Question for Discussion: How are Mexican immigrants
treated in American society in the early 1900s?
Reading: Takaki;, pp. 292-310; Al Santoli, "Crossing
the Rio Grande"
; Al Santoli, "The Tortilla Curtain"
Film: A Class Apart (2009) ; Born in the USA (1984)
- The Geography of American Settlement and Development
- Mexican Maquiladoros and Illegal Immigration
- Lewis lecture on Immigration in the West
- American Immigration Numbers
- The Immigration Debate in the West: 1850 to 2007
- Immigration Explorer Map
- Uneasy Neighbors: A Brief History of Mexican-U.S. Migration
- Diversity in the U.S. classroom
- Whites are now a Minority in California (2001)
- Minority babies set to become majority in 2010
- English Losing Ground (Nov. 2008) (in-class)
- U.S. Population Clock (in-class)
- U.S. Population Projection: 2005-2050
- Projected Population of the U.S. in 2050 (in-class)
- Census Numbers on growing Hispanic Population
- Illegal immigrants in the U.S.: 2002 (in-class)
- Where do Spanish-speaking People live in the U.S. (in-class)
- Article IX of the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
- Hispanic Americans: see numbers and map of where they live
- Numbers and Distribution of Mexican Immigrantsin the U.S.
- Poverty and Income Numbers for Mexican Immigrants
- Mexican Americans and Segregated Schooling: 1900-1950
- Timeline of Mexican Immigration to the U.S.
- "The first significant waves of Mexican workers coming into the United States began in the early 20th Century, following the curtailment of Japanese immigration in 1907 and the consequent drying up of cheap Asian labor. The country needed cheap Mexican labor to permit Americans to fight overseas in World War I. Immediately after the war, a strong nativist climate led to restrictive quotas on immigration from Europe and to the creation of the U.S. Border Patrol, aimed at cutting back the flow of Mexicans.
But the nation’s economic demand for unskilled migrant workers continued throughout the 1920s, encouraging Mexicans to cross the border for work. The Great Depression brought a temporary halt to the flow of Mexican labor. During the early 1930s, Mexican workers — including thousands of legal residents — were rounded up and deported en masse by federal authorities in cooperation with state and local officials.
Mexicans then as now, became convenient scapegoats for widespread joblessness and budget shortages. Mexicans were accused in the 1930s of paradoxically, both taking away jobs and living off public welfare."
Immigrants once again become convenient scapegoat
- Depression and the Struggle for Survival by Mexican-Americans
- America and Mexico: A Fluctuating Relationship
- The 1942 Bracero Program
- Brief History of the Bracero Program
- White Supremacy and Mexican Americans
- 1954 Brown v. Board of Education (I), U.S. Supreme Court Case Summary
- Brown vs. Board of Education - Background Summary
- Introduction: A Class Apart (2009)
In 1954, seventy-four years after the U.S. Supreme Court held that African Americans could not be banned from jury service by statute, and fifty-four years after it ruled that they could not be purposely excluded from venires due to their "race or color" through court, executive, or administrative action,
the Court found that Pete Hernandez had been denied equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment. His constitutional rights were violated because of the de facto, systematic exclusion of Mexican Americans from the pool of potential jurors--and thus juries--in Jackson County, Texas.
In arguing the case before state courts, civil rights lawyers for the appellant were confronted with a paradox: because Mexican Americans were classified as white by the government and not as a separate race, lower courts held that they were not denied equal protection and there was no violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Attorneys for the state of Texas and judges in the state courts contended that the amendment referred only to racial, not "nationality," groups. Since Mexican Americans were tried by juries composed of their racial group--whites--their constitutional rights were not violated. Using rhetorical analysis, I discuss the implications of the arguments in Hernandez v. Texas, which held that "nationality" groups could be protected under the Fourteenth Amendment. I analyze the language used in this and other cases about jury selection to impart how community norms helped to define and circumscribe the meaning of citizen-ship for Mexican Americans, as well as to shape their strategies to gain full and equal citizenship.
1954: Hernandez v. Texas - Wikipedia
- 1954: Hernandez v - FindLaw | Cases and Codes
- Another White Race: Mexican-Americans and the Paradox of Whiteness
- The Chicano Movement
- The Origins and History of the Chicano Movement
- Aztlan: A Brief History of the Concept
- Living on Cultural Borders (in-class)
- Cultural Identities on the Mexican-U.S. Border (in-class)
- Borderland Studies web links
- Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 - Wikipedia
- Building a 700 mile fence along a 2000 mile border
- Immigrants once again become convenient scapegoat
- Illegal Immigrants and the Health Care Legislation
- Immigration may threaten health vote - TheHill.com