CLA / HIST 4081 / 5081. Lecture 2. Etruscans and Kings
I. Laudes Italiae (Praises of Italy): Italian Geography
A. Vergil (Georgics): "Perpetual Spring and Summer"
Mild weather - fertile - Mediterranean Lake (Mare Nostrum) - Protected by Alps
B. Cicero: "could Romulus have acted with a wisdom more divine"
Upstream from Ostia - Seven Hills - Campus Martius - Tiber Island - Trade route
II. An Italian Context
A. The Rise of Civilization in Italy
-1800-1000 BC Bronze Age
-c. 1000 Iron Age Begins ("Villanovan" culture; biconical urns)
-c. 750 cultural shift: cremation v. inhumation
B. Appenine Peoples
“Umbrosabellians” - Indo-European Speakers; Samnites
-Colonize South Italy and Sicily 8th / 7th C.
-Pithecousae (c. 750) >> Cumae and Naples
-Southern Italy = Magna Graecia (Greater Greece)
-Paestum: temple of Hera I and II; temple of Poseidon
D. Etruscans (fl. 700)
-Lydians (Herodotus) or Locals (Dionysius)?
-Originally in Etruria (Tuscany) and Umbria
-Move South to Latium and Campania (7th C.)
III. Early Rome
-Greek Legend: Aeneas (Vergil) - Trojan War
-Italian Legend: Romulus and Remus - Numitor - Rhea Silvia
-April 21, 753 "Parilia"
- Sabine Influence (language; religion "Quirinus") - Roman readiness to accept non-Romans
Fusion of the Greek and Italian legends: By 3rd C.
Regnal Period: 7 kings (rex = king)
-4 Pre-Etruscan: esp. Numa Pompilius
-3 Etruscan: Tarquinius Priscus (the ancient)- Servius Tullius - Tarquinius Superbus (the arrogant)
-Expulsion in 510 BC: Lucretia - L. Junius Brutus
B. Realtiy: Archaeology
-Expand to “Forum” (c. 800)
-Etruscan Domination (c. 625)
Urban Growth: Marshes drained for Forum - Cloaca Maxima (drainage sewer) - Roads Built (Via Sacra) - Organize Commerce (Forum Boarium) - "Servian Wall" (agger) -
Religious Culture: Vesta - Capitoline Temple (Jupiter Optimus Maximus = Jupiter the Best and Greatest) - pomerium (sacred boundary) - portents / augury - gladiators
Politics: Senate expanded - Magistrates symbols (toga - curule chair - fasces)
IV. Was Rome Unique?
A. No! Most cities of Latium are influenced by Etruscans in 7th / 6th C.
B. No! Etruscans expelled all over South Italy c. 500
-Decline of Etruscan Kings
-No Unified Etruscan Action
-Greeks expel from South c. 500-400
-Celts expel from North c. 400-350