[Introductory Comments and Instructions. This document is intended to be as close to an exact script as possible. Text in brackets are notes and are not to be read aloud.]
Welcome. Thank you for being here. The survey will last about 2 hours.
My name is Kathleen Rossmann. I am an independent research consultant hired by Hagler Bailly -- the survey firm that contacted you -- to moderate this survey. The survey gathers information from you regarding your interest in a policy issue being studied by a team of researchers at the University of Colorado. I do not have a vested interest in the results that are reported. Rather, my goal is to make sure that your survey responses accurately reflect your opinions.
You may not be as familiar with surveys conducted in a group setting as you are with "self-administered" surveys such as those in magazines. Part of the time today, you will be taking a self-administered survey; the questions and instructions are in your Response Booklet. However, I will begin the survey by presenting information to the group as a whole. This information will prepare you for answering the questions in the second half. You will also answer a few questions in your Response Booklet during the presentation.
Please follow my directions so you answer the questions at the right time during the presentation. You will read and answer all of the questions in the Response Booklet on your own; we will not discuss any of your answers in front of the group. However, after you have completed the survey, I may ask you a few questions individually about your opinion of the survey.
Your participation in this survey is voluntary. You may leave the survey at any time, and you do not have to answer any questions you find objectionable. Your participation in this survey and your responses will be kept confidential.
If at any point you do not understand something that I have said or if you do not understand something in your Response Booklet, please raise your hand and someone will come by and answer your question.
Murray] is here to assist with some of the displays, and to assist in answering your questions. Are there any questions before we begin?
You will find in front of you 2 booklets: an Illustration Booklet and a Response Booklet. Please don't look forward in either of them until we do so as a group. We will be working through both of these booklets.
Please turn to Page 1 of your Response Booklet and review the guidelines for the survey. You may refer back to this page throughout the survey. You may also refer back to any questions you have already answered or pages you have already read while you answer new questions.
Turn to Illustration 1 in your Illustration Booklet, which shows several different types of monuments.
Monuments that are located outdoors are made of different types of materials. Bronze and stone are common materials. In Washington, D.C. there are about 450 outdoor monuments, and a large share of these are made out of bronze or granite. However, most of the monuments constructed in Washington, D.C. between 1850 and 1940 were made of marble. These marble monuments usually have white, smooth surfaces with streaks of color, usually grayish, and they often have a lot of carved detail such as facial features, scrollwork, and lettering.
Turn to Illustration 2 in your Illustration Booklet. Shown here are several Washington, D.C. monuments that are made of marble. Illustration 1 also contains some marble monuments that are in Washington, D.C.
This survey is about outdoor marble monuments in Washington, DC. There are approximately 100 outdoor monuments in Washington, D.C. that are made of marble. These monuments include statues, obelisks, tombstones of historical figures, some large structural monuments such as the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument, and a few buildings of national significance such as the U.S. Capitol Building and the Supreme Court. Turn to Illustration 3 of your booklet, which lists most of the approximately 100 outdoor marble monuments in Washington, D.C. and shows the locations of these monuments on the map of the city.
[Add a few sentences guiding the respondents through the map]
Please turn to and read Page 2 and in your Response Booklet and continue to the bottom of Page 4, answering Questions 1, 2, and 3.
Now I will talk about the current condition of the approximately 100 outdoor marble monuments in Washington, DC.
[C.1. Description of injuries with examples]
Natural and pollution-related weathering is changing the appearance of outdoor marble monuments. Two common types of appearance changes for marble monuments are erosion and chemical alteration. I will describe both of these and show you pictures of the effects. Please turn to the next page in your illustration book.
Erosion is a gradual loss of the stone material caused by natural and pollution-related weathering. Rain dissolves and washes away the surface of the stone. Air pollution makes marble dissolve more easily and more readily. Eroded areas on monuments lose their smooth surface and appear rough and "sugary." Erosion can wear away carving detail on marble and break off delicate marble pieces.
The effects of erosion are shown in Figures A, B and C of Illustration 4. Areas of a monument that are more exposed to rainfall will erode more rapidly than areas that are protected from rainfall.
Pollution chemically alters marble by turning the outside surface of marble into gypsum. As a gypsum crust forms on the outer surface of the marble, it traps dirt from the air blackening the outer surface of the monument. The gypsum crust can also flake off removing the outer layer of the marble and leaving the marble surface rough and more sensitive to further gypsum formation and erosion.
Gypsum crusts usually form on the areas of the monument that are protected from rainfall, for example under the eaves of a building or in the indentations on a statue.
The effects of the chemical alteration caused by pollution are shown in Figures C and D. Figure C shows the formation of a gypsum crust on a baluster. The first picture in Figure C shows a baluster without much alteration; the center picture shows the blackened gypsum crust and an area where the crust has flaked off; the third picture shows a baluster after all of the gypsum crust has flaked off and a second gypsum crust has formed. Figure D shows gypsum crusts underneath a building's overhang.
