A PERMAFROST WATER BALANCE MODEL FOR THE ARCTIC: MODEL RUNOFF AND DISCHARGE VALIDATION SITES
RAWLINS, MICHAEL A. Water Systems Analysis Group, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH USA.
Lammers, Richard B. Water Systems Analysis Group, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH USA.
Shiklomanov, Alexander . Water Resources and River Estuaries Department, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg,Russia.
Vorosmarty, Charles J. Water Systems Analysis Group, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH USA.
The Arctic terrestrial hydrologic cycle, through its influence on the Arctic Ocean, is an important aspect of high-latitude Earth systems research. Given the possibility of considerable warming under several global-change scenarios, monitoring of the terrestrial Arctic hydrology has become increasingly important to identify significant anomalies, as well as to establish baseline contemporary conditions upon which future changes can be measured. A key component in a systemic monitoring of Arctic hydrology is land-surface models which can accurately capture the temporal and spatial variability of the water cycle from readily available input drivers such as air temperature and precipitation. Our model also incorporates spatially-explicit fields of vegetation type and rooting depth, soil properties, and routing of river water to the ocean.
The land surface water budget model is a daily model which contains a simple snowmelt routine, a two layer soil component for root zone and deep soil, and active layer thaw based on an air temperature degree day approach. Use of this simple method to define soil moisture thawing and freezing enables the water budget model to be run without input of a priori active-layer depths. Fields of daily precipitation and air temperature, modified from NCEP re-analysis products, are used to drive the model from 1980-2001. Local runoff surfaces and other spatial fields are estimated over the entire pan-Arctic domain.
Observational ArcticRIMS discharge sites--obtained in real time--currently number 57 stations (16 in Russia, 10 in Canada, 19 in USA, and 12 in Norway). In total they cover a drainage area of 13.2 million sq. km, which is equivalent to 63% of total non-ice covered land area of the pan-Arctic or 79% of total Arctic Ocean drainage (not including Hudson Bay drainage and Greenland). The data for these gauges are supplied as provisional data, which means that normal adjustments to the data by the respective national agencies has not been implemented. Data is collected daily from the USGS and Environment Canada and weekly from Russia. This effort builds upon an existing pan-Arctic river discharge database, R-ArcticNET available over the Internet (http://www.R-ArcticNET.sr.unh.edu/) or on CD via the National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, USA.
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