subsurface. Prereqs., MATH 1300 and PHYS 1110 and any 1000-level sequence in geological sciences; GEOL 3120 recommended.

GEOL-4160 (3) Introduction to Biogeochemistry

Covers fundamentals of biogeochemical cycling, emphasizing water, carbon, and nutrient dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems; chemical interactions of atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere; and natural and human-managed environments. Prereqs., GEOL 3320 or EBIO 3270, and CHEM 1011 or higher. Same as ENVS 4160 and EBIO 4160.

GEOL-4241 (4) Principles of Geomorphology

Studies weathering, mass-wasting, fluvial, wind, and marine processes and the resulting landforms. Prereq., GEOG 1011 or any 1000-level sequence in geological sciences. Same as GEOG 4241. Approved for arts and sciences core curriculum: natural science.

GEOL-4270 (3) Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry

Examines the chemical, biological, geological, and physical processes affecting (and affected by) the chemistry of the oceans. Topics include: chemical separation in seawater; the marine carbon cycle and its long-term control on atmospheric CO2; the large-scale interdependence of nutrient distributions and biological productivity, chemical tracers of ocean circulation; and the chemistry of marine sediments, including early diagenesis. Prereq., CHEM 1113/1114 and intro geology and/or oceanography or equivalent. Restricted to juniors/seniors.

GEOL-4330 (3) Cosmochemistry

Investigates chemical and isotopic data to understand the composition of the solar system: emphasis on the physical conditions in various objects, time scales for change, chemical and nuclear processes leading to change, observational constraints, and various models that attempt to describe the chemical state and history of cosmological objects in general and the early solar system in particular. Prereq., upper-div undergrad or grad standing in physical science. Recommended prereq., upper-div undergrad Chem, Phys, or Math. Same as GEOL 5330 and ASTR 4330.

GEOL-4474 (4) Vertebrate Paleontology

Discusses the history and evolution of the vertebrates, including the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary patterns of the major groups. Lab focuses on comparative vertebrate osteology and fossil representation of major groups. Prereqs., GEOL 1010, 1020, and 3410, or instructor consent. Restricted to juniors and seniors. Same as GEOL 5474. Prerequisites: Restricted to students with 57-180 credits (Junior or Senior).

GEOL-4500 (3) Critical Thinking in the Earth Sciences

Deals with controversies within the broad realm of geological sciences, including planetary geology, evolution, paleobiology, global change, environmental issues, plate tectonics, resources, other societal problems, or geologic thought in general. Students are provided the opportunity to analyze and debate scientific issues in the earth sciences. May be repeated up to 6 total credit hours. Prereq., any 1000-level geological science sequence.

GEOL-4550 (3) Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Modeling

Introduces concepts and methods of petroleum reservoir analysis and 3-D reservoir modeling using subsurface data (cores, well logs, 3-D seismic) and outcrop analogs. Examines petroleum system, petrophysics (lithology, porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, flow units), and sequence-stratigraphic, facies, and structural controls on reservoir properties, heterogeneity, and recovery efficiency. Deterministic and stochastic reservoir modeling methods are addressed. Prereqs., GEOL 1010, 1020, and 3430 or instructor consent. Restricted to juniors/seniors. Same as GEOL 5550. Prerequisites: Restricted to students with 57-180 credits (Junior or Senior).

GEOL-4670 (3) Isotope Geology

Introduces principles of stable and radiogenic isotope systematics in inorganic and organic geochemistry. Emphasizes application of isotope data to problems in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary petrology, geobiochemistry, and petroleum genesis. Prereqs., CHEM 1131, MATH 1300, and GEOL 3020. Same as GEOL 5670.

GEOL-4700 (1-4) Special Geological Topics

Studies in selected geological subjects of special current interest (for undergraduates). May be repeated up to 9 total credit hours within a term. Prereq., instructor consent. Restricted to juniors and seniors. Prerequisites: Restricted to students with 57-180 credits (Junior or Senior).

GEOL-4711 (2) Igneous and Metamorphic Field Geology

Applies field techniques to interpretation of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Field exercises and lectures focus on collecting data required to map igneous and metamorphic rock units. Prereqs., GEOL 2700 or 2001 and GEOL 3020.

GEOL-4712 (2) Structural Field Geology

Methods of field study of structure of rocks, including observations, data collection, and interpretation to understand geometry of deformation and causative processes and kinematics. Field projects are mapped using different scales, air photos, topographic maps, and compass and tape. Prereqs., GEOL 2700 or 2001, and GEOL 3120.

GEOL-4714 (2) Field Geophysics

Applies geophysical field techniques and data interpretation to studying geological and engineering problems. Fieldwork includes seismic, gravity, magnetic, and electrical measurements. Prereqs., GEOL 2700 or 2001, and MATH 1300 and PHYS 1110, or instructor consent.

GEOL-4715 (2) Field Techniques in Hydrogeology

Introduces various field techniques and data analysis methods in hydrogeologic studies for students in geology, environmental studies, geography, and civil engineering. Exercises include mapping ground water levels, conducting slug and pumping tests, measuring stream flows, interpreting aquifer parameters from geophysical measurements, and using field data for water budget analysis. Prereq., GEOL 2001 or 2700.

GEOL-4716 (2) Environmental Field Geochemistry

Develops basic field skills in the most commonly performed tasks required for the environmental characterization of solid and aqueous wastes. Media of study include soils, stream sediments, surface waters, ground waters, and atmospheric particulates. Prereqs., GEOL 2700 or 2001, and CHEM 1011/1031, or CHEM 1113/1133, and GEOL 3320 or instructor consent.

GEOL-4717 (2) Field Seminar in Geology and Tectonics

Studies geologic features in and around Colorado to gain an overview of the geologic and tectonic evolution of the western U.S. Prereqs., GEOL 2700 or 2001, and one or more of GEOL 3120, 3320, or 3430.

GEOL-4721 (2) Field Methods in Active Tectonics

Analysis of active geologic structures, including strike slip fault systems, secondary structures in stepovers and related eruptive centers. Includes the use of digital imagery, elevation models, offset geomorphic features and Quaternary deposits to determine local deformation rates and their relation to plate motions. Prereqs., GEOL 2700 or 2001 and GEOL 3120. Recommended prereq., GEOL 4712.