The degree to which monuments are affected by natural and pollution-related weathering depends on several factors including: the quality of the stone, the local air pollution levels and weather conditions, and the shape of the monument. Monuments made of softer marble are more sensitive. Monuments located in areas with greater air pollution or more precipitation will be more visibly affected. Exposed areas of monuments will show more erosion; slightly protected areas are more prone to chemical alteration and soiling.
Recall that most of the approximately 100 outdoor marble monuments in Washington, DC were erected between 1850 and 1940. This means that the effects of natural and pollution-related weathering that are currently evident have occurred over the past 60 to 150 years.
Please turn to and read Page 5 and continue to the bottom of page 6, answering Question 4 in your Response Booklet.
Now I would like to show you the future effects of natural and pollution-related weathering. This exhibit labeled Future Condition of Outdoor Marble Monuments in Washington, D.C. [poster size] shows the effects of natural and pollution-related weathering on two outdoor marble monuments 75 and 150 years from now. Please look at Illustration 5, which gives you a close-up view of the photographs on this exhibit. The numbered photographs shown on your illustration are the same as the numbered photographs shown in the exhibit; your photo with a "1" is identical to this photo with a "1" etc. The first row of photographs are of a statue of Benjamin Franklin in Washington, DC. The second row of photographs are of the top portion of a column similar to those on the Supreme Court, the US Capitol and various other historic marble monuments.
For both of these monuments, there are 3 pictures. The pictures in column 1-labeled with a 1-show the current condition of the monuments. The pictures in column 2-labeled with a 2-show the expected condition in the year 2075, about 75 years from now. The pictures in column 3-labeled with a 3-show the expected condition in the year 2150, about 150 years from now. These photographs show how the average condition of the marble monuments in Washington, D.C. will change. The changes shown in these pictures are based on the predictions of the chemists and other experts who have studied the effects of pollution and weathering on outdoor marble monuments, under current and expected future conditions.
The changes shown in the pictures of the top portion of a column will probably not be very noticeable at the distance from which you would normally view these columns. These pictures have been included so that you can see the changes that will take place, even though you might not notice the changes were you to visit the monument. However, you may notice erosion or gypsum crusts on other marble surfaces on large monuments that are closer to eye-level.
Notice the blue shaded area--this is the time period in which most outdoor marble monuments were installed. This means that most outdoor marble monuments were installed 60 to 150 years ago.
Just as in the past, monuments will be affected to varying degrees in the future depending on the levels of air pollution, the quality of the marble, the shape of the monument, and the current degree of erosion and chemical alteration. The future effects shown for these two monuments represent the average effects expected given current maintenance practices. Current maintenance practices consist of periodic cleaning of loose soil, removal of graffiti and birds droppings, and repair of structural weaknesses in the larger monuments.
Please take a few minutes to study these pictures and then turn to Page 7 in your Response Booklet and continue to the bottom of Page 9, answering Questions 5 through 10.
Next, I will describe a new technique to partially preserve the approximately 100 outdoor marble monuments in Washington, D.C.
[D.1. Description of protective coating]
Preservation treatments can be undertaken to partially protect outdoor marble monuments from the effects of pollution-related weathering. These treatments involve an initial maintenance cleaning, and then a multi-step coating treatment.
The multi-step coating treatment penetrates the outer layer of the marble and inhibits reactions between the marble and air pollution. This process does not result in any change to the current appearance of the marble; with proper application, you cannot see the coating materials when looking at the monument. By reducing the reactions, the treatment slows the rate of erosion and gypsum formation and, thus, slows the rate at which the appearance of the monument will change. This type of treatment does not stop erosion or gypsum formation, it just slows the rate of deterioration.
Different preservation treatments are available. The more extensive treatments, which involve different materials and application techniques, provide more effective protection of the marble. I am going to describe the preservation benefits of three treatment options that are feasible for slowing the rate of change in outdoor marble monuments in Washington, DC. You will then be asked some questions about which options you favor.
[D.2. Add Preservation Option A -- Show poster]
The first option for you to consider is Preservation Option A. This preservation treatment would increase the time in which it would take the changes shown in column 2 to occur from 75 years to 95 years. Similarly, the time in which it would take the changes shown in column 3 to occur would be increased from 150 years to 190 years. Exhibit A shows that this is a 25% increase in the amount of time in which the changes would occur.
[D.3. Add preservation Option B -- Show poster]
The second option for you to consider is Preservation Option B. This preservation treatment would increase the time in which it would take the changes shown in column 2 to occur from 75 years to 110 years. Similarly, the time in which it would take the changes shown in column 3 to occur would be increased from 150 years to 225 years. Exhibit B shows that this is a 50% increase in the amount of time in which the changes would occur.
Finally, the third option for you to consider is Preservation Option C. This preservation treatment would increase the time in which it would take the changes shown in column 2 to occur from 75 years to 150 years. Similarly, the time in which it would take the changes shown in column 3 to occur would be increased from 150 years to 300 years. Exhibit C shows that this is a 100% increase, or doubling, in the amount of time in which the changes would occur.
[D.5. Multiple applications]
These three options involve different materials and application techniques. Given the nature of the materials and the interaction of the materials with the marble, it is not beneficial to use any of the options multiple times. For example, repeating Option A will not provide any additional protection to the marble.
Recall that the Exhibit titled "Future Condition of Outdoor Marble Monuments" shows the changes that will occur if none of these preservation treatments are used. With no preservation treatment, the time in which it would take the changes shown in column 2 to occur would be 75 years, and the time in which it would take the changes shown in column 3 to occur would be 150 years.
Please keep in mind that the Preservation Options A, B, and C would apply to the approximately 100 outdoor marble monuments in Washington, DC. The 350 other outdoor monuments in Washington, D.C. that are made out of other materials such as bronze and granite will not be affected by these preservation programs. Recall that bronze and granite are not as sensitive to pollution-related weathering as marble.
If one of the three preservation options is undertaken, it would be administered by the Marble Monument Preservation Trust, which is a non-profit organization specializing in the preservation of marble monuments. Before making a decision about preservation options, the leaders of the Trust want to find out how much each option is worth to people like yourself. The questions in this survey will help them to understand the values of each of these options to you and to help to decided whether a program should be implemented.
Please turn to and read Page 10 in your Response Booklet and continue to the bottom of Page 11, answering Question 11.
You will be presented with pairs of preservation alternatives and asked to choose which one you prefer from each pair. Each alternative will consist of one of the four preservation options, A, B, C, or No Preservation, and a dollar amount or price for that option. For each alternative, you should imagine that the price is a one-time payment that your household would make if that preservation alternative were undertaken. For each pair of alternatives, you will be asked to choose the one that you like better. Even if you do not like either of the choices, please choose between them as if they were the only alternatives available.
It has not been determined how the money would be raised to fund one of these preservation options. Please make your choices based on the value to you and your household of each preservation option relative to the prices shown for each alternative, regardless of what you think the preservation option might cost or how funding might be raised from other households or businesses.
[E.1. Examples of preservation choices]
First we will do some examples together. Please turn to Page 12 in your Response Booklet.
|Example 1:||No Preservation Option for $0||Preservation Option C for $25|
For each pair, assume that the two alternatives are the only ones available to you. You will be asked to circle the alternative you like better and to explain why you made this choice.
We find that when given a choice such as this one, some people choose No Preservation for $0 as the alternative they like better. People who have done so sometimes say that the Preservation Option C is not worth $25 to them or that they cannot afford $25. Others say that there are more important things to spend their money on than partially preserving monuments in Washington, D.C.
Other people, when given the same choice, choosePreservation Option C as the alternative they like better. People who have done so say that slowing the rate of change of marble monuments caused by pollution-related weathering is worth at least $25 to them because it is important to them how the monuments will look in the future.
By choosingPreservation Option C for $25 over No Preservation for $0, you would be saying that your household is willing to pay at least $25 for Option C.
Please circle the alternative you like better and explain your choice.
Are there any questions? Now we will do Example 2.
|Example 2:||Preservation Option B for $10||Preservation Option C for $15|
Again, assume that these two preservation options are the only ones available to you. In this case, No Preservation is not an alternative.
We find that when given a choice such as this one, some people choose the more effective preservation option, Preservation Option C for $15, as the alternative they like better. People who have done so sometimes say that the additional protection is worth the additional cost to their household of choosing Preservation Option C over Preservation Option B.
Other people, when given the same choice, choose the less effective preservation option, Preservation Option B for $10, as the alternative they like better. People who have done so sometimes say that the additional protection offered by Preservation Option C for $15 is not worth the additional cost to their household.
Please circle the alternative you like better and explain your choice.
These examples were for practice. Now you will be presented with 10 different pairs of alternatives. Each pair consists of two alternatives. Assume these two preservation alternatives are the only ones available to you. For each of the 10 pairs, please circle the alternative you like better and, for the first 4 pairs, explain you decision in the space provided.
It is sometimes difficult to make these choices. Please take your time. You may want to look at all 10 pairs before making any choices. Once you are confident about your choices, circle the alternative you like better from each pair.
If you change your mind, be sure to clearly indicate your final choice.
Recall that the dollar amount for each alternative would be a one-time payment your household would be required to make in order for the preservation alternative to be undertaken. This means that your household would have to reduce expenditures on other purchases by this amount.
Remember that the effectiveness of Preservation Options A, B, and C relative to No Preservation are shown in Exhibits A, B, and C, respectively. You may want to refer back to these and the Preservation Option descriptions on page 10 when making your choices.
For the remainder of the survey you will be answering questions in your Response Booklet. If you have questions, please raise your hand and someone will come to you. Please do not disturb the people sitting around you.
Now turn to Page 13 in your Response Booklet and indicate which alternative you like better in each of the 10 pairs. Take your time. When you are finished with the pairs, continue answering the questions through to the end of your Response Booklet. 9
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Last Update: 1-3-98